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1.
Front Immunol ; 13: 871828, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855360

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been a pandemic health issue in 30 January 2020. The mortality rate is as high as 50% in critically ill patients. Stem cell therapy is effective for those who are refractory to standard treatments. However, the immune responses that underlie stem cell therapy have not been well reported, particularly, in patients associated with moderate to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Methods: On Days 0 and 4, an intravenous infusion of 2 × 107 placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (pcMSCs) (MatriPlax) were administered to five severe COVID-19 patients refractory to current standard therapies. Peripheral blood inflammatory markers and immune profiles were determined by multi-parameter flow cytometry and studied at Days 0, 4, and 8. Clinical outcomes were also observed. Results: None of the pc-MSC treated patients experienced 28-day mortality compared with the control group and showed a significant improvement in the PaO2/FiO2 ratio, Murray's lung injury scores, reduction in serum ferritin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. The cytokine profiles also showed a reduction in IL-1ß, IFN-γ, IL-2, and IL-6, and an increase in IL-13 and IL-5 type 2 cytokines within 7 days of therapy. Lymphopenia was also significantly improved after 7 days of treatment. Immune cell profiles showed an increase in the proportions of CD4+ T cells (namely, CD4+ naïve T cells and CD4+ memory T cell subtypes), Treg cells, CD19+ B cells (namely, CD19+ naïve B cells, CD27+ switched B cell subtypes) and dendritic cells, and a significant decrease in the proportion of CD14+ monocytes (namely, CD16- classical and CD16+ non-classical subtypes), and plasma/plasmablast cells. No adverse effects were seen at the serial follow-up visits for 2 months after initial therapy. Conclusion: pc-MSCs therapy suppressed hyper-inflammatory states of the innate immune response to COVID-19 infection by increasing Treg cells, decreasing monocytes and plasma/plasmablast cells, and promoting CD4+ T cells and CD19+ B cells toward adaptive immune responses in severely critically ill COVID-19 patients with moderate to severe ARDS, especially those who were refractory to current standard care and immunosuppressive therapies.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Acute Lung Injury/etiology , Acute Lung Injury/therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness , Humans , Pandemics , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy
2.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(2)2022 Feb 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708024

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine has been widely administered against SARS-CoV-2 infection; however, data regarding its immunogenicity, reactogenicity, and potential differences in responses among Asian populations remain scarce. METHODS: 270 participants without prior COVID-19 were enrolled to receive ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination with a prime-boost interval of 8-9 weeks. Their specific SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, neutralizing antibody titers (NT50), platelet counts, and D-dimer levels were analyzed before and after vaccination. RESULTS: The seroconversion rates of anti-RBD and anti-spike IgG at day 28 after a boost vaccination (BD28) were 100% and 95.19%, respectively. Anti-RBD and anti-spike IgG levels were highly correlated (r = 0.7891), which were 172.9 ± 170.4 and 179.3 ± 76.88 BAU/mL at BD28, respectively. The geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) of NT50 for all participants increased to 132.9 IU/mL (95% CI 120.0-147.1) at BD28 and were highly correlated with anti-RBD and anti-spike IgG levels (r = 0.8248 and 0.7474, respectively). Body weight index was statistically significantly associated with anti-RBD IgG levels (p = 0.035), while female recipients had higher anti-spike IgG levels (p = 0.038). The GMCs of NT50 declined with age (p = 0.0163) and were significantly different across age groups (159.7 IU/mL for 20-29 years, 99.4 IU/mL for ≥50 years, p = 0.0026). Injection-site pain, fever, and fatigue were the major reactogenicity, which were more pronounced after prime vaccination and in younger participants (<50 years). Platelet counts decreased and D-dimer levels increased after vaccination but were not clinically relevant. No serious adverse events or deaths were observed. CONCLUSION: The vaccine is well-tolerated and elicited robust humoral immunity against SARS-CoV-2 after standard prime-boost vaccination in Taiwanese recipients.

3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-294449

ABSTRACT

Background: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been a global pandemic health issue since 30, January, 2020. Mortality rate was as high as more than 50% in critically ill patients. The Stem cell treatment is effective in refractory severe critically ill COVID-19 patients, but immune regulation mechanisms have not been reported well. Therefore, we evaluate the clinical efficacy and immune modulation of placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (pcMSCs) (MatriPlax) in severe critically ill COVID-19 infection who are refractory to current standard therapies. Methods: : Intravenous infusion of 1 × 10 7 MatriPlax was given to five severe COVID-19 patients at Day 0 and day 4. Serum inflammatory markers and immune profiles were studied at Day 0, 4 and 8. Clinical parameters and 28-days mortality were compared between treated group and control group. Results: : The treatment group had no 28-days mortality and Murray’s lung injury score was significantly improved compared with control group. After treatment, Ferritin, C-reactive protein (CRP) and Lactate dehydrogenases (LDH) were significantly reduced and lymphopenia was improved. IL-6, IL-1β, IFN-γ and IL-2 were significantly decreased together with decrease in IL-10 reflecting decreasing intensity of inflammation. Immune cell profiles showed increase in CD4 + T cells (CD4+ naïve T cells, CD4+ memory T cells subtypes), Treg cells, CD19 + B cells (and CD19 + naive B cells, CD27 + switched B cells subtypes) and dendritic cells, and a significant decrease in CD14 + monocytes (and CD16 - classical, CD16 + non-classical subtypes) monocytes as well as plasma/plasmablast cells. pc-MSCs treatment suppressed hyper-inflammatory states of innate immune responses to COVID-19 infection by increasing Treg cells, decreasing monocytes and plasma/plasmablast cells, and promoted CD4 + T cells and CD19 + B cells towards adaptive immune responses. Conclusion: The intravenous transplantation of Matriplax was safe and effective for severe critically ill COVID-19 patients, especially those who were refractory to current standard care and immunosuppressive therapies

4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-293249

ABSTRACT

Background: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been a global pandemic health issue since 30, January, 2020. Mortality rate was as high as more than 50% in critically ill patients. The Stem cell treatment is effective in refractory severe critically ill COVID-19 patients, but immune regulation mechanisms have not been reported well. Therefore, we evaluate the clinical efficacy and immune modulation of placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (pcMSCs) (MatriPlax) in severe critically ill COVID-19 infection who are refractory to current standard therapies. Methods: : Intravenous infusion of 1 × 10 7 MatriPlax was given to five severe COVID-19 patients at Day 0 and day 4. Serum inflammatory markers and immune profiles were studied at Day 0, 4 and 8. Clinical parameters and 28-days mortality were compared between treated group and control group. Results: : The treatment group had no 28-days mortality and Murray’s lung injury score was significantly improved compared with control group. After treatment, Ferritin, C-reactive protein (CRP) and Lactate dehydrogenases (LDH) were significantly reduced and lymphopenia was improved. IL-6, IL-1β, IFN-γ and IL-2 were significantly decreased together with decrease in IL-10 reflecting decreasing intensity of inflammation. Immune cell profiles showed increase in CD4 + T cells (CD4+ naïve T cells, CD4+ memory T cells subtypes), Treg cells, CD19 + B cells (and CD19 + naive B cells, CD27 + switched B cells subtypes) and dendritic cells, and a significant decrease in CD14 + monocytes (and CD16 - classical, CD16 + non-classical subtypes) monocytes as well as plasma/plasmablast cells. pc-MSCs treatment suppressed hyper-inflammatory states of innate immune responses to COVID-19 infection by increasing Treg cells, decreasing monocytes and plasma/plasmablast cells, and promoted CD4 + T cells and CD19 + B cells towards adaptive immune responses. Conclusion: The intravenous transplantation of Matriplax was safe and effective for severe critically ill COVID-19 patients, especially those who were refractory to current standard care and immunosuppressive therapies

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