Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 8 de 8
Filter
1.
Science ; 376(6590): eabi9591, 2022 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2088383

ABSTRACT

In this work, we find that CD8+ T cells expressing inhibitory killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are the human equivalent of Ly49+CD8+ regulatory T cells in mice and are increased in the blood and inflamed tissues of patients with a variety of autoimmune diseases. Moreover, these CD8+ T cells efficiently eliminated pathogenic gliadin-specific CD4+ T cells from the leukocytes of celiac disease patients in vitro. We also find elevated levels of KIR+CD8+ T cells, but not CD4+ regulatory T cells, in COVID-19 patients, correlating with disease severity and vasculitis. Selective ablation of Ly49+CD8+ T cells in virus-infected mice led to autoimmunity after infection. Our results indicate that in both species, these regulatory CD8+ T cells act specifically to suppress pathogenic T cells in autoimmune and infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Animals , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Humans , Mice , Receptors, KIR , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory
2.
Advanced materials technologies ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2058093

ABSTRACT

The fomite transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‐CoV‐2) has drawn attention because of its highly contagious nature. Therefore, surfaces that can prevent coronavirus contamination are an urgent and unmet need during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) pandemic. Conventional surfaces are usually based on superhydrophobic or antiviral coatings. However, these coatings may be dysfunctional because of biofouling, which is the undesired adhesion of biomolecules. A superhydrophobic surface independent of the material content and coating agents may serve the purpose of antibiofouling and preventing viral transmission. Doubly reentrant topology (DRT) is a unique structure that can meet the need. This study demonstrates that the DRT surfaces possess a striking antibiofouling effect that can prevent viral contamination. This effect still exists even if the DRT surface is made of a hydrophilic material such as silicon oxide and copper. To the best of our knowledge, this work first demonstrates that fomite transmission of viruses may be prevented by minimizing the contact area between pathogens and surfaces even made of hydrophilic materials. Furthermore, the DRT geometry per se features excellent antibiofouling ability, which may shed light on the applications of pathogen elimination in alleviating the COVID‐19 pandemic. The findings demonstrate that a unique fabricated doubly reentrant topology (DRT) structure carries remarkable superrepellent properties against biofouling of protein, blood, bacteria, and viruses. Moreover, this characteristic results from a highly minimized contact area and still exists even if the DRT surface is made of a hydrophilic material, such as silicon oxide.

3.
Adv Mater Technol ; : 2200387, 2022 Aug 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1976681

ABSTRACT

The fomite transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has drawn attention because of its highly contagious nature. Therefore, surfaces that can prevent coronavirus contamination are an urgent and unmet need during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Conventional surfaces are usually based on superhydrophobic or antiviral coatings. However, these coatings may be dysfunctional because of biofouling, which is the undesired adhesion of biomolecules. A superhydrophobic surface independent of the material content and coating agents may serve the purpose of antibiofouling and preventing viral transmission. Doubly reentrant topology (DRT) is a unique structure that can meet the need. This study demonstrates that the DRT surfaces possess a striking antibiofouling effect that can prevent viral contamination. This effect still exists even if the DRT surface is made of a hydrophilic material such as silicon oxide and copper. To the best of our knowledge, this work first demonstrates that fomite transmission of viruses may be prevented by minimizing the contact area between pathogens and surfaces even made of hydrophilic materials. Furthermore, the DRT geometry per se features excellent antibiofouling ability, which may shed light on the applications of pathogen elimination in alleviating the COVID-19 pandemic.

4.
Circ Res ; 130(10): 1510-1530, 2022 05 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794328

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease is an incurable, life-threatening disease that was once considered primarily a disorder of lipid deposition. Coronary artery disease is now also characterized by chronic inflammation' notable for the buildup of atherosclerotic plaques containing immune cells in various states of activation and differentiation. Understanding how these immune cells contribute to disease progression may lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategies. METHODS: We used single-cell technology and in vitro assays to interrogate the immune microenvironment of human coronary atherosclerotic plaque at different stages of maturity. RESULTS: In addition to macrophages, we found a high proportion of αß T cells in the coronary plaques. Most of these T cells lack high expression of CCR7 and L-selectin, indicating that they are primarily antigen-experienced memory cells. Notably, nearly one-third of these cells express the HLA-DRA surface marker, signifying activation through their TCRs (T-cell receptors). Consistent with this, TCR repertoire analysis confirmed the presence of activated αß T cells (CD4

Subject(s)
Coronary Artery Disease , Plaque, Atherosclerotic , T-Lymphocytes , Antigens , Clone Cells/immunology , Coronary Artery Disease/immunology , Endothelial Cells , Epitopes , HLA-DR alpha-Chains , Humans , Lymphocyte Activation , Plaque, Atherosclerotic/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(18)2021 Sep 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1409702

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic with high infectivity and mortality has caused severe social and economic impacts worldwide. Growing reports of COVID-19 patients with multi-organ damage indicated that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) may also disturb the cardiovascular system. Herein, we used human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived cardiomyocytes (iCMs) as the in vitro platform to examine the consequence of SARS-CoV2 infection on iCMs. Differentiated iCMs expressed the primary SARS-CoV2 receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme-II (ACE2) and the transmembrane protease serine type 2 (TMPRSS2) receptor suggesting the susceptibility of iCMs to SARS-CoV2. Following the infection of iCMs with SARS-CoV2, the viral nucleocapsid (N) protein was detected in the host cells, demonstrating the successful infection. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the SARS-CoV2 infection upregulates several inflammation-related genes, including the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). The pretreatment of iCMs with TNF-α for 24 h, significantly increased the expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2, SASR-CoV2 entry receptors. The TNF-α pretreatment enhanced the entry of GFP-expressing SARS-CoV2 pseudovirus into iCMs, and the neutralization of TNF-α ameliorated the TNF-α-enhanced viral entry. Collectively, SARS-CoV2 elevated TNF-α expression, which in turn enhanced the SARS-CoV2 viral entry. Our findings suggest that, TNF-α may participate in the cytokine storm and aggravate the myocardial damage in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Cell Differentiation , Cell Line , Computational Biology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Humans , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells , Myocardium/cytology , Myocardium/immunology , Myocardium/pathology , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , Myocytes, Cardiac/virology , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors , Up-Regulation/immunology , Virus Internalization/drug effects
6.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 84(5): 478-484, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1197053

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues the pandemic spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), over 60 million people confirmed infected and at least 1.8 million dead. One of the most known features of this RNA virus is its easiness to be mutated. In late 2020, almost no region of this SARS-CoV-2 genome can be found completely conserved within the original Wuhan coronavirus. Any information of the SARS-CoV-2 variants emerged through as time being will be evaluated for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of COVID-19. METHODS: We extracted more than two million data of SARS-CoV-2 infected patients from the open COVID-19 dashboard. The sequences of the 38-amino acid putative open reading frame 10 (Orf10) protein within infected patients were gathered output through from National Center for Biotechnology Information and the mutation rates in each position were analyzed and presented in each month of 2020. The mutation rates of A8 and V30 within Orf10 are displayed in selected counties: United States, India, German, and Japan. RESULTS: The numbers of COVID-19 patients are correlated to the death numbers, but not with the death rates (stable and <3%). The amino acid positions locating at A8(F/G/L), I13, and V30(L) within the Orf10 sequence stay the highest mutation rate; N5, N25, and N36 rank at the lowest one. A8F expressed highly dominant in Japan (over 80%) and German (around 40%) coming to the end of 2020, but no significant finding in other countries. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrate via mutation analysis of Orf10 can be further combined with advanced tools such as molecular simulation, artificial intelligence, and biosensors that can practically revealed for protein interactions and thus to imply the authentic Orf10 function of SARS-CoV-2 in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Mutation , Open Reading Frames/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Open Reading Frames/physiology
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(3)2021 Jan 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1055070

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) was identified as the main host cell receptor for the entry of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its subsequent infection. In some coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, it has been reported that the nervous tissues and the eyes were also affected. However, evidence supporting that the retina is a target tissue for SARS-CoV-2 infection is still lacking. This present study aimed to investigate whether ACE2 expression plays a role in human retinal neurons during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived retinal organoids and monolayer cultures derived from dissociated retinal organoids were generated. To validate the potential entry of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the retina, we showed that hiPSC-derived retinal organoids and monolayer cultures endogenously express ACE2 and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) on the mRNA level. Immunofluorescence staining confirmed the protein expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in retinal organoids and monolayer cultures. Furthermore, using the SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus spike protein with GFP expression system, we found that retinal organoids and monolayer cultures can potentially be infected by the SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus. Collectively, our findings highlighted the potential of iPSC-derived retinal organoids as the models for ACE2 receptor-based SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Gene Expression , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology , Retina/cytology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Cell Culture Techniques , Cell Line , Humans , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism , Organoids/cytology , Organoids/metabolism , Retina/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Virus Internalization
8.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 84(1): 9-13, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1010670

ABSTRACT

The pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has brought an unprecedented impact upon the global economy and public health. Although the SARS-CoV-2 virology has been gradually investigated, measures to combat this new threat in public health are still absent. To date, no certificated drug or vaccine has been developed for the treatment or prevention of coronavirus disease Extensive researches and international coordination has been conducted to rapidly develop novel vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Several major breakthroughs have been made through the identification of the genetic sequence and structural/non-structural proteins of SARS-CoV-2, which enabled the development of RNA-, DNA-based vaccines, subunit vaccines, and attenuated viral vaccines. In this review article, we present an overview of the recent advances of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and the challenges that may be encountered in the development process, highlighting the advantages and disadvantages of these approaches that may help in effectively countering COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Humans , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , Vaccines, Subunit/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL