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Intensive Crit Care Nurs ; 76: 103392, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2259876


OBJECTIVE: To explore recurrent themes in diaries kept by intensive care unit (ICU) staff during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. DESIGN: Qualitative study. SETTING: Two ICUs in a tertiary level hospital (Milan, Italy) from January to December 2021. METHODS: ICU staff members wrote a digital diary while caring for adult patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit for >48 hours. A thematic analysis was performed. FINDINGS: Diary entries described what happened and expressed emotions. Thematic analysis of 518 entries gleaned from 48 diaries identified four themes (plus ten subthemes): Presenting (Places and people; Diary project), Intensive Care Unit Stay (Clinical events; What the patient does; Patient support), Outside the Hospital (Family and topical events; The weather), Feelings and Thoughts (Encouragement and wishes; Farewell; Considerations). CONCLUSION: The themes were similar to published findings. They offer insight into care in an intensive care unit during a pandemic, with scarce resources and no family visitors permitted, reflecting on the patient as a person and on daily care. The staff wrote farewell entries to dying patients even though no one would read them. IMPLICATIONS FOR CLINICAL PRACTICE: The implementation of digital diaries kept by intensive care unit staff is feasible even during the COVID-19 pandemic. Diaries kept by staff can provide a tool to humanize critical care. Staff can improve their work by reflecting on diary records.

COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Critical Care/psychology , Emotions
Front Neurol ; 13: 774953, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785380


The clinical outcome of the disease provoked by the SARS-CoV-2 infection, COVID-19, is largely due to the development of interstitial pneumonia accompanied by an Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), often requiring ventilatory support therapy in Intensive Care Units (ICUs). Current epidemiologic evidence is demonstrating that the COVID-19 prognosis is significantly influenced by its acute complications. Among these, delirium figures as one of the most frequent and severe, especially in the emergency setting, where it shows a significantly negative prognostic impact. In this regard, the aim of our study is to identify clinical severity factors of delirium complicating COVID-19 related-ARDS. We performed a comparative and correlation analysis using demographics, comorbidities, multisystemic and delirium severity scores and anti-delirium therapy in two cohorts of ARDS patients with delirium, respectively, due to COVID-19 (n = 40) or other medical conditions (n = 39). Our results indicate that delirium in COVID-19-related ARDS is more severe since its onset despite a relatively less severe systemic condition at the point of ICU admission and required higher dosages of antipsychotic and non-benzodiazepinic sedative therapy respect to non-COVID patients. Finally, the correlation analysis showed a direct association between the male gender and maximum dosage of anti-delirium medications needed within the COVID-19 group, which was taken as a surrogate of delirium severity. Overall, our results seem to indicate that pathogenetic factors specifically associated to severe COVID-19 are responsible for the high severity of delirium, paving the way for future research focused on the mechanisms of the cognitive alterations associated with COVID-19.