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1.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 279(7): 3563-3567, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739320

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to appreciate the tolerance and convenience of a new FFP2 mask allowed the realization of nasal examination in period of pandemic. METHODS: Fifty-one patients were prospectively recruited from two European hospitals to test the FFP2 mask prototype. The following outcomes were evaluated in patients after the clinical examination: fear about coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection; easiness of mask placement; tolerability; reassurance; and overall satisfaction about the use of this kind of mask in a pandemic context. Seven otolaryngologists evaluated the mask acceptance and usefulness in patients through a standardized physician-reported outcome questionnaire. RESULTS: Fifty patients completed the evaluation. There were 25 males and 25 females. The mean age of patients was 41 years. Ninety percent of patients considered that the use of the mask reduced the risk to be infected during the examination. Seventy percent of patients reported high or very high satisfaction and should recommend mask to other patients in pandemic period. The realization of nasal examination was easier with optic compared with flexible trans-nasal examination (p = 0.001), which significantly impacted the satisfaction level of physician (p = 0.001). The physician difficulty to perform the examination significantly impacted the satisfactory of patient (p = 0.033). CONCLUSION: The new bioserenity FFP2 mask allows the realization of the trans-nasal endoscopic examination during a pandemic. The use of this mask requires little training period of physician. The use of this mask prototype is well received by patients who reported better perception of self-protection against the virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Masks , Otolaryngologists , Pandemics/prevention & control , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Laryngoscope ; 132(2): 419-421, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527451

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical profile of patients who developed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) after full vaccination. Demographic, epidemiological and clinical data were collected through medical records and online patient-reported outcome questionnaire from patients who developed symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection, confirmed by nasopharyngeal swab, at least 2 weeks after completion of vaccination. A total of 153 subjects were included. The most frequent symptoms were: asthenia (82.4%), chemosensory dysfunction (63.4%), headache (59.5%), runny nose (58.2%), muscle pain (54.9%), loss of appetite (54.3%), and nasal obstruction (51.6%). Particularly, 62.3% and 53.6% of subjects reported olfactory and gustatory dysfunction, respectively. Symptom severity was mild or moderate in almost all cases. Chemosensory dysfunctions have been observed to be a frequent symptom even in subjects who contracted the infection after full vaccination. For this reason, the sudden loss of smell and taste could continue to represent a useful and specific diagnostic marker to raise the suspicion of COVID-19 even in vaccinated subjects. In the future, it will be necessary to establish what the recovery rate is in these patients. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 Laryngoscope, 132:419-421, 2022.


Subject(s)
Ageusia/epidemiology , Anosmia/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Ageusia/virology , Anosmia/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Reported Outcome Measures , Smell/drug effects , Surveys and Questionnaires , Taste/drug effects , Vaccination
4.
Pathogens ; 10(6)2021 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259560

ABSTRACT

Background: The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of early administration of oral corticosteroids (OC) or nasal corticosteroids (NC) as an add-on to olfactory training (OT) versus OT alone in patients with olfactory dysfunction (OD) related to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: Patients with a positive diagnosis of COVID-19 and OD were prospectively recruited from March 22 to December 15, 2020 from 4 European hospitals. Patients had confirmed OD on psychophysical testing. All patients undertook OT, with add-on 10 days of OC (group 1: OC + OT), or 1 month of NC (group 2: NC + OT) or olfactory training alone (group 3: OT). Olfactory evaluations (Sniffin'Sticks tests) were carried out at the time of inclusion, 1 and 2 months after the start of the therapeutic course. Results: A total of 152 hyposmic or anosmic patients completed the study. Group 1, 2 and 3 included 59, 22 and 71 patients, respectively and all patient groups were comparable regarding baseline Sniffin'Sticks tests. The median Sniffin'Sticks test values significantly improved from pre- to post-intervention in all groups. The increase of Sniffin'Sticks test values was higher in group 1 (OC + OT) compared with groups 2 and 3 (p < 0.001) at one month after treatment but did not remain so at 2 months. Groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively, presented parosmia in 20/71 (28.2%), 9/22 (40.9%) and 42/71 (59.2%) patients. This difference was statistically significant between group 1 and 3 (p < 0.001). There were no patients with a worsening of the disease or an increase of the severity of the COVID-19 symptoms. Conclusions: The use of OCs in patients with OD related to mild COVID-19 is generally well-tolerated without any case of deterioration of symptoms. OC is associated with greater improvement in psychophysical olfactory evaluations at 1-month post-treatment but there was no difference at 2 months. Parosmia may be reduced following treatment with OC and NC. On the basis of these preliminary results, it is possible to state that considering the 2 months efficacy of OC and NC with respect to the OT alone and the risk-benefit ratio, the benefit to start a specific treatment of COVID-19 related OD cannot be demonstrated and there is a need for a randomised controlled trial to assess this further.

5.
J Med Virol ; 93(2): 983-994, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196427

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical features of mild-to-moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a sample of Italian patients and to investigate the occurrence of smell and taste disorders. Infected individuals with suspected (clinical diagnosis) or laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection were recruited. Patients completed a survey-based questionnaire with the aim of assessing their epidemiological and clinical characteristics, general otorhinolaryngological symptoms, and smell and taste disorders. A total of 294 patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 completed the survey (147 females). The most prevalent general symptoms included fever, myalgia, cough, and headache. A total of 70.4% and 59.2% of patients reported smell and taste disorders, respectively. A significant association between the two above-mentioned disorders was found (rs: 0.412; P < .001). Smell disorders occurred before the other symptoms in 11.6% of patients and was not significantly associated with nasal obstruction or rhinorrhea. Interestingly, our statistical analysis did not show any significant difference, either for general symptoms or otorhinolaryngological features, between the clinical diagnosis group and the laboratory-confirmed diagnosis (polymerase chain reaction) group. The structural equation model confirmed significant standardized paths (P < .05) between general symptoms, comorbidities, and general otorhinolaryngological complaints in the absence of a significant correlation between these elements and smell and taste alterations. The prevalence of smell and taste disorders in mild-to-moderate Italian COVID-19 patients is significant both in suspected and laboratory-confirmed cases and reveals a strong correlation between these clinical signs regardless of the presence of general or otorhinolaryngological symptoms, such as nasal obstruction or rhinorrhea.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , Models, Statistical , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Taste Disorders/virology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Prevalence , Rhinorrhea/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Surveys and Questionnaires , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Young Adult
6.
Acta Otolaryngol ; 141(6): 615-620, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1139792

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is no clinical instrument evaluating symptoms of COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: To develop a clinical instrument for evaluating symptoms of COVID-19 mild-to-moderate forms. METHODS: COVID-19 patients were recruited from EpiCURA Hospital (Belgium). They completed the COVID-19 Symptom Index (CSI) twice to assess the test-retest reliability. The internal consistency was evaluated with Cronbach's alpha. CSI was completed by healthy subjects to assess the internal validity. Patients completed CSI 6 weeks after the COVID-19 resolution to evaluate the responsiveness to change. RESULTS: Ninety-four COVID-19 patients and 55 healthy individuals completed the evaluations. Symptoms associated with the higher severity score were fatigue, headache and myalgia. The Cronbach's alpha value was 0.801, indicating high internal consistency. The test-retest reliability was adequate (rs = 0.535, p = .001). The correlation between CSI total score and SNOT-22 was high (rs = 0.782; p < .001), supporting a high external validity. COVID-19 patients reported significant higher CSI score than healthy individuals, suggesting an adequate internal validity. The mean CSI significantly decreased after the COVID-19 resolution, supporting a high responsiveness to change property. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: The CSI is a reliable and valid patient reported outcome questionnaire for the evaluation of symptom severity of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Severity of Illness Index , Symptom Assessment , Adult , Case-Control Studies , Fatigue/etiology , Female , Headache/etiology , Humans , Male , Myalgia/etiology , Reproducibility of Results
8.
Ear Nose Throat J ; : 145561321995021, 2021 Feb 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1079166

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may lead to many otolaryngological disorders such as loss of smell and taste, sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL), facial palsy, and parotitis. The involvement of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in vestibular neuritis (VN) has been reported in 2 adult patients but not really confirmed through objective testings. We present a case of a 13-year-old girl with left superior vestibular neuritis confirmed by Video Head Impulse Test during a proven COVID-19 infection. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case associating VN and COVID-19 that was demonstrated with an objective peripheral assessment. Physicians may be aware about the occurrence of VN in patients with COVID-19, keeping in mind that this condition may develop not only in adults. Early detection of SARS-CoV-2 in this pandemic is required to prevent its spread.

9.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 278(8): 2851-2859, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064482

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate prevalence and epidemiological and clinical factors associated with olfactory dysfunction (OD) and gustatory dysfunction (GD) in COVID-19 patients according to the disease severity. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: A total of 2579 patients with a positive diagnosis of COVID-19 were identified between March 22 and June 3, 2020 from 18 European hospitals. Epidemiological and clinical data were extracted. Otolaryngological symptoms, including OD and GD, were collected through patient-reported outcome questionnaire and Sniffin'Sticks tests were carried out in a subset of patients. RESULTS: A total of 2579 patients were included, including 2166 mild (84.0%), 144 moderate (5.6%) and 269 severe-to-critical (10.4%) patients. Mild patients presented an otolaryngological picture of the disease with OD, GD, nasal obstruction, rhinorrhea and sore throat as the most prevalent symptoms. The prevalence of subjective OD and GD was 73.7 and 46.8%, and decreases with the severity of the disease. Females had higher prevalence of subjective OD and GD compared with males. Diabetes was associated with a higher risk to develop GD. Among the subset of patients who benefited from psychophysical olfactory evaluations, there were 75 anosmic, 43 hyposmic and 113 normosmic patients. The prevalence of anosmia significantly decreased with the severity of the disease. Anosmia or hyposmia were not associated with any nasal disorder, according to SNOT-22. CONCLUSION: OD and GD are more prevalent in patients with mild COVID-19 compared with individuals with moderate, severe or critical diseases. Females might have a higher risk of developing OD and GD compared with males.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Taste Disorders/diagnosis , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/etiology
10.
Med Clin (Engl Ed) ; 156(2): 61-64, 2021 Jan 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1057052

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Has been described the loss of smell and taste as onset symptoms in SARS-CoV-2. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence in Spain. METHODS: Prospective study of COVID-19 confirmed patients through RT-PCR in Spain. Patients completed olfactory and gustatory questionnaires. RESULTS: A total of 1043 patients with mild COVID-19 disease. The mean age was 39 ±â€¯12 years. 826 patients (79.2%) described smell disorder, 662 (63.4%) as a total loss and 164 (15.7%) partial. 718 patients (68.8%) noticed some grade of taste dysfunction. There was a significant association between both disorders (p < 0.001). The olfactory dysfunction was the first symptom in 17.1%. The sQOD-NS scores were significantly lower in patients with a total loss compare to normosmic or hyposmic individuals (p = 0.001). Female were significantly more affected by olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions (p < 0.001). The early olfactory recover in 462 clinically cured patients was 315 (68.2%), during the first 4 weeks. CONCLUSION: The sudden onset smell and/or taste dysfunction should be considered highly suspicious for COVID-19 infection.


ANTECEDENTES Y OBJETIVO: En la infección por SARS-CoV-2 la pérdida repentina del olfato y/o gusto han sido descritas como síntomas iniciales. El objetivo principal de este estudio es conocer la prevalencia de estos síntomas en España. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Estudio prospectivo de pacientes con COVID-19 confirmado mediante RT-PCR en España. Se utilizaron los cuestionarios traducidos y validados. RESULTADOS: Un total de 1043 pacientes COVID-19 leve. Edad media de 39 ±â€¯12 años. 826 pacientes (79,2%) refirieron algún grado de alteración del olfato, 662 (63,4%) pérdida total y 164 (15,7%) parcial. 718 pacientes (68,8%) notaron alteración del gusto. Hubo una asociación significativa entre ambos trastornos (p < 0,001). La disfunción olfatoria fue el síntoma inicial en el 17,1%. Las puntuaciones del sQOD-NS fueron significativamente menores en pacientes con una alteración total. Ambas alteraciones fueron proporcionalmente mayores en las mujeres (p < 0,001). De 462 pacientes clínicamente curados 315 (68,2%) recuperaron el olfato dentro de las primeras 4 semanas. CONCLUSIONES: La alteración repentina del olfato y el gusto debería ser reconocida como un síntoma de alarma de posible infección por COVID-19.

11.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 582802, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-983753

ABSTRACT

Introduction: To evaluate the recovery rate of loss of smell (LOS) with objective olfactory testing in COVID-19 patients. Methods: Adults with confirmed COVID-19 and self-reported sudden LOS were prospectively recruited through a public call from the University of Mons (Belgium). Epidemiological and clinical data were collected using online patient-reported outcome questionnaires. Patients benefited from objective olfactory evaluation (Sniffin-Sticks-test) and were invited to attend for repeated evaluation until scores returned to normal levels. Results: From March 22 to May 22, 2020, 88 patients with sudden-onset LOS completed the evaluations. LOS developed after general symptoms in 44.6% of cases. Regarding objective evaluation, 22 patients (25.0%) recovered olfaction within 14 days following the onset of LOS. The smell function recovered between the 16th and the 70th day post-LOS in 48 patients (54.5%). At the time of final assessment at 2 months, 20.5% of patients (N = 18) had not achieved normal levels of olfactory function. Higher baseline severity of olfactory loss measured using Sniffin-Sticks was strongly predictive of persistent loss (p < 0.001). Conclusion: In the first 2 months, 79.5% of patients may expect to have complete recovery of their olfactory function. The severity of olfactory loss, as detected at the first Sniffin-Sticks-test, may predict the lack of mid-term recovery.

13.
Med Clin (Barc) ; 156(2): 61-64, 2021 01 22.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-917372

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Has been described the loss of smell and taste as onset symptoms in SARS-CoV-2. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence in Spain. METHODS: Prospective study of COVID-19 confirmed patients through RT-PCR in Spain. Patients completed olfactory and gustatory questionnaires. RESULTS: A total of 1043 patients with mild COVID-19 disease. The mean age was 39±12 years. 826 patients (79.2%) described smell disorder, 662 (63.4%) as a total loss and 164 (15.7%) partial. 718 patients (68.8%) noticed some grade of taste dysfunction. There was a significant association between both disorders (p<.001). The olfactory dysfunction was the first symptom in 17.1%. The sQOD-NS scores were significantly lower in patients with a total loss compare to normosmic or hyposmic individuals (p=.001). Female were significantly more affected by olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions (p<.001). The early olfactory recover in 462 clinically cured patients was 315 (68.2%), during the first 4 weeks. CONCLUSION: The sudden onset smell and/or taste dysfunction should be considered highly suspicious for COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Taste Disorders/virology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Self Report , Severity of Illness Index , Spain , Taste Disorders/epidemiology
14.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 42(1): 102775, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-893435

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There are more than 400 million of native Spanish speakers around the world, being the second most spoken language in regard to the number of native speakers. For this reason, a valid questionnaire to access the olfaction of our patients is necessary. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Validation and cross-cultural adaptation of the svQOD-NS questionnaire to the Spanish language. Internal consistency of svQOD-NS measured with Cronbach α. RESULTS: 40 patients met the inclusion criteria. 41 ± 153 (range 21-82), and 32 (80%) were female. 20 patients (57,1%) were male and 15 (42,9%) were female. There was a normal distribution among patients included according to the Shapiro-Wilk test (p = 0.175). Internal consistency of svQOD-NS measured with Cronbach α was 0.861. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.849 (confidence interval [CI] 95%: 0.766-0.911). CONCLUSION: The Spanish Language is the second most spoken language with regard to the number of native speakers and the svQOD-NS translation represents a valid option for the Spanish-speaking medical community, from which a large number of patients can benefit.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Language , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Translations , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Reproducibility of Results , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
16.
Laryngoscope ; 130(11): 2526-2531, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-734147

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To investigate clinical and radiological features of olfactory clefts of patients with mild coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). STUDY DESIGN: Prospective non controlled study. METHODS: Sixteen COVID-19 patients were recruited. The epidemiological and clinical data were extracted. Nasal complaints were assessed through the 22-item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test. Patients underwent psychophysical olfactory testing, olfactory cleft examination, and computed tomography (CT) scans. RESULTS: Sixteen anosmic patients were included. The mean Sniffin' Sticks score was 4.6 ± 1.7. The majority of patients had no endoscopical abnormality, with a mean olfactory cleft endoscopy score of 0.6 ± 0.9. The olfactory clefts were opacified in three patients on the CT scan. The mean radiological olfactory cleft score was 0.7 ± 0.8. There were no significant correlations between clinical, radiological, and psychophysical olfactory testing. CONCLUSIONS: The olfactory cleft of anosmic COVID-19 patients is free regarding endoscopic examination and imaging. The anosmia etiology is not related to edema of the olfactory cleft. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 Laryngoscope, 130:2526-2531, 2020.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Olfaction Disorders/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Adult , Anosmia/pathology , Anosmia/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/pathology , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Prospective Studies
17.
Head Neck Pathol ; 15(1): 225-235, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-724883

ABSTRACT

To review the data regarding the expression of angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) and transmembrane protease serine-2 (TMPRSS2) in head and neck tissue. Scopus, Cochrane Library, Medrxiv, Google Scholar and PubMED/MEDLINE were searched by four independent investigators for studies investigating ACE2 or TMPRSS2 expressions in head and neck tissues. The following outcomes were considered: sample origin (animal versus human); detection method; anatomical location and cell types. PRISMA checklist and modified population, intervention, comparison, outcome, timing and setting (PICOTS) framework were used to perform the review. Of the 24 identified studies, 17 met our inclusion criteria. Thirteen studies were conducted during the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. ACE2 and TMPRSS2 were expressed in oral, pharyngeal, sinusonasal human mucosa. The following cell types expressed ACE2: basal, apical, goblet, minor salivary, and endothelial cells. TMPRSS2 was found in goblet and apical respiratory cells. ACE2 and TMPRSS2 were found in the olfactory region, especially in sustentacular non-neural and neural stem cells. Animal studies suggested that ACE2 expression may vary regarding age. There was an important heterogeneity between studies in the methods used to detect ACE2 and TMPRSS2, leading to a potential identification bias. The SARS-CoV-2 receptors, ACE2 and TMPRSS2, are both expressed in many head and neck tissues, enabling the viral entry into the host organism.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/biosynthesis , COVID-19 , Head , Neck , Serine Endopeptidases/biosynthesis , Animals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Pathogens ; 9(8)2020 Jul 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-693446

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We investigate the prevalence of the self-reported and objective sudden loss of smell (SLS) in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: Severe COVID-19 patients with self-reported SLS were recruited at hospitalization discharge. Epidemiological and clinical data were collected. The Sino-nasal Outcome Test-22 (SNOT-22) was used to evaluate rhinological complaints. Subjective olfactory and gustatory functions were assessed with the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHNES). Objective SLS was evaluated using psychophysical tests. Potential associations between olfactory evaluation and the clinical outcomes (duration of hospitalization; admission biology; one month serology (IgG), and chest computed tomography findings) were studied. RESULTS: Forty-seven patients completed the study (25 females). Subjectively, eighteen (38.3%) individuals self-reported subjective partial or total SLS. Among them, only three and four were anosmic and hyposmic, respectively (38.9%). Considering the objective evaluation in the entire cohort, the prevalence of SLS was 21.3%. Elderly patients and those with diabetes had lower objective olfactory evaluation results than young and non-diabetic individuals. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of SLS in severe COVID-19 patients appears to be lower than previously estimated in mild-to-moderate COVID-19 forms. Future comparative studies are needed to explore the predictive value of SLS for COVID-19 severity.

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