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1.
CMAJ ; 192(49): E1747-E1756, 2020 Dec 07.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1791000

ABSTRACT

CONTEXTE: La demande sans précédent de respirateurs N95 durant la pandémie de maladie à coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) a entraîné une pénurie mondiale. Nous avons validé un protocole de décontamination rapide et économique répondant aux normes réglementaires afin de permettre la réutilisation sûre de ce type de masque. MÉTHODES: Nous avons contaminé 4 modèles courants de respirateurs N95 avec le coronavirus du syndrome respiratoire aigu sévère 2 (SRAS-CoV-2) et avons évalué l'inactivation virale après une désinfection de 60 minutes à 70 °C et à une humidité relative de 0 %. De même, nous avons étudié l'efficacité de la désinfection thermique, à une humidité relative allant de 0 % à 70 %, de masques contaminés à Escherichia coli. Enfin, nous avons examiné des masques soumis à de multiples cycles de désinfection thermique: nous avons évalué leur intégrité structurelle à l'aide d'un microscope à balayage, et leurs propriétés protectrices au moyen des normes du National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health des États-Unis relatives à la filtration particulaire, à la résistance respiratoire et à l'ajustement. RÉSULTATS: Une seule désinfection thermique a suffi pour que le SRAS-CoV-2 ne soit plus décelable sur les masques étudiés. En ce qui concerne les masques contaminés à E. coli, une culture de 24 heures a révélé que la bactérie n'était pratiquement plus décelable sur les masques désinfectés à 70 °C et à une humidité relative de 50 %, contrairement aux masques non désinfectés (densité optique à une longueur d'onde de 600 nm : 0,02 ± 0,02 contre 2,77 ± 0,09; p < 0,001), mais qu'elle persistait sur les masques traités à une humidité relative moindre. Les masques ayant subi 10 cycles de désinfection avaient toujours des fibres de diamètre semblable à celui des fibres des masques non traités, et ils répondaient encore aux normes d'ajustement, de filtration et de résistance respiratoire. INTERPRÉTATION: La désinfection thermique a réussi à décontaminer les respirateurs N95 sans compromettre leur intégrité structurelle ni modifier leurs propriétés. Elle pourrait se faire dans les hôpitaux et les établissements de soins de longue durée avec de l'équipement facilement accessible, ce qui réduirait la pénurie de N95.

2.
Stem Cell Reports ; 17(3): 538-555, 2022 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692861

ABSTRACT

To date, the direct causative mechanism of SARS-CoV-2-induced endotheliitis remains unclear. Here, we report that human ECs barely express surface ACE2, and ECs express less intracellular ACE2 than non-ECs of the lungs. We ectopically expressed ACE2 in hESC-ECs to model SARS-CoV-2 infection. ACE2-deficient ECs are resistant to the infection but are more activated than ACE2-expressing ones. The virus directly induces endothelial activation by increasing monocyte adhesion, NO production, and enhanced phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-associated protein kinase (MAPK), NF-κB, and eNOS in ACE2-expressing and -deficient ECs. ACE2-deficient ECs respond to SARS-CoV-2 through TLR4 as treatment with its antagonist inhibits p38 MAPK/NF-κB/ interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) activation after viral exposure. Genome-wide, single-cell RNA-seq analyses further confirm activation of the TLR4/MAPK14/RELA/IL-1ß axis in circulating ECs of mild and severe COVID-19 patients. Circulating ECs could serve as biomarkers for indicating patients with endotheliitis. Together, our findings support a direct role for SARS-CoV-2 in mediating endothelial inflammation in an ACE2-dependent or -independent manner.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Models, Biological , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Endothelial Cells/cytology , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Gene Expression Profiling , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Humans , Interleukin-1beta/genetics , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , NF-kappa B/antagonists & inhibitors , NF-kappa B/genetics , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology , Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Single-Cell Analysis , Toll-Like Receptor 4/antagonists & inhibitors , Toll-Like Receptor 4/genetics , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/genetics , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism
3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321486

ABSTRACT

A pandemic caused by the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus with high nucleotide identity to SARS-CoV and SARS-related coronaviruses detected in horseshoe bats is spreading across the world and impacting the healthcare systems and global economy 1,2 . A suitable small animal model is urgently needed to support the development of vaccines and antiviral treatments against the SARS-CoV-2 virus. We report the pathogenesis and transmissibility of the SARS-CoV-2 in the golden Syrian hamster model. The SARS-CoV-2 virus replicated in the epithelial cells of respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated viral antigens in the areas of lung consolidation on day 2 and 5 post- inoculation, followed by rapid viral clearance and tissue repairing on day 7. Viral antigen was also detected in the epithelial cells of duodenum without apparent inflammatory response on day 2. Notably, we observed that the SARS-CoV-2 virus can be transmitted efficiently from the inoculated hamsters to co-housed naïve contact hamsters. The inoculated hamsters and naturally-infected hamsters lost greater than 10% of the body weight, and all animals recovered with the detection of neutralizing antibodies within 14 days. Our results suggest that SARS-CoV-2 infection in golden Syrian hamsters resemble features found in human patients with mild infections.Authors Sin Fun Sia, Li-Meng Yan, and Alex WH Chin contributed equally to this work.

4.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(7): 8718-8727, 2022 Feb 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683917

ABSTRACT

Transparent antimicrobial coatings can maintain the aesthetic appeal of surfaces and the functionality of a touch-screen while adding the benefit of reducing disease transmission. We fabricated an antimicrobial coating of silver oxide particles in a silicate matrix on glass. The matrix was grown by a modified Stöber sol-gel process with vapor-phase water and ammonia. A coating on glass with 2.4 mg of Ag2O per mm2 caused a reduction of 99.3% of SARS-CoV-2 and >99.5% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus compared to the uncoated glass after 1 h. We envisage that screen protectors with transparent antimicrobial coatings will find particular application to communal touch-screens, such as in supermarkets and other check-out or check-in facilities where a number of individuals utilize the same touch-screen in a short interval.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , COVID-19/prevention & control , Oxides/chemistry , Silver Compounds/chemistry , Ammonia/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , COVID-19/virology , Glass/chemistry , Humans , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/pathogenicity , Oxides/pharmacology , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Silicates/chemistry , Silver Compounds/pharmacology , Water/chemistry
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 824: 153687, 2022 Jun 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1665459

ABSTRACT

Wastewater surveillance is a promising tool for population-level monitoring of the spread of infectious diseases, such as the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Different from clinical specimens, viruses in community-scale wastewater samples need to be concentrated before detection because viral RNA is highly diluted. The present study evaluated eleven different virus concentration methods for the detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in wastewater. First, eight concentration methods of different principles were compared using spiked wastewater at a starting volume of 30 mL. Ultracentrifugation was the most effective method with a viral recovery efficiency of 25 ± 6%. The second-best option, AlCl3 precipitation method, yielded a lower recovery efficiency, only approximately half that of the ultracentrifugation method. Second, the potential of increasing method sensitivity was explored using three concentration methods starting with a larger volume of 1000 mL. Although ultracentrifugation using a large volume outperformed the other two large-volume methods, it only yielded a comparable method sensitivity as the ultracentrifugation using a small volume (30 mL). Thus, ultracentrifugation using less volume of wastewater is more preferable considering the sample processing throughput. Third, a comparison of two viral RNA extraction methods showed that the lysis-buffer-based extraction method resulted in higher viral recovery efficiencies, with cycle threshold (Ct) values 0.9-4.2 lower than those obtained for the acid-guanidinium-phenol-based method using spiked samples. These results were further confirmed by using positive wastewater samples concentrated by ultracentrifugation and extracted separately by the two viral RNA extraction methods. In summary, concentration using ultracentrifugation followed by the lysis buffer-based extraction method enables sensitive and robust detection of SARS-CoV-2 for wastewater surveillance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viruses , Humans , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Viruses/genetics , Waste Water , Wastewater-Based Epidemiological Monitoring
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22868, 2021 11 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1532097

ABSTRACT

Transfer of SARS-CoV-2 from solids to fingers is one step in infection via contaminated solids, and the possibility of infection from this route has driven calls for increased frequency of handwashing during the COVID-19 pandemic. To analyze this route of infection, we measured the percentage of SARS-CoV-2 that was transferred from a solid to an artificial finger. A droplet of SARS-CoV-2 suspension (1 µL) was placed on a solid, and then artificial skin was briefly pressed against the solid with a light force (3 N). Transfer from a variety of solids was detected, and transfer from the non-porous solids, glass, stainless steel, and Teflon, was substantial when the droplet was still wet. The viral titer for the finger was 13-16% or 0.8-0.9 log less than for the input droplet. Transfer still occurred after the droplet evaporated, but was smaller, 3-9%. We found a lower level of transfer from porous solids but did not find a significant effect of solid wettability for non-porous solids.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Equipment Contamination/prevention & control , Equipment Contamination/statistics & numerical data , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Skin/virology , Viral Load
7.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(46): 54706-54714, 2021 Nov 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1514382

ABSTRACT

Antimicrobial coatings are one method to reduce the spread of microbial diseases. Transparent coatings preserve the visual properties of surfaces and are strictly necessary for applications such as antimicrobial cell phone screens. This work describes transparent coatings that inactivate microbes within minutes. The coatings are based on a polydopamine (PDA) adhesive, which has the useful property that the monomer can be sprayed, and then the monomer polymerizes in a conformal film at room temperature. Two coatings are described (1) a coating where PDA is deposited first and then a thin layer of copper is grown on the PDA by electroless deposition (PDA/Cu) and (2) a coating where a suspension of Cu2O particles in a PDA solution is deposited in a single step (PDA/Cu2O). In the second coating, PDA menisci bind Cu2O particles to the solid surface. Both coatings are transparent and are highly efficient in inactivating microbes. PDA/Cu kills >99.99% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 99.18% of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in only 10 min and inactivates 99.98% of SARS-CoV-2 virus in 1 h. PDA/Cu2O kills 99.94% of P. aeruginosa and 96.82% of MRSA within 10 min and inactivates 99.88% of SARS-CoV-2 in 1 h.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Microbial/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Surface Properties
8.
ACS Biomater Sci Eng ; 7(11): 5022-5027, 2021 11 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454712

ABSTRACT

We developed antimicrobial coatings from ZnO particles that reduce the infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 suspensions by >99.9% in 1 h. The advantage of a coating is that it can be applied to a variety of objects, e.g., hand rails and door knobs, to hinder the spread of disease. Two porous coatings were prepared: one from submicrometer zinc oxide particles bound with silica menisci and the other from zinc oxide tetrapods bound with polyurethane. Experiments on glass coatings show that infectivity depends on porosity for hydrophilic materials, wherein aqueous droplets are imbibed into the pores.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Zinc Oxide , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Suspensions , Zinc Oxide/pharmacology
9.
Nat Immunol ; 21(10): 1302, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387430

ABSTRACT

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

10.
Nature ; 583(7818): 834-838, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387423

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel coronavirus with high nucleotide identity to SARS-CoV and to SARS-related coronaviruses that have been detected in horseshoe bats, has spread across the world and had a global effect on healthcare systems and economies1,2. A suitable small animal model is needed to support the development of vaccines and therapies. Here we report the pathogenesis and transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 in golden (Syrian) hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Immunohistochemistry assay demonstrated the presence of viral antigens in nasal mucosa, bronchial epithelial cells and areas of lung consolidation on days 2 and 5 after inoculation with SARS-CoV-2, followed by rapid viral clearance and pneumocyte hyperplasia at 7 days after inoculation. We also found viral antigens in epithelial cells of the duodenum, and detected viral RNA in faeces. Notably, SARS-CoV-2 was transmitted efficiently from inoculated hamsters to naive hamsters by direct contact and via aerosols. Transmission via fomites in soiled cages was not as efficient. Although viral RNA was continuously detected in the nasal washes of inoculated hamsters for 14 days, the communicable period was short and correlated with the detection of infectious virus but not viral RNA. Inoculated and naturally infected hamsters showed apparent weight loss on days 6-7 post-inoculation or post-contact; all hamsters returned to their original weight within 14 days and developed neutralizing antibodies. Our results suggest that features associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection in golden hamsters resemble those found in humans with mild SARS-CoV-2 infections.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Models, Animal , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Mesocricetus/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Aerosols , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/pathology , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/virology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Antigens, Viral/isolation & purification , Antigens, Viral/metabolism , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Bronchi/pathology , Bronchi/virology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Duodenum/virology , Fomites/virology , Housing, Animal , Kidney/virology , Male , Mesocricetus/immunology , Nasal Mucosa/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , RNA, Viral/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load , Weight Loss
11.
Lancet Microbe ; 1(4): e146, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1177030

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans
13.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(5): 5919-5928, 2021 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1042382

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has created a need for coatings that reduce infection from SARS-CoV-2 via surfaces. Such a coating could be used on common touch surfaces (e.g., door handles and railings) to reduce both disease transmission and fear of touching objects. Herein, we describe the design, fabrication, and testing of a cupric oxide anti-SARS-CoV-2 coating. Rapid loss of infectivity is an important design criterion, so a porous hydrophilic coating was created to allow rapid infiltration of aqueous solutions into the coating where diffusion distances to the cupric oxide surface are short and the surface area is large. The coating was deposited onto glass from a dispersion of cuprous oxide in ethanol and then thermally treated at 700 °C for 2 h to produce a CuO coating that is ≈30 µm thick. The heat treatment oxidized the cuprous oxide to cupric oxide and sintered the particles into a robust film. The SARS-CoV-2 infectivity from the CuO film was reduced by 99.8% in 30 min and 99.9% in 1 h compared to that from glass. The coating remained hydrophilic for at least 5 months, and there was no significant change in the cross-hatch test of robustness after exposure to 70% ethanol or 3 wt % bleach.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Copper/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Photoelectron Spectroscopy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Surface Properties , Vero Cells , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , X-Ray Diffraction
14.
Nat Immunol ; 21(10): 1293-1301, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-720840

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 virus emerged in December 2019 and has caused a worldwide pandemic due to the lack of any pre-existing immunity. Accurate serology testing is urgently needed to help diagnose infection, determine past exposure of populations and assess the response to a future vaccine. The landscape of antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 is unknown. In this study, we utilized the luciferase immunoprecipitation system to assess the antibody responses to 15 different SARS-CoV-2 antigens in patients with COVID-19. We identified new targets of the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 and show that nucleocapsid, open reading frame (ORF)8 and ORF3b elicit the strongest specific antibody responses. ORF8 and ORF3b antibodies, taken together as a cluster of points, identified 96.5% of COVID-19 samples at early and late time points of disease with 99.5% specificity. Our findings could be used to develop second-generation diagnostic tests to improve serological assays for COVID-19 and are important in understanding pathogenicity.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Viral Proteins/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Hong Kong , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Time Factors
15.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(11): 2701-2704, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-694508

ABSTRACT

We investigated 68 respiratory specimens from 35 coronavirus disease patients in Hong Kong, of whom 32 had mild disease. We found that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and subgenomic RNA were rarely detectable beyond 8 days after onset of illness. However, virus RNA was detectable for many weeks by reverse transcription PCR.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA, Viral/analysis , Respiratory System/virology , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Female , Hong Kong , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2
16.
CMAJ ; 192(41): E1189-E1197, 2020 10 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690395

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Unprecedented demand for N95 respirators during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to a global shortage of these masks. We validated a rapidly applicable, low-cost decontamination protocol in compliance with regulatory standards to enable the safe reuse of N95 respirators. METHODS: We inoculated 4 common models of N95 respirators with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and evaluated viral inactivation after disinfection for 60 minutes at 70°C and 0% relative humidity. Similarly, we evaluated thermal disinfection at 0% to 70% relative humidity for masks inoculated with Escherichia coli. We assessed masks subjected to multiple cycles of thermal disinfection for structural integrity using scanning electron microscopy and for protective functions using standards of the United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health for particle filtration efficiency, breathing resistance and respirator fit. RESULTS: A single heat treatment rendered SARS-CoV-2 undetectable in all mask samples. Compared with untreated inoculated control masks, E. coli cultures at 24 hours were virtually undetectable from masks treated at 70°C and 50% relative humidity (optical density at 600 nm wavelength, 0.02 ± 0.02 v. 2.77 ± 0.09, p < 0.001), but contamination persisted for masks treated at lower relative humidity. After 10 disinfection cycles, masks maintained fibre diameters similar to untreated masks and continued to meet standards for fit, filtration efficiency and breathing resistance. INTERPRETATION: Thermal disinfection successfully decontaminated N95 respirators without impairing structural integrity or function. This process could be used in hospitals and long-term care facilities with commonly available equipment to mitigate the depletion of N95 masks.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Disinfection/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Respiratory Protective Devices/standards , COVID-19 , Hot Temperature , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
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