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1.
iScience ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1695175

ABSTRACT

Clotting Factor V (FV) is primarily synthesised in the liver and when cleaved by thrombin forms pro-coagulant Factor Va (FVa). Using whole blood RNAseq and scRNAseq of peripheral blood mononuclear cells we find that FV mRNA is expressed in leukocytes, and identify neutrophils, monocytes and T regulatory cells as sources of increased FV in hospitalised patients with COVID-19. Proteomic analysis confirms increased FV in circulating neutrophils in severe COVID-19, and immunofluorescence microscopy identifies FV in lung-infiltrating leukocytes in COVID-19 lung disease. Increased leukocyte FV expression in severe disease correlates with T cell lymphopenia. Both plasma-derived and a cleavage resistant recombinant FV, but not thrombin cleaved FVa, suppress T cell proliferation in vitro. Anticoagulants that reduce FV conversion to FVa, including heparin, may have the unintended consequence of suppressing the adaptive immune system. Graphical

2.
iScience ; 25(3): 103971, 2022 Mar 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699877

ABSTRACT

Clotting Factor V (FV) is primarily synthesized in the liver and when cleaved by thrombin forms pro-coagulant Factor Va (FVa). Using whole blood RNAseq and scRNAseq of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, we find that FV mRNA is expressed in leukocytes, and identify neutrophils, monocytes, and T regulatory cells as sources of increased FV in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Proteomic analysis confirms increased FV in circulating neutrophils in severe COVID-19, and immunofluorescence microscopy identifies FV in lung-infiltrating leukocytes in COVID-19 lung disease. Increased leukocyte FV expression in severe disease correlates with T-cell lymphopenia. Both plasma-derived and a cleavage resistant recombinant FV, but not thrombin cleaved FVa, suppress T-cell proliferation in vitro. Anticoagulants that reduce FV conversion to FVa, including heparin, may have the unintended consequence of suppressing the adaptive immune system.

4.
Trials ; 23(1): 62, 2022 Jan 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643174

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has presented unique challenges for rapidly designing, initiating, and delivering therapeutic clinical trials. PRINCIPLE (Platform Randomised Trial of Treatments in the Community for Epidemic and Pandemic Illnesses) is the UK national platform investigating repurposed therapies for COVID-19 treatment of older people in the community at high risk of complications. Standard methods of patient recruitment were failing to meet the required pace and scale of enrolment. This paper describes the development and appraisal of a near real-time, data-driven, ethical approach for enhancing recruitment in community care by contacting people with a recent COVID-19 positive test result from the central NHS Test and Trace service within approximately 24-48 h of their test result. METHODS: A multi-disciplinary team was formed to solve the technical, ethical, public perception, logistical and information governance issues required to provide a near-real time (approximately within 24-48 h of receiving a positive test) feed of potential trial participants from test result data to the research team. PRINCIPLE was also given unique access to the Summary Care Record (SCR) to ensure safe prescribing, and to enable the trial team to quickly and safely bring consented patients into the trial. A survey of the public was used to understand public perceptions of the use of test data for this proposed methodology. RESULTS: Prior to establishing the data service, PRINCIPLE registered on average 87 participants per week. This increased by up to 87 additional people registered per week from the test data, contributing to an increase from 1013 recruits to PRINCIPLE at the start of October 2020 to 2802 recruits by 20 December 2020. Whilst procedural caveats were identified by the public consultation, out of 2639 people contacted by PRINCIPLE following a positive test result, no one raised a concern about being approached. CONCLUSIONS: This paper describes a novel approach to using near-real time NHS operational data to recruit community-based patients within a few days of presentation with acute illness. This approach increased recruitment and reduced time between positive test and randomisation, allowing more rapid evaluation of treatments and increased safety for participants. End-to-end public and patient involvement in the design of the approach provided evidence to inform information governance decisions. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PRINCIPLE is funded by UK Research and Innovation and the Department of Health and Social Care through the National Institute for Health Research. EudraCT number: 2020-001209-22 . 26/03/2020 ISRCTN registry: ISRCTN86534580 . 20/03/2020 REC number: 20/SC/058 IRAS number: 281958.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Patient Selection , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Interface Focus ; 11(6): 20210025, 2021 Dec 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475947

ABSTRACT

Here, we consider how the lessons we learned in 2020 from funding COVID-19 research could have a long-term impact on the way that we fund medical research. We look back at how UK government funding for COVID-19 medical research evolved, beginning with the early calls for proposals in February that pump-primed funding for vaccines and therapeutics, and culminating in the launch of the government's National Core Studies programme in October. We discuss how the research community mobilized to submit and review grants more rapidly than ever before, against a background of laboratory and office closures. We also highlight the challenges of running clinical trials as the number of hospitalized patients fluctuated with different waves of the disease.

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