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1.
Advanced materials technologies ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2058093

ABSTRACT

The fomite transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‐CoV‐2) has drawn attention because of its highly contagious nature. Therefore, surfaces that can prevent coronavirus contamination are an urgent and unmet need during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) pandemic. Conventional surfaces are usually based on superhydrophobic or antiviral coatings. However, these coatings may be dysfunctional because of biofouling, which is the undesired adhesion of biomolecules. A superhydrophobic surface independent of the material content and coating agents may serve the purpose of antibiofouling and preventing viral transmission. Doubly reentrant topology (DRT) is a unique structure that can meet the need. This study demonstrates that the DRT surfaces possess a striking antibiofouling effect that can prevent viral contamination. This effect still exists even if the DRT surface is made of a hydrophilic material such as silicon oxide and copper. To the best of our knowledge, this work first demonstrates that fomite transmission of viruses may be prevented by minimizing the contact area between pathogens and surfaces even made of hydrophilic materials. Furthermore, the DRT geometry per se features excellent antibiofouling ability, which may shed light on the applications of pathogen elimination in alleviating the COVID‐19 pandemic. The findings demonstrate that a unique fabricated doubly reentrant topology (DRT) structure carries remarkable superrepellent properties against biofouling of protein, blood, bacteria, and viruses. Moreover, this characteristic results from a highly minimized contact area and still exists even if the DRT surface is made of a hydrophilic material, such as silicon oxide.

2.
Adv Mater Technol ; : 2200387, 2022 Aug 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1976681

ABSTRACT

The fomite transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has drawn attention because of its highly contagious nature. Therefore, surfaces that can prevent coronavirus contamination are an urgent and unmet need during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Conventional surfaces are usually based on superhydrophobic or antiviral coatings. However, these coatings may be dysfunctional because of biofouling, which is the undesired adhesion of biomolecules. A superhydrophobic surface independent of the material content and coating agents may serve the purpose of antibiofouling and preventing viral transmission. Doubly reentrant topology (DRT) is a unique structure that can meet the need. This study demonstrates that the DRT surfaces possess a striking antibiofouling effect that can prevent viral contamination. This effect still exists even if the DRT surface is made of a hydrophilic material such as silicon oxide and copper. To the best of our knowledge, this work first demonstrates that fomite transmission of viruses may be prevented by minimizing the contact area between pathogens and surfaces even made of hydrophilic materials. Furthermore, the DRT geometry per se features excellent antibiofouling ability, which may shed light on the applications of pathogen elimination in alleviating the COVID-19 pandemic.

3.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 85(9): 891-895, 2022 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1931931

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its variants of concern can infect people of all ages and can cause severe diseases in children, such as encephalitis, which require intensive care. Therefore, vaccines are urgently required to prevent severe disease in all age groups. We reviewed the safety and efficacy profiles of mRNA vaccines-BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273-demonstrated by clinical trials or observed in the real world. mRNA-1273 is effective in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection in preschool children (6 months-6 years old). Both BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 are effective in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection in school-aged children and adolescents, thereby preventing post-coronavirus disease (COVID) conditions. The common side effects of vaccination are pain at the injection site, fatigue, and headache. Myocarditis and pericarditis are uncommon. Monitoring post-vaccination troponin levels may help prevent severe cardiac events. The SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus mutates its genome to overcome the herd immunity provided by mass vaccinations; therefore, we may need to develop new generations of vaccines, such as those using viral nucleocapsid proteins as antigens. In conclusion, the mRNA vaccines are generally safe and effective in preventing severe diseases and hospitalization among children and adolescents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adolescent , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Child , Child, Preschool , Hospitalization , Humans , Nucleocapsid Proteins , SARS-CoV-2 , Troponin , Vaccination , Viral Vaccines
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(18)2021 Sep 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1409702

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic with high infectivity and mortality has caused severe social and economic impacts worldwide. Growing reports of COVID-19 patients with multi-organ damage indicated that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) may also disturb the cardiovascular system. Herein, we used human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived cardiomyocytes (iCMs) as the in vitro platform to examine the consequence of SARS-CoV2 infection on iCMs. Differentiated iCMs expressed the primary SARS-CoV2 receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme-II (ACE2) and the transmembrane protease serine type 2 (TMPRSS2) receptor suggesting the susceptibility of iCMs to SARS-CoV2. Following the infection of iCMs with SARS-CoV2, the viral nucleocapsid (N) protein was detected in the host cells, demonstrating the successful infection. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the SARS-CoV2 infection upregulates several inflammation-related genes, including the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). The pretreatment of iCMs with TNF-α for 24 h, significantly increased the expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2, SASR-CoV2 entry receptors. The TNF-α pretreatment enhanced the entry of GFP-expressing SARS-CoV2 pseudovirus into iCMs, and the neutralization of TNF-α ameliorated the TNF-α-enhanced viral entry. Collectively, SARS-CoV2 elevated TNF-α expression, which in turn enhanced the SARS-CoV2 viral entry. Our findings suggest that, TNF-α may participate in the cytokine storm and aggravate the myocardial damage in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Cell Differentiation , Cell Line , Computational Biology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Humans , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells , Myocardium/cytology , Myocardium/immunology , Myocardium/pathology , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , Myocytes, Cardiac/virology , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors , Up-Regulation/immunology , Virus Internalization/drug effects
5.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 84(9): 827-832, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320351

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused unprecedented disruption to the normal operation of the healthcare system. On a worldwide scale, hospitals suspended nonurgent surgeries and outpatient visits to downsize clinical loadings to redistribute manpower to counteract the pandemic's impact. So far, there is no evidence-based guideline defining a clear line between urgent and nonurgent indications of intravitreal injections (IVI). Herein, we aimed to summarize IVI algorithm modifications and discuss the patient prioritization according to medical needs in the hostile environment in the COVID crisis. Assessing current literature, we found that neovascular age-related macular degeneration is considered the utmost priority among conditions that require IVI. Other conditions assigned with a high priority include monocular or quasi-monocular patients (only one eye > 20/40), neovascular glaucoma, and new patients with significant vision loss. Although patients with central retinal vein occlusion and proliferative diabetic retinopathy are not advised to delay treatments, we found no consistent evidence that correlated with a worse outcome. Diabetic macular edema and branch retinal vein occlusion patients undertaking treatment delay should be regularly followed up every 2 to 3 months. Serving as the principle of management behind the algorithm modifications, the reduction of both patient visit and IVI therapy counts should be reckoned together with the risk of permanent visual loss and COVID infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Intravitreal Injections/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Algorithms , Humans , Hygiene , Patient Safety
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(3)2021 Jan 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1055070

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) was identified as the main host cell receptor for the entry of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its subsequent infection. In some coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, it has been reported that the nervous tissues and the eyes were also affected. However, evidence supporting that the retina is a target tissue for SARS-CoV-2 infection is still lacking. This present study aimed to investigate whether ACE2 expression plays a role in human retinal neurons during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived retinal organoids and monolayer cultures derived from dissociated retinal organoids were generated. To validate the potential entry of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the retina, we showed that hiPSC-derived retinal organoids and monolayer cultures endogenously express ACE2 and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) on the mRNA level. Immunofluorescence staining confirmed the protein expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in retinal organoids and monolayer cultures. Furthermore, using the SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus spike protein with GFP expression system, we found that retinal organoids and monolayer cultures can potentially be infected by the SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus. Collectively, our findings highlighted the potential of iPSC-derived retinal organoids as the models for ACE2 receptor-based SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Gene Expression , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology , Retina/cytology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Cell Culture Techniques , Cell Line , Humans , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism , Organoids/cytology , Organoids/metabolism , Retina/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Virus Internalization
7.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 83(8): 725-732, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-709365

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused severe pneumonia at December 2019. Since then, it has been wildly spread from Wuhan, China, to Asia, European, and United States to become the pandemic worldwide. Now coronavirus disease 2019 were globally diagnosed over 3 084 740 cases with mortality of 212 561 toll. Current reports variants are found in SARS-CoV-2, majoring in functional ribonucleic acid (RNA) to transcribe into structural proteins as transmembrane spike (S) glycoprotein and the nucleocapsid (N) protein holds the virus RNA genome; the envelope (E) and membrane (M) alone with spike protein form viral envelope. The nonstructural RNA genome includes ORF1ab, ORF3, ORF6, 7a, 8, and ORF10 with highly conserved information for genome synthesis and replication in ORF1ab. METHODS: We apply genomic alignment analysis to observe SARS-CoV-2 sequences from GenBank (http://www.ncbi.nim.nih.gov/genebank/): MN 908947 (China, C1); MN985325 (United States: WA, UW); MN996527 (China, C2); MT007544 (Australia: Victoria, A1); MT027064 (United States: CA, UC); MT039890 (South Korea, K1); MT066175 (Taiwan, T1); MT066176 (Taiwan, T2); LC528232 (Japan, J1); and LC528233 (Japan, J2) and Global Initiative on Sharing All Influenza Data database (https://www.gisaid.org). We adopt Multiple Sequence Alignments web from Clustalw (https://www.genome.jp/tools-bin/clustalw) and Geneious web (https://www.geneious.com. RESULTS: We analyze database by genome alignment search for nonstructural ORFs and structural E, M, N, and S proteins. Mutations in ORF1ab, ORF3, and ORF6 are observed; specific variants in spike region are detected. CONCLUSION: We perform genomic analysis and comparative multiple sequence of SARS-CoV-2. Large scaling sequence alignments trace to localize and catch different mutant strains in United possibly to transmit severe deadly threat to humans. Studies about the biological symptom of SARS-CoV-2 in clinic animal and humans will be applied and manipulated to find mechanisms and shield the light for understanding the origin of pandemic crisis.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Genome, Viral , Open Reading Frames , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/physiology , Humans , Phylogeny , Point Mutation , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
8.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 83(6): 537-543, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-601886

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: China announced an outbreak of new coronavirus in the city of Wuhan on December 31, 2019; lash to now, the virus transmission has become pandemic worldwide. Severe cases from the Huanan Seafood Wholesale market in Wuhan were confirmed pneumonia with a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). Understanding the molecular mechanisms of genome selection and packaging is critical for developing antiviral strategies. Thus, we defined the correlation in 10 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV2) sequences from different countries to analyze the genomic patterns of disease origin and evolution aiming for developing new control pandemic processes. METHODS: We apply genomic analysis to observe SARS-CoV2 sequences from GenBank (http://www.ncbi.nim.nih.gov/genebank/): MN 908947 (China, C1), MN985325 (USA: WA, UW), MN996527 (China, C2), MT007544 (Australia: Victoria, A1), MT027064 (USA: CA, UC), MT039890 (South Korea, K1), MT066175 (Taiwan, T1), MT066176 (Taiwan, T2), LC528232 (Japan, J1), and LC528233 (Japan, J2) for genomic sequence alignment analysis. Multiple Sequence Alignment by Clustalw (https://www.genome.jp/tools-bin/clustalw) web service is applied as our alignment tool. RESULTS: We analyzed 10 sequences from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database by genome alignment and found no difference in amino acid sequences within M and N proteins. There are two amino acid variances in the spike (S) protein region. One mutation found from the South Korea sequence is verified. Two possible "L" and "S" SNPs found in ORF1ab and ORF8 regions are detected. CONCLUSION: We performed genomic analysis and comparative multiple sequences of SARS-CoV2. Studies about the biological symptoms of SARS-CoV2 in clinic animals and humans will manipulate an understanding on the origin of pandemic crisis.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Genome, Viral , Amino Acid Sequence , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Alignment , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
9.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1022, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-478585

ABSTRACT

A sudden outbreak of COVID-19 caused by a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, in Wuhan, China in December 2019 quickly grew into a global pandemic, putting at risk not only the global healthcare system, but also the world economy. As the disease continues to spread rapidly, the development of prophylactic and therapeutic approaches is urgently required. Although some progress has been made in understanding the viral structure and invasion mechanism of coronaviruses that may cause severe cases of the syndrome, due to the limited understanding of the immune effects caused by SARS-CoV-2, it is difficult for us to prevent patients from developing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and pulmonary fibrosis (PF), the major complications of coronavirus infection. Therefore, any potential treatments should focus not only on direct killing of coronaviruses and prevention strategies by vaccine development, but also on keeping in check the acute immune/inflammatory responses, resulting in ARDS and PF. In addition, potential treatments currently under clinical trials focusing on killing coronaviruses or on developing vaccines preventing coronavirus infection largely ignore the host immune response. However, taking care of SARS-CoV-2 infected patients with ARDS and PF is considered to be the major difficulty. Therefore, further understanding of the host immune response to SARS-CoV-2 is extremely important for clinical resolution and saving medication cost. In addition to a breif overview of the structure, infection mechanism, and possible therapeutic approaches, we summarized and compared the hematopathologic effect and immune responses to SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2. We also discussed the indirect immune response caused by SARS and direct infection, replication, and destroying of immune cells by MERS-CoV. The molecular mechanisms of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV infection-induced lymphopenia or cytokine storm may provide some hint toward fight against SARS-CoV-2, the novel coronavirus. This may provide guidance over using immune therapy as a combined treatment to prevent patients developing severe respiratory syndrome and largely reduce complications.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Inflammation/virology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/pathology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Virus Replication
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(7)2020 Apr 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-46057

ABSTRACT

The sudden outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV, later named SARS-CoV-2) in Wuhan, China, which rapidly grew into a global pandemic, marked the third introduction of a virulent coronavirus into the human society, affecting not only the healthcare system, but also the global economy. Although our understanding of coronaviruses has undergone a huge leap after two precedents, the effective approaches to treatment and epidemiological control are still lacking. In this article, we present a succinct overview of the epidemiology, clinical features, and molecular characteristics of SARS-CoV-2. We summarize the current epidemiological and clinical data from the initial Wuhan studies, and emphasize several features of SARS-CoV-2, which differentiate it from SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), such as high variability of disease presentation. We systematize the current clinical trials that have been rapidly initiated after the outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic. Whereas the trials on SARS-CoV-2 genome-based specific vaccines and therapeutic antibodies are currently being tested, this solution is more long-term, as they require thorough testing of their safety. On the other hand, the repurposing of the existing therapeutic agents previously designed for other virus infections and pathologies happens to be the only practical approach as a rapid response measure to the emergent pandemic, as most of these agents have already been tested for their safety. These agents can be divided into two broad categories, those that can directly target the virus replication cycle, and those based on immunotherapy approaches either aimed to boost innate antiviral immune responses or alleviate damage induced by dysregulated inflammatory responses. The initial clinical studies revealed the promising therapeutic potential of several of such drugs, including favipiravir, a broad-spectrum antiviral drug that interferes with the viral replication, and hydroxychloroquine, the repurposed antimalarial drug that interferes with the virus endosomal entry pathway. We speculate that the current pandemic emergency will be a trigger for more systematic drug repurposing design approaches based on big data analysis.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Viral Vaccines , Betacoronavirus/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Clinical Trials as Topic , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Genome, Viral , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
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