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1.
Vaccines ; 10(12) (no pagination), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2200928

ABSTRACT

Vaccination against pertussis in pregnancy is safe for pregnant women and newborns. Vaccination against pertussis during the second or early third trimester of pregnancy is highly protective against pertussis in young infants. Vaccination early in the third trimester versus vaccination late in the third trimester is associated with higher newborn anti-B. pertussis antibody levels. Infants whose mothers were vaccinated in pregnancy have less boosting of anti-B. pertussis antibody concentrations after their own vaccination, but this is not clinically significant. More immunogenicity and vaccine effectiveness studies are needed in countries using whole-cell pertussis vaccines. Vaccination in pregnancy induces anti-B. pertussis antibodies in breast milk. COVID-19 mitigation strategies have resulted in a significant decrease in B. pertussis circulation, which could negatively affect population immunity against B. pertussis. Highlights: Infants are at high risk for severe morbidity and mortality from pertussis disease during early infancy. Vaccination against pertussis in pregnancy has emerged as the ideal strategy to protect infants during these early, vulnerable, first months of life. On 30 November and 1 December 2021, the Global Pertussis Initiative held a meeting that aimed to discuss and review the most up-to-date scientific literature supporting vaccination against pertussis in pregnancy and outstanding scientific questions. Herein, we review the current and historically published literature and summarize the findings as consensus statements on vaccination against pertussis in pregnancy on behalf of the Global Pertussis Initiative. Copyright © 2022 by the authors.

2.
Chest ; 162(4):A2478, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060950

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: COVID-19 Case Report Posters 2 SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 01:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Pneumomediastinum is the presence of air or other gas in the mediastinum which can be due to trauma related to mechanical ventilation or spontaneous in preexisting lung diseases. Here, we present the case of Covid-19 pneumonia, who developed pneumomediastinum without any trauma or other risk factors. CASE PRESENTATION: A 56-year-old male COVID unvaccinated with a history of essential hypertension presented to the ED with shortness of breath and worsening cough for one week. He was living with his father, who was admitted to the ICU and receiving treatment for COVID pneumonia. The patient appeared to be in respiratory distress. His initial vital signs were temperature of 99.6 F, respiratory rate of 26 breaths per minute, blood pressure 125/71 mm Hg, heart rate 109 beats per minute with a regular rhythm, and oxygen saturation of 50% while he was breathing ambient air. Pulmonary examination revealed use of respiratory accessory muscle and widespread bilateral coarse rhonchi on auscultation. The rest of the physical examination was within normal limits. RT- PCR COVID -19 test was positive. The blood gas analysis reported respiratory alkalosis. Inflammatory markers were elevated: erythrocyte sedimentation rate (35.2 mg/L), C-Reactive Protein (17.70 mg/dL), Ferritin (1108.1 ng/mL), Lactate Dehydrogenase (813 U/L), Lactate (2.4 mg/dL), D-Dimer (35.20 mg/L) and Troponin High Sensitivity-236.6 ng/L. His CBC, electrolytes, and kidney function were normal. Chest X-ray showed Pneumomediastinum with dense basilar predominant consolidation. CT Angio Chest with contrast reported Pneumomediastinum likely from the left central airway source and bilateral dense ground glass consolidation. An echocardiogram showed an ejection fraction of 60-65%, no valvular abnormalities. He was placed on vapotherm(Oxygen 40L/min) with 100% FiO2. He was given Dexamethasone 6mg for ten days, Remdesivir, Barcitinib, and a 7-day course of Azithromycin and Ceftriaxone for community-acquired pneumonia. He was advised to practice prone positioning for 12 hours or more per day. Pulmonology, Infectious Disease, and Cardiology were consulted. Gradually, his oxygen requirement was weaned down and Pneumomediastinum resolved on serial chest x rays. He was discharged on home oxygen in a clinically stable condition. DISCUSSION: Pneumomediastinum in viral pneumonia is rare. The exact mechanism is unknown. Covid-19 pneumonia causes diffuse alveolar wall damage, which might cause air leakage into the mediastinum. The development of pneumomediastinum is an ominous sign in these patients. Fortunately, our patient did not worsen and was weaned off high flow oxygenation requirement. CONCLUSIONS: Few isolated reported cases of pneumomediastinum in a COVID-19 patient have been associated with life-threatening complications. It should be used as a prognostic marker, and close monitoring of these patients is advisable. Reference #1: Damous, S.H.B., dos Santos Junior, J.P., Pezzano, Á.V.A. et al. Pneumomediastinum complicating COVID-19: a case series. Eur J Med Res 26, 114 (2021) DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Saad Ansari No relevant relationships by Akshit Chitkara No relevant relationships by Sudeshna Ghosh No relevant relationships by Femina Patel

3.
Indian Pediatrics ; 58(4):383-390, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196221

ABSTRACT

JUSTIFICATION: The unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic has had a formidable impact on Indian health care. With no sight of its end as yet, various establishments including the smaller clinics and nursing homes are restarting full operations. Hence, there is the need for recommendations to allow safe practice ensuring the safety of both the heath care worker (HCW) and patients. PROCESS: Indian Academy of Pediatrics organized an online meeting of subject experts on 27 July, 2020. A committee was formed comprising of pediatricians, pediatric and neonatal intensivists, and hospital administrators. The committee held deliberations (online and via emails) and a final consensus was reached by November, 2020. OBJECTIVES: To develop recommendations to provide a safe and practical healthcare facility at clinics and small establishments during COVID times. RECOMMENDATIONS: The key recommendation to practise safely in this setting are enumerated. Firstly, organizing the out-patient department (OPD). Secondly, appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) to provide protection to the individual. Thirdly, decontamination/disinfection of various common surfaces and equipment to prevent transmission of infection from fomites. Next, maintaining the heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) to provide a stress-free, comfortable, and safe environment for patients and HCWs. Finally, steps to effectively manage COVID-19 exposures in a non-COVID-19 facility. All these measures will ensure safe practice during these unprecedent times in clinics and smaller establishments.

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