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1.
Nature ; 2022 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1852428

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 Delta and Omicron are globally relevant variants of concern (VOCs). While individuals infected with Delta are at risk to develop severe lung disease, infection with Omicron often causes milder symptoms, especially in vaccinated individuals1,2. The question arises whether widespread Omicron infections could lead to future cross-variant protection, accelerating the end of the pandemic. Here we show that without vaccination, infection with Omicron induces a limited humoral immune response in mice and humans. Sera from mice overexpressing the human ACE2 receptor and infected with Omicron neutralize only Omicron, but no other VOCs, whereas broader cross-variant neutralization was observed after WA1 and Delta infections. Unlike WA1 and Delta, Omicron replicates to low levels in the lungs and brains of infected animals, leading to mild disease with reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and diminished activation of lung-resident T cells. Sera from unvaccinated, Omicron-infected individuals show the same limited neutralization of only Omicron itself. In contrast, Omicron breakthrough infections induce overall higher neutralization titers against all VOCs. Our results demonstrate that Omicron infection enhances preexisting immunity elicited by vaccines but, on its own, may not confer broad protection against non-Omicron variants in unvaccinated individuals.

3.
Cell ; 185(9): 1539-1548.e5, 2022 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748150

ABSTRACT

Virus-like particle (VLP) and live virus assays were used to investigate neutralizing immunity against Delta and Omicron SARS-CoV-2 variants in 259 samples from 128 vaccinated individuals. Following Delta breakthrough infection, titers against WT rose 57-fold and 3.1-fold compared with uninfected boosted and unboosted individuals, respectively, versus only a 5.8-fold increase and 3.1-fold decrease for Omicron breakthrough infection. Among immunocompetent, unboosted patients, Delta breakthrough infections induced 10.8-fold higher titers against WT compared with Omicron (p = 0.037). Decreased antibody responses in Omicron breakthrough infections relative to Delta were potentially related to a higher proportion of asymptomatic or mild breakthrough infections (55.0% versus 28.6%, respectively), which exhibited 12.3-fold lower titers against WT compared with moderate to severe infections (p = 0.020). Following either Delta or Omicron breakthrough infection, limited variant-specific cross-neutralizing immunity was observed. These results suggest that Omicron breakthrough infections are less immunogenic than Delta, thus providing reduced protection against reinfection or infection from future variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans
4.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(2): e1009914, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686113

ABSTRACT

As novel SARS-CoV-2 variants continue to emerge, it is critical that their potential to cause severe disease and evade vaccine-induced immunity is rapidly assessed in humans and studied in animal models. In early January 2021, a novel SARS-CoV-2 variant designated B.1.429 comprising 2 lineages, B.1.427 and B.1.429, was originally detected in California (CA) and it was shown to have enhanced infectivity in vitro and decreased antibody neutralization by plasma from convalescent patients and vaccine recipients. Here we examine the virulence, transmissibility, and susceptibility to pre-existing immunity for B 1.427 and B 1.429 in the Syrian hamster model. We find that both variants exhibit enhanced virulence as measured by increased body weight loss compared to hamsters infected with ancestral B.1 (614G), with B.1.429 causing the most marked body weight loss among the 3 variants. Faster dissemination from airways to parenchyma and more severe lung pathology at both early and late stages were also observed with B.1.429 infections relative to B.1. (614G) and B.1.427 infections. In addition, subgenomic viral RNA (sgRNA) levels were highest in oral swabs of hamsters infected with B.1.429, however sgRNA levels in lungs were similar in all three variants. This demonstrates that B.1.429 replicates to higher levels than ancestral B.1 (614G) or B.1.427 in the oropharynx but not in the lungs. In multi-virus in-vivo competition experiments, we found that B.1. (614G), epsilon (B.1.427/B.1.429) and gamma (P.1) dramatically outcompete alpha (B.1.1.7), beta (B.1.351) and zeta (P.2) in the lungs. In the nasal cavity, B.1. (614G), gamma, and epsilon dominate, but the highly infectious alpha variant also maintains a moderate size niche. We did not observe significant differences in airborne transmission efficiency among the B.1.427, B.1.429 and ancestral B.1 (614G) and WA-1 variants in hamsters. These results demonstrate enhanced virulence and high relative oropharyngeal replication of the epsilon (B.1.427/B.1.429) variant in Syrian hamsters compared to an ancestral B.1 (614G) variant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Animals , COVID-19/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Mesocricetus , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virulence
5.
Nat Microbiol ; 7(2): 277-288, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616987

ABSTRACT

Associations between vaccine breakthrough cases and infection by different SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants have remained largely unexplored. Here we analysed SARS-CoV-2 whole-genome sequences and viral loads from 1,373 persons with COVID-19 from the San Francisco Bay Area from 1 February to 30 June 2021, of which 125 (9.1%) were vaccine breakthrough infections. Vaccine breakthrough infections were more commonly associated with circulating antibody-resistant variants carrying ≥1 mutation associated with decreased antibody neutralization (L452R/Q, E484K/Q and/or F490S) than infections in unvaccinated individuals (78% versus 48%, P = 1.96 × 10-8). Differences in viral loads were non-significant between unvaccinated and fully vaccinated cases overall (P = 0.99) and according to lineage (P = 0.09-0.78). Symptomatic vaccine breakthrough infections had comparable viral loads (P = 0.64), whereas asymptomatic breakthrough infections had decreased viral loads (P = 0.023) compared with infections in unvaccinated individuals. In 5 cases with serial samples available for serologic analyses, vaccine breakthrough infections were found to be associated with low or undetectable neutralizing antibody levels attributable to an immunocompromised state or infection by an antibody-resistant lineage. Taken together, our results show that vaccine breakthrough infections are overrepresented by antibody-resistant SARS-CoV-2 variants, and that symptomatic breakthrough infections may be as efficient in spreading COVID-19 as unvaccinated infections, regardless of the infecting lineage.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cohort Studies , Female , Genome, Viral , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mutation , Phylogeny , San Francisco/epidemiology , Vaccination , Viral Load/statistics & numerical data , Whole Genome Sequencing , Young Adult
6.
Sci Adv ; 7(31)2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334521

ABSTRACT

Interpretation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) serosurveillance studies is limited by poorly defined performance of antibody assays over time in individuals with different clinical presentations. We measured antibody responses in plasma samples from 128 individuals over 160 days using 14 assays. We found a consistent and strong effect of disease severity on antibody magnitude, driven by fever, cough, hospitalization, and oxygen requirement. Responses to spike protein versus nucleocapsid had consistently higher correlation with neutralization. Assays varied substantially in sensitivity during early convalescence and time to seroreversion. Variability was dramatic for individuals with mild infection, who had consistently lower antibody titers, with sensitivities at 6 months ranging from 33 to 98% for commercial assays. Thus, the ability to detect previous infection by SARS-CoV-2 is highly dependent on infection severity, timing, and the assay used. These findings have important implications for the design and interpretation of SARS-CoV-2 serosurveillance studies.

7.
J Infect Dis ; 224(2): 207-217, 2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1310923

ABSTRACT

We combined viral genome sequencing with contact tracing to investigate introduction and evolution of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 lineages in Santa Clara County, California, from 27 January to 21 March 2020. From 558 persons with coronavirus disease 2019, 101 genomes from 143 available clinical samples comprised 17 lineages, including SCC1 (n = 41), WA1 (n = 9; including the first 2 reported deaths in the United States, with postmortem diagnosis), D614G (n = 4), ancestral Wuhan Hu-1 (n = 21), and 13 others (n = 26). Public health intervention may have curtailed the persistence of lineages that appeared transiently during February and March. By August, only D614G lineages introduced after 21 March were circulating in Santa Clara County.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , California/epidemiology , Contact Tracing , Female , Genetic Variation , Genome, Viral/genetics , Genotype , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Phylogeny , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/classification , Travel , Young Adult
8.
Nature ; 596(7870): 103-108, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275940

ABSTRACT

Rapidly emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants jeopardize antibody-based countermeasures. Although cell culture experiments have demonstrated a loss of potency of several anti-spike neutralizing antibodies against variant strains of SARS-CoV-21-3, the in vivo importance of these results remains uncertain. Here we report the in vitro and in vivo activity of a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), which correspond to many in advanced clinical development by Vir Biotechnology, AbbVie, AstraZeneca, Regeneron and Lilly, against SARS-CoV-2 variant viruses. Although some individual mAbs showed reduced or abrogated neutralizing activity in cell culture against B.1.351, B.1.1.28, B.1.617.1 and B.1.526 viruses with mutations at residue E484 of the spike protein, low prophylactic doses of mAb combinations protected against infection by many variants in K18-hACE2 transgenic mice, 129S2 immunocompetent mice and hamsters, without the emergence of resistance. Exceptions were LY-CoV555 monotherapy and LY-CoV555 and LY-CoV016 combination therapy, both of which lost all protective activity, and the combination of AbbVie 2B04 and 47D11, which showed a partial loss of activity. When administered after infection, higher doses of several mAb cocktails protected in vivo against viruses with a B.1.351 spike gene. Therefore, many-but not all-of the antibody products with Emergency Use Authorization should retain substantial efficacy against the prevailing variant strains of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/pharmacology , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , COVID-19/virology , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Chlorocebus aethiops , Female , Humans , Male , Mesocricetus/immunology , Mesocricetus/virology , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vero Cells
9.
J Infect Dis ; 224(2): 207-217, 2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1203708

ABSTRACT

We combined viral genome sequencing with contact tracing to investigate introduction and evolution of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 lineages in Santa Clara County, California, from 27 January to 21 March 2020. From 558 persons with coronavirus disease 2019, 101 genomes from 143 available clinical samples comprised 17 lineages, including SCC1 (n = 41), WA1 (n = 9; including the first 2 reported deaths in the United States, with postmortem diagnosis), D614G (n = 4), ancestral Wuhan Hu-1 (n = 21), and 13 others (n = 26). Public health intervention may have curtailed the persistence of lineages that appeared transiently during February and March. By August, only D614G lineages introduced after 21 March were circulating in Santa Clara County.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , California/epidemiology , Contact Tracing , Female , Genetic Variation , Genome, Viral/genetics , Genotype , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Phylogeny , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/classification , Travel , Young Adult
10.
Cell ; 184(13): 3426-3437.e8, 2021 06 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1193254

ABSTRACT

We identified an emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variant by viral whole-genome sequencing of 2,172 nasal/nasopharyngeal swab samples from 44 counties in California, a state in the western United States. Named B.1.427/B.1.429 to denote its two lineages, the variant emerged in May 2020 and increased from 0% to >50% of sequenced cases from September 2020 to January 2021, showing 18.6%-24% increased transmissibility relative to wild-type circulating strains. The variant carries three mutations in the spike protein, including an L452R substitution. We found 2-fold increased B.1.427/B.1.429 viral shedding in vivo and increased L452R pseudovirus infection of cell cultures and lung organoids, albeit decreased relative to pseudoviruses carrying the N501Y mutation common to variants B.1.1.7, B.1.351, and P.1. Antibody neutralization assays revealed 4.0- to 6.7-fold and 2.0-fold decreases in neutralizing titers from convalescent patients and vaccine recipients, respectively. The increased prevalence of a more transmissible variant in California exhibiting decreased antibody neutralization warrants further investigation.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/transmission , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Humans , Mutation/genetics , Whole Genome Sequencing/methods
11.
Cell ; 184(10): 2587-2594.e7, 2021 05 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157175

ABSTRACT

The highly transmissible B.1.1.7 variant of SARS-CoV-2, first identified in the United Kingdom, has gained a foothold across the world. Using S gene target failure (SGTF) and SARS-CoV-2 genomic sequencing, we investigated the prevalence and dynamics of this variant in the United States (US), tracking it back to its early emergence. We found that, while the fraction of B.1.1.7 varied by state, the variant increased at a logistic rate with a roughly weekly doubling rate and an increased transmission of 40%-50%. We revealed several independent introductions of B.1.1.7 into the US as early as late November 2020, with community transmission spreading it to most states within months. We show that the US is on a similar trajectory as other countries where B.1.1.7 became dominant, requiring immediate and decisive action to minimize COVID-19 morbidity and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Models, Biological , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/transmission , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , United States/epidemiology
12.
Sci Adv ; 7(6)2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066793

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), has emerged as the cause of a global pandemic. We used RNA sequencing to analyze 286 nasopharyngeal (NP) swab and 53 whole-blood (WB) samples from 333 patients with COVID-19 and controls. Overall, a muted immune response was observed in COVID-19 relative to other infections (influenza, other seasonal coronaviruses, and bacterial sepsis), with paradoxical down-regulation of several key differentially expressed genes. Hospitalized patients and outpatients exhibited up-regulation of interferon-associated pathways, although heightened and more robust inflammatory responses were observed in hospitalized patients with more clinically severe illness. Two-layer machine learning-based host classifiers consisting of complete (>1000 genes), medium (<100), and small (<20) gene biomarker panels identified COVID-19 disease with 85.1-86.5% accuracy when benchmarked using an independent test set. SARS-CoV-2 infection has a distinct biosignature that differs between NP swabs and WB and can be leveraged for COVID-19 diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Nasopharynx/virology , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Area Under Curve , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Gene Library , Humans , Machine Learning , RNA, Viral/blood , ROC Curve , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity , Transcriptome
13.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(11): 2976-2980, 2020 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059931

ABSTRACT

In early-to-mid March 2020, 20 of 46 (43%) COVID-19 cases at a tertiary care hospital in San Francisco, California were travel related. Cases were significantly associated with travel to either Europe (odds ratio, 6.1) or New York (odds ratio, 32.9). Viral genomes recovered from 9 of 12 (75%) cases co-clustered with lineages circulating in Europe.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Europe , Humans , New York , SARS-CoV-2 , San Francisco/epidemiology , Travel , Travel-Related Illness
14.
Med (N Y) ; 2(4): 411-422.e5, 2021 04 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1033380

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) primarily affects the lungs, but evidence of systemic disease with multi-organ involvement is emerging. Here, we developed a blood test to broadly quantify cell-, tissue-, and organ-specific injury due to COVID-19. METHODS: Our test leverages genome-wide methylation profiling of circulating cell-free DNA in plasma. We assessed the utility of this test to identify subjects with severe disease in two independent, longitudinal cohorts of hospitalized patients. Cell-free DNA profiling was performed on 104 plasma samples from 33 COVID-19 patients and compared to samples from patients with other viral infections and healthy controls. FINDINGS: We found evidence of injury to the lung and liver and involvement of red blood cell progenitors associated with severe COVID-19. The concentration of cell-free DNA correlated with the World Health Organization (WHO) ordinal scale for disease progression and was significantly increased in patients requiring intubation. CONCLUSIONS: This study points to the utility of cell-free DNA as an analyte to monitor and study COVID-19. FUNDING: This work was supported by NIH grants 1DP2AI138242 (to I.D.V.), R01AI146165 (to I.D.V., M.P.C., F.M.M., and J.R.), 1R01AI151059 (to I.D.V.), K08-CA230156 (to W.G.), and R33-AI129455 to C.Y.C., a Synergy award from the Rainin Foundation (to I.D.V.), a SARS-CoV-2 seed grant at Cornell (to I.D.V.), a National Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada fellowship PGS-D3 (to A.P.C.), and a Burroughs-Wellcome CAMS Award (to W.G.). D.C.V. is supported by a Fonds de la Recherche en Sante du Quebec Clinical Research Scholar Junior 2 award. C.Y.C. is supported by the California Initiative to Advance Precision Medicine, and the Charles and Helen Schwab Foundation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cell-Free Nucleic Acids , Virus Diseases , Humans , Methylation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 780, 2021 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1026832

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus motivates diverse diagnostic approaches due to the novel causative pathogen, incompletely understood clinical sequelae, and limited availability of testing resources. Given the variability in viral load across and within patients, absolute viral load quantification directly from crude lysate is important for diagnosis and surveillance. Here, we investigate the use of digital droplet PCR (ddPCR) for SARS-CoV-2 viral load measurement directly from crude lysate without nucleic acid purification. We demonstrate ddPCR accurately quantifies SARS-CoV-2 standards from purified RNA and multiple sample matrices, including commonly utilized universal transport medium (UTM). In addition, we find ddPCR functions robustly at low input viral copy numbers on nasopharyngeal swab specimens stored in UTM without upfront RNA extraction. We also show ddPCR, but not qPCR, from crude lysate shows high concordance with viral load measurements from purified RNA. Our data suggest ddPCR offers advantages to qPCR for SARS-CoV-2 detection with higher sensitivity and robustness when using crude lysate rather than purified RNA as input. More broadly, digital droplet assays provide a potential method for nucleic acid measurement and infectious disease diagnosis with limited sample processing, underscoring the utility of such techniques in laboratory medicine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/virology , Viral Load , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/standards , Humans , Nasal Mucosa/virology , RNA, Viral/chemistry , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/standards , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sensitivity and Specificity
16.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 42(10): 1173-1180, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-974825

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe epidemiologic and genomic characteristics of a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak in a large skilled-nursing facility (SNF), and the strategies that controlled transmission. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This cohort study was conducted during March 22-May 4, 2020, among all staff and residents at a 780-bed SNF in San Francisco, California. METHODS: Contact tracing and symptom screening guided targeted testing of staff and residents; respiratory specimens were also collected through serial point prevalence surveys (PPSs) in units with confirmed cases. Cases were confirmed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction testing for SARS-CoV-2, and whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was used to characterize viral isolate lineages and relatedness. Infection prevention and control (IPC) interventions included restricting from work any staff who had close contact with a confirmed case; restricting movement between units; implementing surgical face masking facility-wide; and the use of recommended PPE (ie, isolation gown, gloves, N95 respirator and eye protection) for clinical interactions in units with confirmed cases. RESULTS: Of 725 staff and residents tested through targeted testing and serial PPSs, 21 (3%) were SARS-CoV-2 positive: 16 (76%) staff and 5 (24%) residents. Fifteen cases (71%) were linked to a single unit. Targeted testing identified 17 cases (81%), and PPSs identified 4 cases (19%). Most cases (71%) were identified before IPC interventions could be implemented. WGS was performed on SARS-CoV-2 isolates from 4 staff and 4 residents: 5 were of Santa Clara County lineage and the 3 others were distinct lineages. CONCLUSIONS: Early implementation of targeted testing, serial PPSs, and multimodal IPC interventions limited SARS-CoV-2 transmission within the SNF.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Skilled Nursing Facilities , Cohort Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , San Francisco/epidemiology
17.
Cell Rep Med ; 1(7): 100123, 2020 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-793949

ABSTRACT

Comprehensive understanding of the serological response to SARS-CoV-2 infection is important for both pathophysiologic insight and diagnostic development. Here, we generate a pan-human coronavirus programmable phage display assay to perform proteome-wide profiling of coronavirus antigens enriched by 98 COVID-19 patient sera. Next, we use ReScan, a method to efficiently sequester phage expressing the most immunogenic peptides and print them onto paper-based microarrays using acoustic liquid handling, which isolates and identifies nine candidate antigens, eight of which are derived from the two proteins used for SARS-CoV-2 serologic assays: spike and nucleocapsid proteins. After deployment in a high-throughput assay amenable to clinical lab settings, these antigens show improved specificity over a whole protein panel. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates that ReScan will have broad applicability for other emerging infectious diseases or autoimmune diseases that lack a valid biomarker, enabling a seamless pipeline from antigen discovery to diagnostic using one recombinant protein source.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Peptide Library , Protein Array Analysis , Proteome/immunology , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Viral Proteins/immunology
18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4698, 2020 09 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-780000

ABSTRACT

Given the limited availability of serological testing to date, the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies in different populations has remained unclear. Here, we report very low SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in two San Francisco Bay Area populations. Seroreactivity was 0.26% in 387 hospitalized patients admitted for non-respiratory indications and 0.1% in 1,000 blood donors in early April 2020. We additionally describe the longitudinal dynamics of immunoglobulin-G (IgG), immunoglobulin-M (IgM), and in vitro neutralizing antibody titers in COVID-19 patients. The median time to seroconversion ranged from 10.3-11.0 days for these 3 assays. Neutralizing antibodies rose in tandem with immunoglobulin titers following symptom onset, and positive percent agreement between detection of IgG and neutralizing titers was >93%. These findings emphasize the importance of using highly accurate tests for surveillance studies in low-prevalence populations, and provide evidence that seroreactivity using SARS-CoV-2 anti-nucleocapsid protein IgG and anti-spike IgM assays are generally predictive of in vitro neutralizing capacity.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , San Francisco/epidemiology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Serologic Tests/methods
19.
mSphere ; 5(5)2020 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-772263

ABSTRACT

As severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to spread around the world, there is an urgent need for new assay formats to characterize the humoral response to infection. Here, we present an efficient, competitive serological assay that can simultaneously determine an individual's seroreactivity against the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein and determine the proportion of anti-Spike antibodies that block interaction with the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) required for viral entry. In this approach based on the use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), we present natively folded viral Spike protein receptor-binding domain (RBD)-containing antigens via avidin-biotin interactions. Sera are then competed with soluble ACE2-Fc, or with a higher-affinity variant thereof, to determine the proportion of ACE2 blocking anti-RBD antibodies. Assessment of sera from 144 SARS-CoV-2 patients ultimately revealed that a remarkably consistent and high proportion of antibodies in the anti-RBD pool targeted the epitope responsible for ACE2 engagement (83% ± 11%; 50% to 107% signal inhibition in our largest cohort), further underscoring the importance of tailoring vaccines to promote the development of such antibodies.IMPORTANCE With the emergence and continued spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, and of the associated disease, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), there is an urgent need for improved understanding of how the body mounts an immune response to the virus. Here, we developed a competitive SARS-CoV-2 serological assay that can simultaneously determine whether an individual has developed antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein receptor-binding domain (RBD) and measure the proportion of these antibodies that block interaction with the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) required for viral entry. Using this assay and 144 SARS-CoV-2 patient serum samples, we found that a majority of anti-RBD antibodies compete for ACE2 binding. These results not only highlight the need to design vaccines to generate such blocking antibodies but also demonstrate the utility of this assay to rapidly screen patient sera for potentially neutralizing antibodies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/immunology , Serologic Tests/methods , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Binding Sites/immunology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , High-Throughput Screening Assays/methods , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Protein Binding , Protein Domains/immunology , SARS-CoV-2
20.
J Virol Methods ; 286: 113972, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-759120

ABSTRACT

A novel reverse-transcriptase loop mediated amplification (RT-LAMP) method targeting genes encoding the Spike (S) protein and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) of SARS-CoV-2 has been developed. The LAMP assay achieves a comparable limit of detection (25-50 copies per reaction) to commonly used RT-PCR protocols using clinical samples quantified by digital droplet PCR. Precision, cross-reactivity, inclusivity, and limit of detection studies were performed according to regulatory standards. Clinical validation of dual-target RT-LAMP (S and RdRP gene) achieved a PPA of 98.48 % (95 % CI 91.84%-99.96%) and NPA 100.00 % (95 % CI 93.84%-100.00%) based on the E gene and N2 gene reference RT-PCR methods. The method has implications for development of point of care technology using isothermal amplification.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Computer Simulation , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins , Humans , Pandemics , Point-of-Care Systems , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics
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