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1.
Kidney Res Clin Pract ; 2022 Jun 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924897

ABSTRACT

Background: Hemodialysis (HD) patients are more vulnerable to viral epidemics, experiencing higher mortality rates compared to individuals without chronic kidney disease (CKD). This retrospective cohort study sought to demonstrate clinical outcomes and associated factors among coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) confirmed Korean HD patients. Methods: From February 2020 to November 2021, the COVID-19 Task Force Team collected clinical data for HD patients with confirmed COVID-19 via a self-report survey of nephrologists. The composite outcome included in-hospital mortality, admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), and use of mechanical ventilation. Risk factors associated with clinical outcomes were analyzed among HD patients and compared to those of individuals without CKD using the COVID-19 database from the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency. Results: A total of 380 HD patients from 206 facilities were diagnosed with COVID-19. Fever (49.5%) and cough (25.7%) were the two most common initial symptoms. The overall in-hospital fatality rate was 22.4% and even higher among ICU admission cases (64.7%). Non-survivors were older, more frequently developed shortness of breath, and were more likely to come from a nursing hospital. Compared to the age- and sex-matched non-CKD population, HD patients showed greater risk of in-hospital mortality (hazard ratio, 2.07; 95% confidence interval, 1.56-2.75; p < 0.001) and composite outcome (hazard ratio, 3.50; 95% confidence interval, 2.56-4.77; p < 0.001). Conclusion: HD patients have a greater risk of in-hospital mortality and morbidity from COVID-19. Special attention should be paid to COVID-19 HD patients when they are older or present with symptoms.

2.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(2)2022 Feb 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704293

ABSTRACT

Various vaccines against COVID-19 have been developed and proven to be effective, but their side effects, especially on kidney function, are not yet known in detail. In this study, we report the clinical courses and histopathologic findings of new-onset kidney diseases after COVID-19 vaccination as confirmed via kidney biopsy. Five patients aged 42 to 77 years were included in this study, and baseline kidney function was normal in all patients. The biopsy-proven diagnosis indicated newly developed kidney diseases: (1) IgA nephropathy presenting with painless gross hematuria, (2) minimal change disease presenting with nephrotic syndrome, (3) thrombotic microangiopathy, and (4) two cases of acute tubulointerstitial nephritis presenting with acute kidney injury. Individualized treatment was applied as per disease severity and underlying pathology, and the treatment outcomes of all patients were improved. Since this is not a controlled study, the specific pathophysiologic link and causality between the incidence of kidney diseases and COVID-19 vaccination are difficult to confirm. However, clinicians need to consider the possibility that kidney diseases may be provoked by vaccines in patients who have renal symptoms.

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315458

ABSTRACT

We investigated the association between angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE-I) or angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) and the risk of mortality in hospitalized severe COVID-19 patients. A retrospective cohort study was performed on all hospitalized COVID-19 patients in tertiary hospitals in Daegu, Korea. Patients were classified based on whether they received ACE-I or ARB before COVID-19 diagnosis. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used for the analysis of survival. Of 130 COVID-19 patients, 30 (23.1%) who received ACE-I or ARB showed an increased the risk of in-hospital mortality (adjusted HR, 2.15;95% CI, 1.04 to 4.44;P = 0.038). ACE-I or ARB were also associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome or mechanical ventilation (adjusted OR, 3.38;95% CI, 1.18 to 9.69;P = 0.024), and acute kidney injury or shock (adjusted OR, 2.81;95% CI, 1.04 to 7.56;P = 0.042). Among the patients with ACE-I or ARB, 14 (46.7%) discontinued the therapy and the cessation was associated with a higher mortality rate. ACE-I or ARB therapy in severe COVID-19 patients was associated with occurrence of severe complications and increased in-hospital mortality. Discontinuation of ACE-I or ARB in patients with more severe COVID-19 was not associated with improvement of mortality.

4.
Kidney Res Clin Pract ; 40(3): 501-504, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1464165
5.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(30): e218, 2021 Aug 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1339471

ABSTRACT

Various coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines are being developed, which show practical preventive effects. Here, we report a 51-year-old healthy man with nephrotic syndrome secondary to minimal change disease (MCD) after Ad26.COV.2 (Janssen) vaccination. He had no comorbid disease and received Ad26.COV.2 on April 13, 2021. Seven days after vaccination, he developed edema and foamy urine. Edema rapidly aggravated with decreased urine volume. He was admitted to the hospital 28 days after vaccination, and his body weight increased by 21 kg after vaccination. His serum creatinine level was 1.54 mg/dL, and 24-h urinary protein excretion was 8.6 g/day. Kidney biopsy revealed no abnormality in the glomeruli and interstitium of the cortex and medulla under the light microscope. Electron microscopy revealed diffuse effacement of the podocyte foot processes, thus, he was diagnosed with MCD. High-dose steroid therapy was applied, and his kidney function improved three days after steroid therapy. Three weeks after steroid use, his serum creatinine decreased to 0.95 mg/dL, and spot urine protein-to-creatine decreased to 0.2 g/g. This case highlights the risk of new-onset nephrotic syndrome secondary to MCD after vectored COVID-19 vaccination. Although the pathogenesis is uncertain, clinicians need to be careful about adverse renal effects of COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Nephrotic Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nephrosis, Lipoid/etiology
6.
Electrolyte Blood Press ; 18(2): 23-30, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1013497

ABSTRACT

The worldwide coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is still in progress, but much remains unknown about the disease. In this article, we review the association of hypertension or the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) with COVID-19 and the correlation between electrolyte disorders and disease severity. Underlying hypertension is likely to be associated with severe or critical COVID-19, but the relationship is not clear owing to confounding factors. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) plays an important role in the non-classical RAS pathway and binds to a receptor binding domain of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The RAS blockade is known to increase ACE2 levels, but controversy remains regarding the effect of RAS blockade therapy in the course of COVID-19. Some reports have indicated a protective effect of RAS blockade on COVID-19, whereas others have reported an association of RAS blockade therapy with the occurrence of severe complications such as acute kidney injury and admission to the intensive care unit. Electrolyte disorders are not uncommon in patients with COVID-19, and severe COVID-19 has frequently shown hypokalemia, hyponatremia, and hypocalcemia. Electrolyte imbalances are caused by alteration of RAS, gastrointestinal loss, effects of proinflammatory cytokines, and renal tubular dysfunction by the invasion of SARS-CoV-2.

7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 20250, 2020 11 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-939445

ABSTRACT

The association between angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE-I) or angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) and the risk of mortality in hospitalized patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was investigated. This retrospective cohort study was performed in all hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in tertiary hospitals in Daegu, Korea. Patients were classified based on whether they received ACE-I or ARB before COVID-19 diagnosis. The analysis of the primary outcome, in-hospital mortality, was performed using the Cox proportional hazards regression model. Of 130 patients with COVID-19, 30 (23.1%) who received ACE-I or ARB exhibited an increased risk of in-hospital mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.20; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10-4.38; P = 0.025). ACE-I or ARB was also associated with severe complications, such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.58; 95% CI, 1.02-6.51; P = 0.045) and acute kidney injury (AKI) (aOR, 3.06; 95% CI, 1.15-8.15; P = 0.026). Among the patients with ACE-I or ARB therapy, 8 patients (26.7%) used high equivalent doses of ACE-I or ARB and they had higher in-hospital mortality and an increased risk of ARDS and AKI (all, P < 0.05). ACE-I or ARB therapy in patients with severe COVID-19 was associated with the occurrence of severe complications and increased in-hospital mortality. The potentially harmful effect of ACE-I or ARB therapy may be higher in patients who received high doses.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Aged , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Republic of Korea , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Tertiary Care Centers
8.
J Clin Med ; 9(6)2020 Jun 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-534530

ABSTRACT

The outcome of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with organ damage; however, the information about the relationship between acute kidney injury (AKI) and COVID-19 is still rare. We evaluated the clinical features and prognosis of COVID-19 patients with AKI according to the AKI severity. Medical data of hospitalized COVID-19 patients in two university-based hospitals during an outbreak in Daegu, South Korea, were retrospectively analyzed. AKI and its severity were defined according to the Acute Kidney Injury Network. Of the 164 hospitalized patients with COVID-19, 30 patients (18.3%) had AKI; 14, 4, and 12 patients had stage 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The median age was significantly higher in AKI patients than in non-AKI patients (75.5 vs. 67.0 years, p = 0.005). There were 17 deaths (56.7%) among AKI patients; 4 (28.6%), 1 (25.0%), and 12 (100.0%), respectively. In-hospital mortality was higher in AKI patients than in non-AKI patients (56.7% vs. 20.8%, p < 0.001). After adjusting for potential confounding factors, stage 3 AKI was associated with higher mortality than either non-AKI or stage 1 AKI (hazard ratio (HR) = 3.62 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.75-7.48), p = 0.001; HR = 15.65 (95% CI = 2.43-100.64), p = 0.004). Among the AKI patients, acute respiratory distress syndrome and low serum albumin on admission were considered independent risk factors for stage 3 AKI (both p < 0.05). Five patients with stage 3 AKI underwent dialysis and eventually died. In conclusion, COVID-19 patients with severe AKI had fatal outcomes.

9.
J Clin Med ; 9(6)2020 Jun 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-459464

ABSTRACT

Patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) or who are on hemodialysis (HD) could have increased susceptibility to the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) given their pre-existing comorbidities, older age, compromised immune system, and regular visits to populated outpatient dialysis centers. This study included 14 consecutive patients on HD or with advanced CKD who initiated HD after being diagnosed with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from February to April 2020 in hospitals throughout Daegu, South Korea. The included patients, 42.9% of whom were men, had a mean age of 63.5 years. Four patients had a history of contact with a patient suffering from COVID-19. The most common symptom was cough (50.0%), followed by dyspnea (35.7%). The mean time from symptom onset to diagnosis and admission was 2.6 and 3.5 days, respectively. Patients exhibited lymphopenia and elevated inflammatory markers, including C-reactive protein and ferritin. Chest radiography findings showed pulmonary infiltration in 10 patients. All patients underwent regular HD in a negative pressure room and received antiviral agents. Four patients received mechanical ventilation and continuous renal replacement therapy at a median duration of 14.0 and 8.5 days, respectively. One patient underwent extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for three days. Among the 14 patients included, two died due to acute respiratory distress syndrome, nine were discharged from the hospital, and three remained hospitalized. Despite the high-risk conditions associated with worse outcomes, patients on HD did not exhibit extremely poor overall COVID-19 outcomes perhaps due to early diagnosis, prompt hospitalization, and antiviral therapy.

10.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 31(7): 1398-1408, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-459123

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Health care-associated infections during previous coronavirus epidemics involving severe acute respiratory syndrome and Middle East respiratory syndrome resulted from human-to-human transmission in hemodialysis (HD) facilities. The effect of a strategy of HD with cohort isolation-separate dialysis sessions for close contacts of patients with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-on the prevention of secondary transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in HD units is unknown. METHODS: Our multicenter cohort study of an HD with cohort isolation strategy enrolled close contacts of patients with confirmed COVID-19, including patients on HD and health care workers in HD units. Close contacts had been identified by epidemiologic investigation and tested negative on an immediate screening test for SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: As of March 14, 11 patients on HD and 7 health care workers from 11 HD centers were diagnosed as having COVID-19. The immediate screening test was performed in 306 people, and among them, 302 close contacts with negative test results were enrolled. HD with cohort isolation was performed among all close contacts for a median of 14 days in seven centers. During cohort isolation, nine patients showed symptoms but tested negative for SARS-CoV-2. Two health care workers in the HD units (0.66% of the total group) were diagnosed at the termination test for SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSIONS: The transmission of COVID-19 can be controlled without closure of HD centers by implementing preemptive activities, including early detection with rapid testing, cohort isolation, collaboration between institutions, and continuous monitoring of infection. Our strategy and experience may provide helpful guidance for circumstances involving the rapid spread of infectious diseases such as COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Patient Isolation/organization & administration , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Renal Dialysis/methods , Adult , COVID-19 , Chi-Square Distribution , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Infection Control/organization & administration , Kidney Failure, Chronic/diagnosis , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Health , Pandemics , Patient Safety , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Program Evaluation , Renal Dialysis/statistics & numerical data , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Secondary Prevention/organization & administration , Statistics, Nonparametric , Survival Rate
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