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1.
Radiology ; 304(1): 185-192, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1741709

ABSTRACT

Background The long-term effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on pulmonary structure and function remain incompletely characterized. Purpose To test whether SARS-CoV-2 infection leads to small airways disease in patients with persistent symptoms. Materials and Methods In this single-center study at a university teaching hospital, adults with confirmed COVID-19 who remained symptomatic more than 30 days following diagnosis were prospectively enrolled from June to December 2020 and compared with healthy participants (controls) prospectively enrolled from March to August 2018. Participants with post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC) were classified as ambulatory, hospitalized, or having required the intensive care unit (ICU) based on the highest level of care received during acute infection. Symptoms, pulmonary function tests, and chest CT images were collected. Quantitative CT analysis was performed using supervised machine learning to measure regional ground-glass opacity (GGO) and using inspiratory and expiratory image-matching to measure regional air trapping. Univariable analyses and multivariable linear regression were used to compare groups. Results Overall, 100 participants with PASC (median age, 48 years; 66 women) were evaluated and compared with 106 matched healthy controls; 67% (67 of 100) of the participants with PASC were classified as ambulatory, 17% (17 of 100) were hospitalized, and 16% (16 of 100) required the ICU. In the hospitalized and ICU groups, the mean percentage of total lung classified as GGO was 13.2% and 28.7%, respectively, and was higher than that in the ambulatory group (3.7%, P < .001 for both comparisons). The mean percentage of total lung affected by air trapping was 25.4%, 34.6%, and 27.3% in the ambulatory, hospitalized, and ICU groups, respectively, and 7.2% in healthy controls (P < .001). Air trapping correlated with the residual volume-to-total lung capacity ratio (ρ = 0.6, P < .001). Conclusion In survivors of COVID-19, small airways disease occurred independently of initial infection severity. The long-term consequences are unknown. © RSNA, 2022 Online supplemental material is available for this article. See also the editorial by Elicker in this issue.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Lung Diseases , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Lung Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Lung Diseases/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
2.
Crit Care Explor ; 3(7): e0480, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1301384

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We hypothesize that elevated soluble suppression of tumorigenicity-2 concentrations, a marker of pulmonary epithelial injury, reflect ongoing lung injury in acute hypoxemic respiratory failure due to coronavirus disease 2019 and associate with continued ventilator dependence. DESIGN: We associated serial plasma soluble suppression of tumorigenicity-2 levels and markers of systemic inflammation including d-dimer, C-reactive protein, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate with 30-day mortality and ventilator dependence. SETTING: Adult medical ICUs and general medicine wards at an academic teaching hospital in Boston, MA. PATIENTS: Adult patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection and acute hypoxemic respiratory failure admitted to the ICU (n = 72) and non-ICU patients managed with supplemental oxygen (n = 77). INTERVENTIONS: Observational study from April 25 to June 25, 2020. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: ICU patients had a higher baseline body mass index and median soluble suppression of tumorigenicity-2, d-dimer, and C-reactive protein concentrations compared with non-ICU patients. Among ICU patients, elevated baseline modified Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score and log (soluble suppression of tumorigenicity-2) were associated with 30-day mortality, whereas initial Pao2/Fio2 and markers of systemic inflammation were similar between groups. Only log (soluble suppression of tumorigenicity-2) associated with ventilator dependence over time, with the last measured log (soluble suppression of tumorigenicity-2) concentration obtained on ICU day 11.5 (interquartile range [7-17]) higher in patients who required reintubation or tracheostomy placement compared with patients who were successfully extubated (2.10 [1.89-2.26] vs 1.87 ng/mL [1.72-2.13 ng/mL]; p = 0.03). Last measured systemic inflammatory markers, modified Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score, and Pao2/Fio2 were not different between patients who were successfully extubated compared with those with continued ventilator dependence. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma soluble suppression of tumorigenicity-2 is a biomarker readily measured in blood that can provide dynamic information about the degree of a patient's lung injury and real-time assessment of the likelihood of extubation success. Measures of systemic inflammation, illness severity, and oxygenation did not associate with ventilator outcomes.

3.
ATS Sch ; 1(4): 416-435, 2020 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191227

ABSTRACT

The American Thoracic Society Core Curriculum updates clinicians annually in adult and pediatric pulmonary disease, medical critical care, and sleep medicine in a 3- to 4-year recurring cycle of topics. The topics of the 2020 Pulmonary Core Curriculum include pulmonary vascular disease (submassive pulmonary embolism, chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, and pulmonary hypertension) and pulmonary infections (community-acquired pneumonia, pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacteria, opportunistic infections in immunocompromised hosts, and coronavirus disease [COVID-19]).

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