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1.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 10: 1172063, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243430

ABSTRACT

Background: Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) has been used in patients with COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We aim to assess the characteristics of delirium and describe its association with sedation and in-hospital mortality. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed adult patients on VV-ECMO for severe COVID-19 ARDS in the Johns Hopkins Hospital ECMO registry in 2020-2021. Delirium was assessed by the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU (CAM-ICU) when patients scored-3 or above on the Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale (RASS). Primary outcomes were delirium prevalence and duration in the proportion of days on VV-ECMO. Results: Of 47 patients (median age = 51), 6 were in a persistent coma and 40 of the remaining 41 patients (98%) had ICU delirium. Delirium in the survivors (n = 21) and non-survivors (n = 26) was first detected at a similar time point (VV-ECMO day 9.5(5,14) vs. 8.5(5,21), p = 0.56) with similar total delirium days on VV-ECMO (9.5[3.3, 16.8] vs. 9.0[4.3, 28.3] days, p = 0.43). Non-survivors had numerically lower RASS scores on VV-ECMO days (-3.72[-4.42, -2.96] vs. -3.10[-3.91, -2.21], p = 0.06) and significantly prolonged delirium-unassessable days on VV-ECMO with a RASS of -4/-5 (23.0[16.3, 38.3] vs. 17.0(6,23), p = 0.03), and total VV-ECMO days (44.5[20.5, 74.3] vs. 27.0[21, 38], p = 0.04). The proportion of delirium-present days correlated with RASS (r = 0.64, p < 0.001), the proportions of days on VV-ECMO with a neuromuscular blocker (r = -0.59, p = 0.001), and with delirium-unassessable exams (r = -0.69, p < 0.001) but not with overall ECMO duration (r = 0.01, p = 0.96). The average daily dosage of delirium-related medications on ECMO days did not differ significantly. On an exploratory multivariable logistic regression, the proportion of delirium days was not associated with mortality. Conclusion: Longer duration of delirium was associated with lighter sedation and shorter paralysis, but it did not discern in-hospital mortality. Future studies should evaluate analgosedation and paralytic strategies to optimize delirium, sedation level, and outcomes.

2.
Brain ; 2022 Sep 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2293415

ABSTRACT

Different neurological manifestations of COVID-19 in adults and children and their impact have not been well characterized. We aimed to determine the prevalence of neurological manifestations and in-hospital complications among hospitalized COVID-19 patients and ascertain differences between adults and children. We conducted a prospective multicenter observational study using the International Severe Acute Respiratory and emerging Infection Consortium cohort across 1507 sites worldwide from January/30th/2020 to May/25th/2021. Analyses of neurological manifestations and neurological complications considered unadjusted prevalence estimates for predefined patient subgroups, and adjusted estimates as a function of patient age and time of hospitalization using generalized linear models. Overall, 161,239 patients (158,267 adults; 2,972 children) hospitalized with COVID-19 and assessed for neurological manifestations and complications were included. In adults and children, the most frequent neurological manifestations at admission were fatigue (adults: 37.4%; children: 20.4%), altered consciousness (20.9%; 6.8%), myalgia (16.9%; 7.6%), dysgeusia (7.4%; 1.9%), anosmia (6.0%; 2.2%), and seizure (1.1%; 5.2%). In adults, the most frequent in-hospital neurological complications were stroke (1.5%), seizure (1%), and central nervous system (CNS) infection (0.2%). Each occurred more frequently in ICU than in non-ICU patients. In children, seizure was the only neurological complication to occur more frequently in ICU vs. non-ICU (7.1% vs. 2.3%, P < .001). Stroke prevalence increased with increasing age, while CNS infection and seizure steadily decreased with age. There was a dramatic decrease in stroke over time during the pandemic. Hypertension, chronic neurological disease, and the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation were associated with increased risk of stroke. Altered consciousness was associated with CNS infection, seizure, and stroke. All in-hospital neurological complications were associated with increased odds of death. The likelihood of death rose with increasing age, especially after 25 years of age. In conclusion, adults and children have different neurological manifestations and in-hospital complications associated with COVID-19. Stroke risk increased with increasing age, while CNS infection and seizure risk decreased with age.

3.
ASAIO J ; 69(3): 254-259, 2023 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2277726

ABSTRACT

We aimed to describe practice patterns and outcomes in patients with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support throughout the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, with the hypothesis that mortality would improve as we accumulated knowledge and experience. We included 48 patients supported on veno-venous ECMO (VV-ECMO) at a single institution between April 2020 and December 2021. Patients were categorized into three waves based on cannulation date, corresponding to the wild-type (wave 1), alpha (wave 2), and delta (wave 3) variants. One hundred percent of patients in waves 2 and 3 received glucocorticoids, compared with 29% in wave 1 ( p < 0.01), and the majority received remdesivir (84% and 92% in waves 2 and 3, vs . 35% in wave 1; p < 0.01). Duration of pre-ECMO noninvasive ventilation was longer in waves 2 and 3 (mean 8.8 days and 3.9 days, vs . 0.7 days in wave 1; p < 0.01), as was time to cannulation (mean 17.2 and 14.6 days vs . 8.8 days in wave 1; p < 0.01) and ECMO duration (mean 55.7 days and 43.0 days vs . 28.4 days in wave 1; p = 0.02). Mortality in wave 1 was 35%, compared with 63% and 75% in waves 2 and 3 ( p = 0.05). These results suggest an increased prevalence of medically refractory disease and rising mortality in later variants of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Noninvasive Ventilation , Humans , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , COVID-19/therapy , Pandemics , Patients
4.
Crit Care Med ; 51(5): 619-631, 2023 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2258725

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence and outcomes associated with hemorrhage, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, and thrombosis (HECTOR) complications in ICU patients with COVID-19. DESIGN: Prospective, observational study. SETTING: Two hundred twenty-nine ICUs across 32 countries. PATIENTS: Adult patients (≥ 16 yr) admitted to participating ICUs for severe COVID-19 from January 1, 2020, to December 31, 2021. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: HECTOR complications occurred in 1,732 of 11,969 study eligible patients (14%). Acute thrombosis occurred in 1,249 patients (10%), including 712 (57%) with pulmonary embolism, 413 (33%) with myocardial ischemia, 93 (7.4%) with deep vein thrombosis, and 49 (3.9%) with ischemic strokes. Hemorrhagic complications were reported in 579 patients (4.8%), including 276 (48%) with gastrointestinal hemorrhage, 83 (14%) with hemorrhagic stroke, 77 (13%) with pulmonary hemorrhage, and 68 (12%) with hemorrhage associated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) cannula site. Disseminated intravascular coagulation occurred in 11 patients (0.09%). Univariate analysis showed that diabetes, cardiac and kidney diseases, and ECMO use were risk factors for HECTOR. Among survivors, ICU stay was longer (median days 19 vs 12; p < 0.001) for patients with versus without HECTOR, but the hazard of ICU mortality was similar (hazard ratio [HR] 1.01; 95% CI 0.92-1.12; p = 0.784) overall, although this hazard was identified when non-ECMO patients were considered (HR 1.13; 95% CI 1.02-1.25; p = 0.015). Hemorrhagic complications were associated with an increased hazard of ICU mortality compared to patients without HECTOR complications (HR 1.26; 95% CI 1.09-1.45; p = 0.002), whereas thrombosis complications were associated with reduced hazard (HR 0.88; 95% CI 0.79-0.99, p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: HECTOR events are frequent complications of severe COVID-19 in ICU patients. Patients receiving ECMO are at particular risk of hemorrhagic complications. Hemorrhagic, but not thrombotic complications, are associated with increased ICU mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Prospective Studies , Critical Illness , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Thrombosis/etiology , Critical Care , Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Hemorrhage/etiology , Retrospective Studies
5.
Crit Care Med ; 51(8): 1043-1053, 2023 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2288178

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Evidence of cerebrovascular complications in COVID-19 requiring venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is limited. Our study aims to characterize the prevalence and risk factors of stroke secondary to COVID-19 in patients on venovenous ECMO. DESIGN: We analyzed prospectively collected observational data, using univariable and multivariable survival modeling to identify risk factors for stroke. Cox proportional hazards and Fine-Gray models were used, with death and discharge treated as competing risks. SETTING: Three hundred eighty institutions in 53 countries in the COVID-19 Critical Care Consortium (COVID Critical) registry. PATIENTS: Adult COVID-19 patients who were supported by venovenous ECMO. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Five hundred ninety-five patients (median age [interquartile range], 51 yr [42-59 yr]; male: 70.8%) had venovenous ECMO support. Forty-three patients (7.2%) suffered strokes, 83.7% of which were hemorrhagic. In multivariable survival analysis, obesity (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 2.19; 95% CI, 1.05-4.59) and use of vasopressors before ECMO (aHR, 2.37; 95% CI, 1.08-5.22) were associated with an increased risk of stroke. Forty-eight-hour post-ECMO Pa co2 -pre-ECMO Pa co2 /pre-ECMO Pa co2 (relative ΔPa co2 ) of negative 26% and 48-hour post-ECMO Pa o2 -pre-ECMO Pa o2 /pre-ECMO Pa o2 (relative ΔPa o2 ) of positive 24% at 48 hours of ECMO initiation were observed in stroke patients in comparison to relative ΔPa co2 of negative 17% and relative ΔPa o2 of positive 7% in the nonstroke group. Patients with acute stroke had a 79% in-hospital mortality compared with 45% mortality for stroke-free patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights the association of obesity and pre-ECMO vasopressor use with the development of stroke in COVID-19 patients on venovenous ECMO. Also, the importance of relative decrease in Pa co2 and moderate hyperoxia within 48 hours after ECMO initiation were additional risk factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Stroke , Adult , Humans , Male , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Carbon Dioxide , Retrospective Studies , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/etiology , Obesity
6.
Cells ; 12(5)2023 03 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2268457

ABSTRACT

The development of long-term symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) more than four weeks after primary infection, termed "long COVID" or post-acute sequela of COVID-19 (PASC), can implicate persistent neurological complications in up to one third of patients and present as fatigue, "brain fog", headaches, cognitive impairment, dysautonomia, neuropsychiatric symptoms, anosmia, hypogeusia, and peripheral neuropathy. Pathogenic mechanisms of these symptoms of long COVID remain largely unclear; however, several hypotheses implicate both nervous system and systemic pathogenic mechanisms such as SARS-CoV2 viral persistence and neuroinvasion, abnormal immunological response, autoimmunity, coagulopathies, and endotheliopathy. Outside of the CNS, SARS-CoV-2 can invade the support and stem cells of the olfactory epithelium leading to persistent alterations to olfactory function. SARS-CoV-2 infection may induce abnormalities in innate and adaptive immunity including monocyte expansion, T-cell exhaustion, and prolonged cytokine release, which may cause neuroinflammatory responses and microglia activation, white matter abnormalities, and microvascular changes. Additionally, microvascular clot formation can occlude capillaries and endotheliopathy, due to SARS-CoV-2 protease activity and complement activation, can contribute to hypoxic neuronal injury and blood-brain barrier dysfunction, respectively. Current therapeutics target pathological mechanisms by employing antivirals, decreasing inflammation, and promoting olfactory epithelium regeneration. Thus, from laboratory evidence and clinical trials in the literature, we sought to synthesize the pathophysiological pathways underlying neurological symptoms of long COVID and potential therapeutics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , Humans , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , RNA, Viral , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Inflammation/complications , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome
7.
J Neurosurg Anesthesiol ; 2022 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2161191

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Noninvasive neuromonitoring could be a valuable option for bedside assessment of cerebral dysfunction in patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) admitted to intensive care units (ICUs). This systematic review aims to investigate the use of noninvasive multimodal neuromonitoring in critically ill adult patients with COVID-19 infection. METHODS: MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane, and EMBASE databases were searched for studies investigating noninvasive neuromonitoring in patients with COVID-19 admitted to ICUs. The monitoring included transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD), the Brain4care Corp. cerebral compliance monitor (B4C), optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD), near infrared spectroscopy, automated pupillometry, and electroencephalography (EEG). RESULTS: Thirty-two studies that investigated noninvasive neuromonitoring techniques in patients with COVID-19 in the ICU were identified from a systematic search of 7001 articles: 1 study investigating TCD, ONSD and pupillometry; 2 studies investigating the B4C device and TCD; 3 studies investigating near infrared spectroscopy and TCD; 4 studies investigating TCD; 1 case series investigating pupillometry, and 21 studies investigating EEG. One hundred and nineteen patients underwent TCD monitoring, 47 pupillometry, 49 ONSD assessment, 50 compliance monitoring with the B4C device, and 900 EEG monitoring. Alterations in cerebral hemodynamics, brain compliance, brain oxygenation, pupillary response, and brain electrophysiological activity were common in patients with COVID-19 admitted to the ICU; these abnormalities were not clearly associated with worse outcome or the development of new neurological complications. CONCLUSIONS: The use of noninvasive multimodal neuromonitoring in critically ill COVID-19 patients could be considered to facilitate the detection of neurological derangements. Determining whether such findings allow earlier detection of neurological complications or guide appropriate therapy requires additional studies.

8.
Crit Care Med ; 50(11): 1638-1643, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077907

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Cerebrovascular injury associated with COVID-19 has been recognized, but the mechanisms remain uncertain. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a severe pulmonary injury, which is associated with both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. It remains unclear if cerebrovascular injuries associated with severe COVID-19 are unique to COVID-19 or a consequence of severe respiratory disease or its treatment. The frequency and patterns of cerebrovascular injury on brain MRI were compared among patients with COVID-19 ARDS and non-COVID-19 ARDS. DESIGN: A case-control study. SETTING: A tertiary academic hospital system. PATIENTS: Adult patients (>18 yr) with COVID-19 ARDS (March 2020 to July 2021) and non-COVID-19 ARDS (January 2010-October 2018) who underwent brain MRI during their index hospitalization. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Cerebrovascular injury on MRI included cerebral ischemia (ischemic infarct or hypoxic ischemic brain injury) and intracranial hemorrhage (intraparenchymal, subarachnoid, or subdural, and cerebral microbleed [CMB]).Twenty-six patients with COVID-19 ARDS and sixty-six patients with non-COVID ARDS underwent brain MRI during the index hospitalization, resulting in 23 age- and sex-matched pairs. The frequency of overall cerebrovascular injury (57% vs 61%), cerebral ischemia (35% vs 43%), intracranial hemorrhage (43% vs 48%), and CMB (52% vs 41%) between COVID-19 ARDS and non-COVID-19 ARDS patients was similar (all p values >0.05). However, four of 26 patients (15%) with COVID-19 and no patients with non-COVID-19 ARDS had disseminated leukoencephalopathy with underlying CMBs, an imaging pattern that has previously been reported in patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: In a case-control study of selected ARDS patients with brain MRI, the frequencies of ischemic and hemorrhagic cerebrovascular injuries were similar between COVID-19 versus non-COVID-19 ARDS patients. However, the MRI pattern of disseminated hemorrhagic leukoencephalopathy was unique to the COVID-19 ARDS patients in this cohort.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Leukoencephalopathies , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Adult , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhages , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology
9.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 930217, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987507

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Neurological manifestations and complications in coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) patients are frequent. Prior studies suggested a possible association between neurological complications and fatal outcome, as well as the existence of potential modifiable risk factors associated to their occurrence. Therefore, more information is needed regarding the incidence and type of neurological complications, risk factors, and associated outcomes in COVID-19. Methods: This is a pre-planned secondary analysis of the international multicenter observational study of the COVID-19 Critical Care Consortium (which collected data both retrospectively and prospectively from the beginning of COVID-19 pandemic) with the aim to describe neurological complications in critically ill COVID-19 patients and to assess the associated risk factors, and outcomes. Adult patients with confirmed COVID-19, admitted to Intensive Care Unit (ICU) will be considered for this analysis. Data collected in the COVID-19 Critical Care Consortium study includes patients' pre-admission characteristics, comorbidities, severity status, and type and severity of neurological complications. In-hospital mortality and neurological outcome were collected at discharge from ICU, and at 28-days. Ethics and Dissemination: The COVID-19 Critical Care Consortium main study and its amendments have been approved by the Regional Ethics Committee of participating sites. No further approval is required for this secondary analysis. Trial Registration Number: ACTRN12620000421932.

10.
Br J Anaesth ; 129(5): 679-692, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966391

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We performed a systematic review of mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19, which analysed the effect of tracheostomy timing and technique (surgical vs percutaneous) on mortality. Secondary outcomes included intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital length of stay (LOS), decannulation from tracheostomy, duration of mechanical ventilation, and complications. METHODS: Four databases were screened between January 1, 2020 and January 10, 2022 (PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Cochrane). Papers were selected according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) and the Population or Problem, Intervention or exposure, Comparison, and Outcome (PICO) guidelines. Meta-analysis and meta-regression for main outcomes were performed. RESULTS: The search yielded 9024 potentially relevant studies, of which 47 (n=5268 patients) were included. High levels of between-study heterogeneity were observed across study outcomes. The pooled mean tracheostomy timing was 16.5 days (95% confidence interval [CI]: 14.7-18.4; I2=99.6%). Pooled mortality was 22.1% (95% CI: 18.7-25.5; I2=89.0%). Meta-regression did not show significant associations between mortality and tracheostomy timing, mechanical ventilation duration, time to decannulation, and tracheostomy technique. Pooled mean estimates for ICU and hospital LOS were 29.6 (95% CI: 24.0-35.2; I2=98.6%) and 38.8 (95% CI: 32.1-45.6; I2=95.7%) days, both associated with mechanical ventilation duration (coefficient 0.8 [95% CI: 0.2-1.4], P=0.02 and 0.9 [95% CI: 0.4-1.4], P=0.01, respectively) but not tracheostomy timing. Data were insufficient to assess tracheostomy technique on LOS. Duration of mechanical ventilation was 23.4 days (95% CI: 19.2-27.7; I2=99.3%), not associated with tracheostomy timing. Data were insufficient to assess the effect of tracheostomy technique on mechanical ventilation duration. Time to decannulation was 23.8 days (95% CI: 19.7-27.8; I2=98.7%), not influenced by tracheostomy timing or technique. The most common complications were stoma infection, ulcers or necrosis, and bleeding. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with COVID-19 requiring tracheostomy, the timing and technique of tracheostomy did not clearly impact on patient outcomes. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW PROTOCOL: PROSPERO CRD42021272220.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Humans , Critical Illness/therapy , Time Factors , Tracheostomy/methods , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Length of Stay
11.
Front Neurol ; 13: 814405, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834475

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Neurological complications are frequent in patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). The use of non-invasive neuromonitoring in subjects without primary brain injury but with potential neurological derangement is gaining attention outside the intensive care unit (ICU). This systematic review and meta-analysis investigates the use of non-invasive multimodal neuromonitoring of the brain in non-critically ill patients with COVID-19 outside the ICU and quantifies the prevalence of abnormal neuromonitoring findings in this population. Methods: A structured literature search was performed in MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane, and EMBASE to investigate the use of non-invasive neuromonitoring tools, including transcranial doppler (TCD); optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD); near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS); pupillometry; and electroencephalography (EEG) inpatients with COVID-19 outside the ICU. The proportion of non-ICU patients with CVOID-19 and a particular neurological feature at neuromonitoring at the study time was defined as prevalence. Results: A total of 6,593 records were identified through literature searching. Twenty-one studies were finally selected, comprising 368 non-ICU patients, of whom 97 were considered for the prevalence of meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of electroencephalographic seizures, periodic and rhythmic patterns, slow background abnormalities, and abnormal background on EEG was.17 (95% CI 0.04-0.29), 0.42 (95% CI 0.01-0.82), 0.92 (95% CI 0.83-1.01), and.95 (95% CI 0.088-1.09), respectively. No studies investigating NIRS and ONSD outside the ICU were found. The pooled prevalence for abnormal neuromonitoring findings detected using the TCD and pupillometry were incomputable due to insufficient data. Conclusions: Neuromonitoring tools are non-invasive, less expensive, safe, and bedside available tools with a great potential for both diagnosis and monitoring of patients with COVID-19 at risk of brain derangements. However, extensive literature searching reveals that they are rarely used outside critical care settings.Systematic Review Registration: www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?RecordID=265617, identifier: CRD42021265617.

12.
Heart Lung Circ ; 31(2): 292-298, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1828537

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related acute respiratory disease (ARDS) increasingly receive extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support. While ECMO has been shown to increase risk of stroke, few studies have examined this association in COVID-19 patients. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a systematic review to characterise neurological events during ECMO support in COVID-19 patients. DESIGN: Systematic review of cohort and large case series of COVID-19 patients who received ECMO support. DATA SOURCES: Studies retrieved from PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, Cochrane COVID-19 Study Register, Web of Science, Scopus, Clinicaltrials.gov, and medRχiv from inception to November 11, 2020. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Inclusion criteria were a) Adult population (>18 year old); b) Positive PCR test for SARS-CoV-2 with active COVID-19 disease; c) ECMO therapy due to COVID-19 ARDS; and d) Neurological events and outcome described while on ECMO support. We excluded articles when no details of neurologic events were available. RESULTS: 1,322 patients from 12 case series and retrospective cohort studies were included in our study. The median age was 49.2, and 75% (n=985) of the patients were male. Diabetes mellitus and dyslipidaemia were the most common comorbidities (24% and 20%, respectively). Most (95%, n=1,241) patients were on venovenous ECMO with a median P:F ratio at the time of ECMO cannulation of 69.1. The prevalence of intracranial haemorrhage (ICH), ischaemic stroke, and hypoxic ischaemic brain injury (HIBI) was 5.9% (n=78), 1.1% (n=15), and 0.3% (n=4), respectively. The overall mortality of the 1,296 ECMO patients in the 10 studies that reported death was 36% (n=477), and the mortality of the subset of patients who had a neurological event was 92%. CONCLUSIONS: Neurological injury is a concern for COVID-19 patients who receive ECMO. Further research is required to explore how neuromonitoring protocols can inform tailored anticoagulation management and improve survival in COVID-19 patients with ECMO support.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Stroke , Adolescent , Adult , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/etiology
13.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 119, 2022 04 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1813362

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To assess the safety and feasibility of imaging of the brain with a point-of-care (POC) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system in patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Early detection of acute brain injury (ABI) is critical in improving survival for patients with ECMO support. METHODS: Patients from a single tertiary academic ECMO center who underwent head CT (HCT), followed by POC brain MRI examinations within 24 h following HCT while on ECMO. Primary outcomes were safety and feasibility, defined as completion of MRI examination without serious adverse events (SAEs). Secondary outcome was the quality of MR images in assessing ABIs. RESULTS: We report 3 consecutive adult patients (median age 47 years; 67% male) with veno-arterial (n = 1) and veno-venous ECMO (n = 2) (VA- and VV-ECMO) support. All patients were imaged successfully without SAEs. Times to complete POC brain MRI examinations were 34, 40, and 43 min. Two patients had ECMO suction events, resolved with fluid and repositioning. Two patients were found to have an unsuspected acute stroke, well visualized with MRI. CONCLUSIONS: Adult patients with VA- or VV-ECMO support can be safely imaged with low-field POC brain MRI in the intensive care unit, allowing for the assessment of presence and timing of ABI.


Subject(s)
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Adult , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
14.
Front Pain Res (Lausanne) ; 2: 737961, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745127

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is an ongoing pandemic with a devastating impact on public health. Acute neurological symptoms have been reported after a COVID-19 diagnosis, however, the long-term neurological symptoms including pain is not well established. Using a prospective registry of hospitalized COVID-19 patients, we assessed pain and neurological function (including functional, cognitive and psychiatric assessments) of several hospitalized patients at 3 months. Our main finding is that 60% of the patients report pain symptoms. 71% of the patients still experienced neurological symptoms at 3 months and the most common symptoms being fatigue (42%) and PTSD (25%). Cognitive symptoms were found in 12%. Our preliminary findings suggests the importance of investigating long-term outcomes and rationalizes the need for further studies investigating the neurologic outcomes and symptoms of pain after COVID-19.

15.
Curr Opin Crit Care ; 28(2): 176-183, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1642421

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We aim to provide the current evidence on utility and application of neuromonitoring tools including electroencephalography (EEG), transcranial Doppler (TCD), pupillometry, optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD), cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy (cNIRS), somatosensory-evoked potentials (SSEPs), and invasive intracranial monitoring in COVID-19. We also provide recent evidence on management strategy of COVID-19-associated neurological complications. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite the common occurrence of neurological complications, we found limited use of standard neurologic monitoring in patients with COVID-19. No specific EEG pattern was identified in COVID-19. Frontal epileptic discharge was proposed to be a potential marker of COVID-19 encephalopathy. TCD, ONSD, and pupillometry can provide real-time data on intracranial pressure. Additionally, TCD may be useful for detection of acute large vessel occlusions, abnormal cerebral hemodynamics, cerebral emboli, and evolving cerebral edema at bedside. cNIRS was under-utilized in COVID-19 population and there are ongoing studies to investigate whether cerebral oxygenation could be a more useful parameter than peripheral oxygen saturation to guide clinical titration of permissive hypoxemia. Limited data exists on SSEPs and invasive intracranial monitoring. SUMMARY: Early recognition using standardized neuromonitoring and timely intervention is important to reduce morbidity and mortality. The management strategy for neurological complications is similar to those without COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Brain Injuries , COVID-19 , Humans , Intracranial Pressure/physiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial/methods
16.
Critical Care Medicine ; 50:54-54, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1597110

ABSTRACT

Thus, in this meta-analysis we report the characteristics of patients who experience neurological or neuropsychiatric symptoms at least 12 weeks after COVID-19 infection. The symptoms of post COVID-19 syndrome were not similarly distributed, post exertional malaise (73.3%), fatigue (43.5%), brain fog (35.1%), memory issues (31.4%), headache (20.2%) and anosmia (11.4%) were most frequent. B Introduction: b Despite the prevalence of COVID-19 globally, the post-viral syndrome it precipitates remains poorly described. [Extracted from the article] Copyright of Critical Care Medicine is the property of Lippincott Williams & Wilkins and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

17.
Critical Care Medicine ; 50:98-98, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1594621

ABSTRACT

B Introduction/Hypothesis: b Patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related acute respiratory disease (ARDS) increasingly receive extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support. The overall mortality of the 1,296 ECMO patients in the 10 studies that reported death was 36% (n=477), and the mortality of the subset of patients who had a neurological event was 92%. Further research is required to explore how neuromonitoring protocols can inform tailored anticoagulation management and improve survival in COVID-19 patients with ECMO support. [Extracted from the article] Copyright of Critical Care Medicine is the property of Lippincott Williams & Wilkins and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

18.
J Neuroinflammation ; 18(1): 277, 2021 Nov 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1538080

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Although COVID-19 is a respiratory disease, all organs can be affected including the brain. To date, specific investigations of brain injury markers (BIM) and endothelial injury markers (EIM) have been limited. Additionally, a male bias in disease severity and mortality after COVID-19 is evident globally. Sex differences in the immune response to COVID-19 may mediate this disparity. We investigated BIM, EIM and inflammatory cytokine/chemokine (CC) levels after COVID-19 and in across sexes. METHODS: Plasma samples from 57 subjects at < 48 h of COVID-19 hospitalization, and 20 matched controls were interrogated for the levels of six BIMs-including GFAP, S100B, Syndecan-1, UCHLI, MAP2 and NSE, two EIMs-including sICAM1 and sVCAM1. Additionally, several cytokines/chemokines were analyzed by multiplex. Statistical and bioinformatics methods were used to measure differences in the marker profiles across (a) COVID-19 vs. controls and (b) men vs. women. RESULTS: Three BIMs: MAP2, NSE and S100B, two EIMs: sICAM1 and sVCAM1 and seven CCs: GRO IL10, sCD40L, IP10, IL1Ra, MCP1 and TNFα were significantly (p < 0.05) elevated in the COVID-19 cohort compared to controls. Bioinformatics analysis reveal a stronger positive association between BIM/CC/EIMs in the COVID-19 cohort. Analysis across sex revealed that several BIMs and CCs including NSE, IL10, IL15 and IL8 were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in men compared to women. Men also expressed a more robust BIM/ EIM/CC association profile compared to women. CONCLUSION: The acute elevation of BIMs, CCs, and EIMs and the robust associations among them at COVID-19 hospitalization are suggestive of brain and endothelial injury. Higher BIM and inflammatory markers in men additionally suggest that men are more susceptible to the risk compared to women.


Subject(s)
Brain Injuries/complications , Brain Injuries/pathology , COVID-19/complications , Cytokines/blood , Endothelium/pathology , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/pathology , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Brain Injuries/blood , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Characteristics , Sex Factors
19.
Crit Care Med ; 49(12): e1223-e1233, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526199

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Stroke has been reported in observational series as a frequent complication of coronavirus disease 2019, but more information is needed regarding stroke prevalence and outcomes. We explored the prevalence and outcomes of acute stroke in an international cohort of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 who required ICU admission. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected database. SETTING: A registry of coronavirus disease 2019 patients admitted to ICUs at over 370 international sites was reviewed for patients diagnosed with acute stroke during their stay. PATIENTS: Patients older than 18 years old with acute coronavirus disease 2019 infection in ICU. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Of 2,699 patients identified (median age 59 yr; male 65%), 59 (2.2%) experienced acute stroke: 0.7% ischemic, 1.0% hemorrhagic, and 0.5% unspecified type. Systemic anticoagulant use was not associated with any stroke type. The frequency of diabetes, hypertension, and smoking was higher in patients with ischemic stroke than in stroke-free and hemorrhagic stroke patients. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support was more common among patients with hemorrhagic (56%) and ischemic stroke (16%) than in those without stroke (10%). Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation patients had higher cumulative 90-day probabilities of hemorrhagic (relative risk = 10.5) and ischemic stroke (relative risk = 1.7) versus nonextracorporeal membrane oxygenation patients. Hemorrhagic stroke increased the hazard of death (hazard ratio = 2.74), but ischemic stroke did not-similar to the effects of these stroke types seen in noncoronavirus disease 2019 ICU patients. CONCLUSIONS: In an international registry of ICU patients with coronavirus disease 2019, stroke was infrequent. Hemorrhagic stroke, but not ischemic stroke, was associated with increased mortality. Further, both hemorrhagic stroke and ischemic stroke were associated with traditional vascular risk factors. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use was strongly associated with both stroke and death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Stroke/epidemiology , Aged , Comorbidity , Critical Illness , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
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