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1.
IEEE ACCESS ; 10:60946-60954, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1909180

ABSTRACT

In response to the unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic, wearing face masks in public places and common facilities has been strongly recommended to help prevent the further spread of the virus. However, conductive components of the face mask carry the potential risk of radio-frequency (RF)-induced heating when exposed to an RF electromagnetic field, particularly during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this study, a realistic human head model wearing a face mask exposed to a strong RF electromagnetic field in 1.5 T, 3 T, and 7 T MRI was simulated. A nose wire in contact with the skin and a mask sheet with relatively high electrical conductivity, emulating a silver nanoparticle-coated face mask, was modeled to investigate the worst case of RF-induced heating that could occur during the MRI scan. 24 scenarios were simulated by using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD)-based electromagnetic solver and thermal-transient solver from Sim4Life commercial simulation software. According to the results, a notable enhancement in the specific absorption rate (SAR) and temperature rise was observed in the local region of the skin where the wire contacted the skin around the edge of the high-conductive mask sheet. In particular, a maximum of a 12-fold increase in mass-averaged SAR and a temperature increase of more than 8.0 degrees C occurred because of the conductive face mask at 3 T, compared to the normal polymer-based face mask with low conductivity. Our results confirmed that the degree of RF-induced heating due to the face mask could be completely different depending on the RF frequency of the MRI, location where the nose wire contacted the skin, and conductivity of the mask sheet. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the face mask as a factor for RF-induced heating during MRI. These findings are important for providing a safety guide that allows patients to safely undergo MRI while wearing a face mask during the COVID-19 pandemic.

2.
International Journal of Angiology ; : 7, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1882790

ABSTRACT

This case study describes a 45-year-old Caucasian male with a past medical history of obesity, hypertension, and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, who in the setting of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia, developed portal vein thrombosis (PVT) presenting as an acute abdomen after hospital discharge from a cholecystitis episode. PVT is a very infrequent thromboembolic condition, classically occurring in patients with systemic conditions such as cirrhosis, malignancy, pancreatitis, diverticulitis, autoimmunity, and thrombophilia. PVT can cause serious complications, such as intestinal infarction, or even death, if not promptly treated. Due to the limited number of reports in the literature describing PVT in the COVID-19 setting, its prevalence, natural history, mechanism, and precise clinical features remain unknown. Therefore, clinical suspicion should be high for PVT, in any COVID-19 patient who presents with abdominal pain or associated signs and symptoms. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of COVID-19-associated PVT causing extensive thrombosis in the portal vein and its right branch, occurring in the setting of early-stage cirrhosis after a preceding episode of cholecystitis.

3.
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology ; 149(2):AB59-AB59, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1798141
4.
Journal of People, Plants, and Environment ; 25(1):93-105, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1776674

ABSTRACT

Background and objective: The benefits of green spaces are starting to be recognized, particularly after the emergence of COVID-19. However, only well-managed green spaces deliver positive benefits. To maintain green spaces, various assessment tools have been developed. The Green Flag Award (GFA), which is the UK’s national audit tool, is focused on the structure and criteria of green spaces assessment. However, we do not know about the changes that drive our understandings of well-managed green spaces, impacts of the GFA, or changes in other assessment tools. Therefore, the aim of this study is to understand the changes that drive the development of green space assessment tools, with a focus on the GFA, to deliver a framework for the long-term management of these spaces. Methods: This study employed the Protocol and Reporting result with Search, Appraisal, Synthesis, and Analysis (PSALSAR) and Develop frameworks, as well as the assessment-focused place-keeping analytical framework. The PSALSAR framework was used to ensure accuracy, systematisation, exhaustiveness, and reproducibility. The assessment-focused place-keeping analytical framework was employed to understand the contribution of green space assessment tools in the long-term management of these spaces. Results: First, well-managed green spaces (GS) were positively associated with quality of life, which is a widely known fact. However, the approach to managing GS in the long term is a key issue. Second, the GFA had great impacts on the ability to manage GS well by providing developed domains and reflecting contemporary GS issues. Third, drivers of GS assessment tools include the persistence and importance of conventional maintenance, emphasis on accessibility by expanding practical boundaries, the inevitability of enhancing community involvement, and diversity of involvement in the judging process. Lastly, assessment-focused, place-keeping analytical frameworks imply that approaches to long-term management should be contextualised based on policy, funding, governance, partnership, and maintenance. Conclusion: Understanding changes that drive GS assessment and its association with GS management should be prioritised. This study concludes that approaches to GS assessment should be framed in the context of long-term management, underscored by understanding contemporary GS issues. © 2022 by the Society for People, Plants, and Environment.

5.
Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1501273

ABSTRACT

Purpose: During these unprecedented times, acts of charity are deemed essential to help individuals in need and support the social safety net. Given the importance of prosocial behavior for survival through the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, the authors investigate the effects of partitioning experiential consumption and self-construal on consumer responses. Design/methodology/approach: Based on the literature on partitioning and self-construal, the findings across three experimental studies provide novel insights into the interplay between partitioning and self-construal, and offer psychological processes on prosocial and behavioral intention. Findings: Individuals with predominantly independent (vs. interdependent) self-construals and those primed with independent (vs. interdependent) self-construals showed higher prosocial intention when the experiential product ad was in an aggregated (vs. partitioned) format. The fit between the type of format and self-construal leads to the high control coping mechanism, and ultimately prosocial intention. Originality/value: Partitioning experiential consumption has not been directly examined using self-construal, providing novel insights into consumer reactions during the pandemic. This paper provides practical implications to practitioners and researchers to better understand and adapt to shifting digital consumption patterns. © 2021, Emerald Publishing Limited.

6.
ACS Applied Nano Materials ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1392773

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus has affected the entire global community owing to its transmission through respiratory droplets. This has led to the mandatory usage of surgical masks for protection against this lethal virus in many countries. However, the currently available disposable surgical masks have limitations in terms of their hydrophobicity and reusability. Here, we report a single-step spray-coating technique for the formation of a superhydrophobic layer of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) on a melt-blown polypropylene (PP) surgical mask. The sprayed SWCNTs form a nanospike-like architecture on the PP surface, increasing the static contact angle for water from 113.6° ± 3.0° to 156.2° ± 1.8° and showing superhydrophobicity for various body fluids such as urine, tears, blood, sweat, and saliva. The CNT-coated surgical masks also display an outstanding photothermal response with an increase in their surface temperature to more than 90 °C within 30 s of 1 sun solar illumination, confirming its self-sterilization ability. Owing to the cumulative effect of the superhydrophobicity and photothermal performance of the SWCNTs, the CNT-coated masks show 99.99% higher bactericidal performance toward Escherichia coli than pristine masks. Further, the virucidal ability of the SWCNT-coated mask, tested by using virus-like particles, was found to be almost 99% under solar illumination. As the spray-coating method is easily scalable, the nanotube-coated mask provides cost-effective personal protection against respiratory diseases. © 2021 American Chemical Society.

7.
Ieee Access ; 9:106839-106864, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1349874

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (Covid-19) had an enormous impact on humanity. Till May 2021, almost 172 million people have been affected globally due to the contagious spread of Covid-19. Although the distribution of vaccines has been started, the worldwide mass distribution is yet to happen. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), wearing a facemask can reduce the contagious spread of Covid-19 significantly. The governments of different countries have recommended implementing the "no mask, no service" method to impede the spread of Covid-19. However, even the improper wearing of a facemask can obstruct the goal and lead to the spread of the virus. Therefore, to ensure public safety, a system for monitoring facemasks on faces, commonly known as a facemask detection algorithm, is essential for overcoming this crisis. The facemask detection algorithms are part of the object detection algorithms which are used to detect objects in an image. Among the various object detection algorithms, deep learning showed tremendous performance in facemask detection for its excellent feature extraction capability than the traditional machine learning algorithms. However, there remains a lot of scope for future research to build an efficient facemask detection system. Therefore, this study aims to draw attention to the researchers by providing a narrative and meta-analytic review on all the published works related to facemask detection in the context of Covid-19. Because facemask detection algorithms are run mainly by adopting object detection algorithms, this paper also explores the progress of object detection algorithms over the last few decades. A comprehensive analysis of different datasets used in facemask detection techniques by many studies has been explored. The performance comparison among these algorithms is discussed in narrative and meta-analytic approaches. Finally, this study concludes with a discussion of some of the major challenges and future scope in the related field.

8.
Journal of Advertising ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1281770

ABSTRACT

During the period of uncertainty and lack of control caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, we investigated how consumers evaluate online experiences using messages framed in different temporal perspectives. In the midst of the coronavirus outbreak, companies have been offering their experiential services online either in single long sessions (i.e., proximal framed message) or multiple short sessions over time (i.e., distal framed message). We found significant two-way interactions between temporal frames and levels of uncertainty, such that consumers with high (vs. low) levels of uncertainty respond more favorably when a distal (vs. proximal) framed message is applied. The path from fluency to high-control coping explained the interaction effect between temporal framing and levels of uncertainty on behavioral outcomes toward experience goods. © Copyright © 2021, American Academy of Advertising.

9.
Journal of Microbiology Immunology and Infection ; 54(2):253-260, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1237775

ABSTRACT

Background/Purpose: Transplant recipients are vulnerable to life-threatening community-acquired respiratory viruses (CA-RVs) infection (CA-RVI). Even if non-transplant critically ill patients in intensive care unit (ICU) have serious CA-RVI, comparison between these groups remains unclear. We aimed to evaluate clinical characteristics and mortality of CARVI except seasonal influenza A/B in transplant recipients and non-transplant critically ill patients in ICU. Methods: We collected 37,777 CA-RVs multiplex real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction test results of individuals aged >18 years from November 2012 to November 2017. The CA-RVs tests included adenovirus, coronavirus 229E/NL63/OC43, human bocavirus, human metapneumovirus, parainfluenza virus 1/2/3, rhinovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus A/B. Results: We found 286 CA-RVI cases, including 85 solid organ transplantation recipients (G1), 61 hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients (G2), and 140 non-transplant critically ill patients in ICU (G3), excluding those with repeated isolation within 30 days. Adenovirus positive rate and infection cases were most prominent in G2 (p < 0.001). The median time interval between transplantation and CA-RVI was 30 and 20 months in G1 and G2, respectively. All-cause in hospital mortality was significantly higher in G3 than in G1 or G2 (51.4% vs. 28.2% or 39.3%, p Z 0.002, respectively). The mechanical ventilation (MV) was the independent risk factor associated with all-cause in-hospital mortality in all three groups (hazard ratio, 3.37, 95% confidence interval, 2.04e5.56, p < 0.001). Conclusions: This study highlights the importance of CA-RVs diagnosis in transplant recipients even in long-term posttransplant period, and in non-transplant critically ill patients in ICU with MV. Copyright & ordf;2019, Taiwan Society of Microbiology. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/bync-nd/4.0/).

10.
J Hosp Infect ; 106(3): 570-576, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-723894

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Identifying the extent of environmental contamination of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is essential for infection control and prevention. The extent of environmental contamination has not been fully investigated in the context of severe coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patients. AIM: To investigate environmental SARS-CoV-2 contamination in the isolation rooms of severe COVID-19 patients requiring mechanical ventilation or high-flow oxygen therapy. METHODS: Environmental swab samples and air samples were collected from the isolation rooms of three COVID-19 patients with severe pneumonia. Patients 1 and 2 received mechanical ventilation with a closed suction system, while patient 3 received high-flow oxygen therapy and non-invasive ventilation. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) was used to detect SARS-CoV-2; viral cultures were performed for samples not negative on rRT-PCR. FINDINGS: Of the 48 swab samples collected in the rooms of patients 1 and 2, only samples from the outside surfaces of the endotracheal tubes tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by rRT-PCR. However, in patient 3's room, 13 of the 28 environmental samples (fomites, fixed structures, and ventilation exit on the ceiling) showed positive results. Air samples were negative for SARS-CoV-2. Viable viruses were identified on the surface of the endotracheal tube of patient 1 and seven sites in patient 3's room. CONCLUSION: Environmental contamination of SARS-CoV-2 may be a route of viral transmission. However, it might be minimized when patients receive mechanical ventilation with a closed suction system. These findings can provide evidence for guidelines for the safe use of personal protective equipment.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Decontamination/standards , Environmental Pollution/analysis , Hyperbaric Oxygenation/standards , Patients' Rooms/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia/therapy , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Respiration, Artificial/standards , Air Microbiology , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics
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