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1.
Journal of Molecular Liquids ; 366, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2049679

ABSTRACT

An innovative sonication method has been developed to produce inclusion complexes (ICs) of Oseltamivir (OTV) which is a potentially water-soluble anti-viral agent with lesser cytotoxicity. Proton signals and chemical shifts of OTV without any ambiguity confirm the formation of ICs with β-Cyclodextrin (B-CD) and Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (H-CD). ICs are also supported by their atomic percentages as secondary evidence using XPS analysis. Analysis of drug release at three pH levels revealed the slow release of the OTV from ICs and also suitable for viral inactivation. A very less cytotoxic ability on cancer cell lines and enhanced the viral inactivation of OTV after being made into water-soluble ICs. © 2022 Elsevier B.V.

2.
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Acl 2022), Vol 1: (Long Papers) ; : 3108-3127, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2030731

ABSTRACT

Even to a simple and short news headline, readers react in a multitude of ways: cognitively (e.g. inferring the writer's intent), emotionally (e.g. feeling distrust), and behaviorally (e.g. sharing the news with their friends). Such reactions are instantaneous and yet complex, as they rely on factors that go beyond interpreting factual content of news. We propose Misinfo Reaction Frames (MRF), a pragmatic formalism for modeling how readers might react to a news headline. In contrast to categorical schema, our free-text dimensions provide a more nuanced way of understanding intent beyond being benign or malicious. We also introduce a Misinfo Reaction Frames corpus, a crowdsourced dataset of reactions to over 25k news headlines focusing on global crises: the Covid-19 pandemic, climate change, and cancer. Empirical results confirm that it is indeed possible for neural models to predict the prominent patterns of readers' reactions to previously unseen news headlines. Additionally, our user study shows that displaying machine-generated MRF implications alongside news headlines to readers can increase their trust in real news while decreasing their trust in misinformation. Our work demonstrates the feasibility and importance of pragmatic inferences on news headlines to help enhance AI-guided misinformation detection and mitigation.

3.
Journal of Curriculum and Teaching ; 11(5):138-145, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2025145

ABSTRACT

Due to the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic, more older people are exposed to Information Technology(IT) in their daily lives. However, due to the lack of digital literacy capabilities of the elderly, it is difficult to use digital devices, making it difficult to live. Therefore, this paper outlined the impact of the digital divide on daily life and the ability of the elderly to use digital information. Through this, we propose an educational program that combines IT and humanities to improve digital literacy in the elderly. IT and humanities do not seem to match, but the convergence of the two is essential. Hardware and software, technology and technology, technology and design are being combined. Accordingly, technology and humanities can combine competency is becoming more critical. Therefore, the educational program proposed in this thesis combines a decision tree with a game and allows the elderly to acquire IT knowledge while playing a game naturally. This educational program was conducted for 23 older adults in their 60s in J city, South Korea. The average satisfaction of the study participants in education was 4.13(±0.65). In addition, the post-test mean of the recognition area in digital literacy was 3.02(±0.64) (p<.05), and the post-test mean of the behavior area in digital literacy was 3.67(±0.59) (p<.01), which was statistically significant compared to the pre-test. © 2022 Sciedu Press. All Rights Reserved.

4.
Asia Pacific Journal of Information Systems ; 32(2):327-353, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1975416

ABSTRACT

With the development of technology and media and the pursuit of non-face-to-face due to the corona pandemic, the influence of live commerce, a real-time streaming shopping channel, is growing. Starting from China, the popularity of live commerce is growing all over the world, and it has become an interesting topic among many practitioners and researchers. However, compared to its popularity, there are few studies on live commerce. Therefore, we build a theoretical model in terms of IT affordance such as visibility, guidance shopping, trading, and meta-voicing and investigate how live commerce affects engagement with customers. We empirically measure 428 individuals who have used live commerce using survey data. In addition, we conduct four types of scenario experiments on whether social cues on exposures of other consumers, influence customer engagement. Our results show that trading affordance has the most significant effect. This shows that the live commerce platform may want to devise a program that helps make payment easier for users who prefer a quick and simple process. Our study contributes to the literature by presenting the importance of IT affordance for live commerce. © 2022. All Rights Reserved.

5.
Journal of Physics: D Applied Physics ; 55(37):1-55, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1931764

ABSTRACT

The 2022 Roadmap is the next update in the series of Plasma Roadmaps published by Journal of Physics D with the intent to identify important outstanding challenges in the field of low-temperature plasma (LTP) physics and technology. The format of the Roadmap is the same as the previous Roadmaps representing the visions of 41 leading experts representing 21 countries and five continents in the various sub-fields of LTP science and technology. In recognition of the evolution in the field, several new topics have been introduced or given more prominence. These new topics and emphasis highlight increased interests in plasma-enabled additive manufacturing, soft materials, electrification of chemical conversions, plasma propulsion, extreme plasma regimes, plasmas in hypersonics, data-driven plasma science and technology and the contribution of LTP to combat COVID-19. In the last few decades, LTP science and technology has made a tremendously positive impact on our society. It is our hope that this roadmap will help continue this excellent track record over the next 5â€"10 years. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Journal of Physics: D Applied Physics is the property of IOP Publishing and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

6.
Bioactive Materials ; 19:569-580, 2023.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1881705

ABSTRACT

The ongoing pandemic caused by the novel comnavirus, SARS-CoV-2, is influencing global health. Moreover, there is a major threat of future coronaviruses affecting the entire world in a similar, or even more dreadful, manner. Therefore, effective and biocompatible therapeutic options against comnaviruses are urgently needed. To address this challenge, medical specialists require a well-informed and safe approach to treating human coronaviruses (HCoVs). Herein, an environmental friendly approach for viral inactivation, based on plasma technology, was considered. A microwave plasma system was employed for the generation of the high amount of gaseous nitric oxide to prepare nitric oxide enriched plasma-activated water (NO-PAW), the effects of which on coronaviruses, have not been reported to date. To determine these effects, alpha-HCoV-229E was used in an experimental model. We found that NO-PAW treatment effectively inhibited comnavirus infection in host lung cells, visualized by evaluating the cytopathic effect and expression level of spike proteins. Interestingly, NO-PAW showed minimal toxicity towards lung host cells, suggesting its potential for therapeutic application. Moreover, this new approach resulted in viral inactivation and greatly improved the gene levels involved in host antiviral responses. Together, our findings provide evidence of an initiation point for further progress toward the clinical development of antiviral treatments, including such comnaviruses.

7.
Plasma Medicine ; 11(4):v-vi, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1869253
8.
Embase;
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-326847

ABSTRACT

The ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which results from the rapid spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a significant global public health threat, with molecular mechanisms underlying its pathogenesis largely unknown. Small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) are known to play important roles in almost all biological processes. In the context of viral infections, sncRNAs have been shown to regulate the host responses, viral replication, and host-virus interaction. Compared with other subfamilies of sncRNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), tRNA-derived RNA fragments (tRFs) are relatively new and emerge as a significant regulator of host-virus interactions. Using T4 PNK-RNA-seq, a modified next-generation sequencing (NGS), we recently found that nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) samples from SARS-CoV-2 positive and negative subjects show a significant difference in sncRNA profiles. There are about 166 SARS-CoV-2-impacted sncRNAs. Among them, tRFs are the most significantly affected and almost all impacted tRFs are derived from the 5'-end of tRNAs (tRF5). Using a modified qRT-PCR, which was recently developed to specifically quantify tRF5s by isolating the tRF signals from its corresponding parent tRNA signals, we validated that tRF5s derived from tRNA GluCTC (tRF5-GluCTC), LysCTT (tRF5-LysCTT), ValCAC (tRF5-ValCAC), CysGCA (tRF5-CysGCA) and GlnCTG (tRF5-GlnCTG) are enhanced in NPS samples of SARS-CoV2 patients and SARS-CoV2-infected airway epithelial cells. In addition to host-derived ncRNAs, we also identified several sncRNAs derived from the virus (svRNAs), among which a svRNA derived from CoV2 genomic site 346 to 382 (sv-CoV2-346) has the highest expression. The induction of both tRFs and sv-CoV2-346 has not been reported previously, as the lack of the 3'-OH ends of these sncRNAs prevents them to be detected by routine NGS. In summary, our studies demonstrated the involvement of tRFs in COVID-19 and revealed new CoV2 svRNAs.

9.
Gastroenterology ; 160(6):S-756, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1594253

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been diagnosed in at least 63.5 million individuals and resulted in 1.4 million deaths as of December 2020 since its discovery. Various risk factors for severe illness have been investigated;currently it is understood that cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, chronic lung disease, malignancy, chronic renal disease, obesity, and smoking confer worse outcomes. Liver cirrhosis is understood to be a significant source of general morbidity and mortality due, in part, to compromise of the immune system. A multicenter, retrospective examination of 50 patients with both COVID-19 and cirrhosis showed that patients with cirrhosis were at increased risk for mortality from COVID-19 than those without cirrhosis. To our knowledge, there exists no large study to examine the effect of cirrhosis on COVID-19 outcomes. We performed a multicenter, retrospective study to further examine outcomes in cirrhotic patients hospitalized for COVID-19 infection. Using the HCA Healthcare Physician Services clinical data warehouse, we reviewed 23,474 adult patients across 143 hospitals admitted from January through August 2020 with COVID-19, yielding 22,467 COVID-19 patients without cirrhosis and 1,007 with cirrhosis. Unpaired T-tests of COVID-19 patients with cirrhosis compared to those without cirrhosis showed that patients with both COVID-19 and cirrhosis experienced significantly higher mortality (17.97% vs 12.96%, p<0.001), significantly higher rates of ICU admission (45.58% vs 33.90%, p<0.001), significantly higher rates of ventilation (24.43% vs 16.07%, p<0.001), and significantly longer lengths of stay (LOS) (11.05 ± 10.86 vs 8.46 ± 10.05 days, p<0.001). The outcomes of ICU admission and length of stay remained significant on paired T-test when the 1,007 patients with COVID-19 and cirrhosis were age-matched to COVID-19 patients without cirrhosis. Cirrhosis was independently associated with increased mortality (OR 1.33, CI 1.11-1.58, p=0.002), ICU admission (OR 2.08, CI 1.16-1.52, p<0.001), and ventilation (OR 1.32, CI 1.13-1.54, p<0.001) on multivariable regression analysis. Our dataset corroborates previous studies suggesting protective effects of female sex;and deleterious effects of increasing age, myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and obesity. Chronic pulmonary disease was significantly associated with poor outcomes of all measures except mortality. Additionally, length of stay among patients with both COVID and cirrhosis is estimated to increase by 1.65 (SE 0.31, p<0.001) on linear regression analysis. In summary, patients with both cirrhosis and COVID-19 experienced significantly increased rates of mortality, ICU admission, ventilation, and lengths of stay compared to patients with COVID-19 alone. (Table presented.)

10.
Gastroenterology ; 160(6):S-331, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1599501

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (Covid-19) Has Been Diagnosed In Over 50 Million Individuals And Resulted In Greater Than 1 Million Deaths Since Its Discovery In December 2019. Currently, It Is Understood That Cardiovascular Disease, Diabetes, Hypertension, Chronic Lung Disease, Malignancy, Chronic Renal Disease, Obesity, And Smoking Confer Worse Outcomes In Those Afflicted With Covid-19. The Role Of Underlying Gastrointestinal Comorbidities On Covid-19 Prognosis Has Not Been Well Studied. Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease (Ibd) Have A Slightly Higher Overall Mortality Than The General Population. While The Pathogenesis Of Ibd Is Not Completely Understood, It Is Thought To Be The Consequence Of Dysregulated Immune Response. A Pair Of Small International Studies Demonstrated That Patients With Ibd Are At Increased Risk Of Covid-19 Infection, Especially When They Have Active Disease And Are Taking Immunosuppressive Therapy. However, The Characteristics And Outcomes Of Covid-19 In Patients With Ibd Remain Unclear. We Conducted A Large-Scale, Multicenter, Retrospective Study To Examine The Outcomes In Ibd Patients Hospitalized For Covid-19. Using Hca Healthcare’S Physician Services Clinical Data Warehouse, We Reviewed 78,756 Adult Patients Across 143 Hospitals Between January Through August 2020 With Covid-19, Yielding 78,572 Covid-19 Patients Without Ibd And 184 With Ibd. Unpaired T-Tests Of Covid-19 Patients With Ibd Compared To Those Without Ibd Showed That Patients With Both Covid-19 And Ibd Experienced Significantly Higher Mortality (8.15% Vs 6.10%, P=0.004), Significantly Higher Rates Of Icu Admission (25.54% Vs 16.49%, P=0.001), Significantly Higher Rates Of Ventilation (13.04% Vs 7%, P=0.002), And Significantly Longer Lengths Of Stay (Los) (7.92 ± 9.84 Vs 4.57 ± 7.87 Days, P<0.001). The Outcomes Of Length Of Stay Remained Significant On Paired T-Test When The 184 Patients With Covid-19 And Ibd Were Age-Matched To Covid-19 Patients Without Ibd. However, There Was No Statistical Significance In Mortality, Icu Admission, And Need For Ventilation When Age-Matched. Ibd Was Independently Associated With Increased Icu Admission (Or 1.5, Ci 1.04 – 2.117, P=0.026) And Need For Ventilation (Or 1.8, Ci 1.124 – 2.775, P=0.010) On Multivariable Regression Analysis, And Los (Or 2.337, Se 0.531, P<0.001) In Linear Regression Analysis. Our Data Corroborates Previous Studies Suggesting Protective Effects Of Female Sex, And Deleterious Effects Of Increasing Age, Myocardial Infarction, Congestive Heart Failure, Cerebrovascular Disease, Chronic Pulmonary Disease, Diabetes, And Cancer. In Summary, Based On Our Study, Patients With Both Ibd And Covid-19 Experienced Significantly Increased Rates Icu Admission, Ventilation, And Lengths Of Stay Compared To Patients With Covid-19 Alone (Table Presented) (Table Presented) (Table Presented) (Table Presented)

12.
Applied Science and Convergence Technology ; 30(5):118-136, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1534478

ABSTRACT

The nonthermal atmospheric biocompatible plasma, also called cold plasma, is the fourth state of matter, is a partially ionized gas consisting cocktail of gas’s molecules, free radicals, ions, electrons, and physical components such as photons, electric field and some heat. It has been successfully used in the biomedical, agricultural food safety, environment applications including industrial application for the processing of materials and etc. for not mentioned here. The recent discovery of its efficacy in sterilization of microorganisms has trigged a large quantity of research in the biomedical field. Here we review configurations and electrode layouts of typical plasma device for applications to biomedical such as cancer treatment and virus inactivation technology. Cocktail of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) would be efficient and effective to several biomedical applications such as inactivation of drug-resistant bacteria, cancer treatment, inactivation of viruses, skin and dental applications. This detailed review provides an outline of typical plasma sources, their physical and chemical (RONS) characteristics based on their diagnostic methods, including cancer treatment strategies and inactivation of viruses. This review also emphasizing on strategises to control and inactivation of SARS-COV2 (COVID19) and rejuvenate lung cells. Plasma bioscience and medicine technologies will deliver a new model of therapeutic clinical systems along with sustainable application to environmental issues. © 2021, Korean Vacuum Society. All rights reserved.

13.
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine ; 28(2):101-109, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1417348

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Common human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are relatively understudied due to the mild nature of HCoV infection. Given the lack of local epidemiology data on common HCoVs, we aimed to describe clinical and epidemiological characteristics of common HCoVs in children. Methods: Respiratory viral test results from 9,589 respiratory samples from Seoul National University Children's Hospital were analyzed from January 2015 to December 2019. Viral detection was done by the multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Demographics and clinical diagnosis were collected for previously healthy children tested positive for HCoVs. Results: Of the 9,589 samples tested, 1 or more respiratory viruses were detected from 5,017 (52.3%) samples and 463 (4.8%) samples were positive for HCoVs (OC43 2.8%, NL63 1.4%, 229E 0.7%). All 3 types co-circulated during winter months (November to February) with some variation by type. HCoV-OC43 was the most prevalent every winter season. HCoV-NL63 showed alternate peaks in late winter (January to March) and early winter (November to February). HCoV-229E had smaller peaks every other winter. Forty-one percent of HCoV-positive samples were co-detected with additional viruses;human rhinovirus 13.2%, respiratory syncytial virus 13.0%, influenza virus 4.3%. Common clinical diagnosis was upper respiratory tract infection (60.0%) followed by pneumonia (14.8%), croup (8.1%), and bronchiolitis (6.7%). Croup accounted for 17.0% of HCoV-NL63-positive children. Conclusions: This study described clinical and epidemiological characteristics of common HCoVs (OC43, NL63, 229E) in children. Continuing surveillance, perhaps by adding HKU1 in the diagnostic panel can further elucidate the spectrum of common HCoV infections in children. © 2021 The Korean Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases.

14.
Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 39(15 SUPPL), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1339347

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID19) evolved into a worldwide pandemic leading to devastating complications. In healthcare, significant changes were made to reallocate resources to cater to an increasing number of hospital admissions and prevent infection spread. Reallocation of the health care staff led to the scarcity of care in outpatient facilities, including infusion centers, until the widespread adoption of Telehealth. Treating lung cancer patients with immunochemotherapy and radiotherapy has been incredibly challenging due to the pandemic, especially in regard to balancing malignancy treatment with limiting exposure of vulnerable patients to acute lifethreatening infection. In addition, being unable to provide appropriate treatment to cancer patients can result in decreased functional capacity, loss of treatment window, and increased mortality. A multidisciplinary approach can prevent these outcomes by anticipating challenges early and streamlining resources appropriately to provide better patient care. In this study, we aimed to assess the adherence of NCCN guidelines for lung cancer at a community hospital in Philadelphia during the pandemic. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed of patients diagnosed and receiving active treatment for primary lung cancer between March 1, 2020, and December 31, 2020, at Mercy Catholic Medical Center. Fifty cases of primary lung cancer undergoing active treatment were identified. Type and staging of lung cancer, NCCN guidelines' adherence, COVID-19 exposure, and missed treatments were reviewed and analyzed. Results: Of the 50 cases reviewed, 92% had non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and 8% had small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Among NSCLC, 72% had adenocarcinoma, 12% had squamous cell carcinoma, and 8% had large cell carcinoma. Stage IV lung cancer consisted of 46%, followed by 34% of stage I, 14% of stage III, and 6% of stage II. NCCN guideline-directed treatment was initiated in 88% (44/50) of the total patients, with the remaining 12% of the patients either refusing treatment (8%) or were lost to followup (4%). COVID-19 infection was diagnosed in 35% of the patients, of which 60% missed less than two chemotherapy sessions and 40% of COVID-19 positive patients who required hospitalization missed more than two cycles. 28% of patients missed treatment sessions due to other factors. This resulted in 61% (27/44) of patients having a disruption in NCCN guidelinedirected treatment at some point during the pandemic. Conclusions: Our study results reflect upon the need for developing effective strategies in managing cancer patients. When possible, switching to oral regimens, redefining regimen administration intervals, postponing invasive investigations for asymptomatic patients, and utilizing telemedicine as appropriate should be considered.

15.
Personality and Individual Differences ; 183, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1328782

ABSTRACT

The pathogen stress hypothesis posits that pathogen-related threats influence regional and individual differences in collectivism since behavioral practices associated with collectivism limit the spread of infectious diseases. In support of the hypothesis, previous research demonstrates the association between individualism/collectivism and pathogen stress based on historical records or experimental manipulation. However, it is still unclear whether individuals would indeed value collectivism during the outbreak of infectious diseases. Thus, we investigated the concurrent effects of pathogen-related stress on the endorsement of individualism/collectivism by examining 9322 Koreans for 14 weeks of the COVID-19 pandemic. The results revealed that the level of collectivism among respondents were higher after than before the COVID-19 outbreak. Moreover, the average level of collectivism on a given day showed a significant association with the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases on the same day during the outbreak. Interestingly, individualism did not significantly change for the same period. © 2021 Elsevier Ltd

16.
Urology Practice ; 8(3):328-336, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1276297

ABSTRACT

Introduction: As a result of COVID-19, several clinics have adopted telemedicine to safely deliver care. However, the introduction of a new technology into an already complex system creates new challenges that have the potential to negatively impact patient and provider experience. We aimed to use a human factors approach (the science concerned with understanding the interactions between humans and other elements in a complex system) to identify where systemic vulnerabilities may exist throughout the patient/provider experience with telemedicine. Methods: A total of 23 patients scheduled for telemedicine consults were observed during visits with providers. A trained human factors observer documented disruptions to system efficiency (eg communication breakdowns, connectivity problems and interruptions) and invited patients and providers to take a survey investigating perceptions of telemedicine technology usability, satisfaction with the experience and opportunities to improve the process. Results: Visits lasted an average of 17 minutes, 20 seconds and each visit had an average of 6 disruptions. Inefficiencies were categorized into 13 categories consisting mainly of interruptions (21, 15.22%), Internet connectivity issues (21, 15.22%), nonoptimal device setup (19, 13.77%) and repeat communication (18, 13.04%). Provider satisfaction with the system was 3.72/5.00 and perceived usability was 63.15 (68 is considered acceptable). Patient satisfaction was 4.80/5.00 and perceived usability was 85. Conclusions: These findings highlight opportunities for a multifaceted intervention, including the development of an informational sheet/video for patients, a telemedicine "best practices" guideline for physicians, a standardized training process and checklist for front office staff and an in-service training for the entire care team.

19.
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine ; 28(1):7-20, 2021.
Article in Korean | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1224346

ABSTRACT

As of March 2021, humanity has been suffering from the global severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pandemic that began late 2019. In 2020, new vaccine platforms— including mRNA vaccines and viral vector-based DNA vaccines—have been given emergency use authorization (EUA), leading to rolling out the vaccines for global mass vaccinations. The purpose of this article is to review the currently most widely used coronavirus disease 2019 vaccines: their action mechanisms and efficacy and safety data from clinical trials that have been published to date. In addition, the current status of clinical trials in the pediatric population was summarized, and further consideration for them was discussed.

20.
Patient Safety in Surgery [Electronic Resource] ; 15(1):19, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1209061

ABSTRACT

At the time of writing of this article, there have been over 110 million cases and 2.4 million deaths worldwide since the start of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, postponing millions of non-urgent surgeries. Existing literature explores the complexities of rationing medical care. However, implications of non-urgent surgery postponement during the COVID-19 pandemic have not yet been analyzed within the context of the four pillars of medical ethics. The objective of this review is to discuss the ethics of elective surgery cancellation during the COVID-19 pandemic in relation to beneficence, non-maleficence, justice, and autonomy. This review hypothesizes that a more equitable decision-making algorithm can be formulated by analyzing the ethical dilemmas of elective surgical care during the pandemic through the lens of these four pillars. This paper's analysis shows that non-urgent surgeries treat conditions that can become urgent if left untreated. Postponement of these surgeries can cause cumulative harm downstream. An improved algorithm can address these issues of beneficence by weighing local pandemic stressors within predictive algorithms to appropriately increase surgeries. Additionally, the potential harms of performing non-urgent surgeries extend beyond the patient. Non-maleficence is maintained through using enhanced screening protocols and modifying surgical techniques to reduce risks to patients and clinicians. This model proposes a system to transfer patients from areas of high to low burden, addressing the challenge of justice by considering facility burden rather than value judgments concerning the nature of a particular surgery, such as cosmetic surgeries. Autonomy can be respected by giving patients the option to cancel or postpone non-urgent surgeries. However, in the context of limited resources in a global pandemic, autonomy is not absolute. Non-urgent surgeries can ethically be postponed in opposition to the patient's preference. The proposed algorithm attempts to uphold the four principles of medical ethics in rationing non-urgent surgical care by building upon existing decision models, using additional measures of resource burden and surgical safety to increase health care access and decrease long-term harm as much as possible. The next global health crisis will undoubtedly present its own unique challenges. This model may serve as a comprehensive starting point in determining future guidelines for non-urgent surgical care.

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