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Mol Cells ; 44(9): 680-687, 2021 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444539


Coronavirus disease, COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019), caused by SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2), has a higher case fatality rate in European countries than in others, especially East Asian ones. One potential explanation for this regional difference is the diversity of the viral infection efficiency. Here, we analyzed the allele frequencies of a nonsynonymous variant rs12329760 (V197M) in the TMPRSS2 gene, a key enzyme essential for viral infection and found a significant association between the COVID-19 case fatality rate and the V197M allele frequencies, using over 200,000 present-day and ancient genomic samples. East Asian countries have higher V197M allele frequencies than other regions, including European countries which correlates to their lower case fatality rates. Structural and energy calculation analysis of the V197M amino acid change showed that it destabilizes the TMPRSS2 protein, possibly negatively affecting its ACE2 and viral spike protein processing.

COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/mortality , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , COVID-19/ethnology , Gene Frequency , Humans , Models, Molecular , Mortality , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Republic of Korea , Serine Endopeptidases/chemistry
Int Nurs Rev ; 68(2): 256-265, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201552


AIM: To identify the factors affecting fear, anxiety and depressive symptoms among frontline nurses working with COVID-19 patients or are in charge of COVID-19 screening in Korea. BACKGROUND: Nurses are at a higher risk of COVID-19 infection because they are in closer, longer-duration contact with patients. These situations can negatively affect the mental health of nurses. METHODS: This study analysed data from COVID-19 module in the Korean Nurses' Health Study. Data from 906 participants were analysed. To identify the factors influencing mental health, descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlation and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: Caring for patients who are COVID-19-positive increased levels of fear, anxiety and depressive symptoms of nurses. The hospital safety climate influenced mental well-being among nurses. CONCLUSION: Caring for patients with COVID-19 had a negative impact on fear, anxiety and depressive symptoms. However, the higher was the perceived hospital safety climate, the lower were the nurses' psychological symptoms. Further research on the mental health of nurses is warranted. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING AND HEALTH POLICY: Institutions should manage human resources to enable periodic rotation of nurses' work and working periods related to COVID-19. In addition, hospital managers should provide sufficient personal protective equipment, related education, and safety climate.

COVID-19/nursing , Mental Health , Nursing Staff, Hospital/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/nursing , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Fear , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2