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1.
International Journal of Consumer Studies ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1707834

ABSTRACT

This study examines the core factors that determine consumer choices of distribution channels for fresh food during the COVID-19 pandemic, focusing on online distribution channels and the substitution patterns between online and offline distribution channels. Using 1436 responses to a survey conducted by Gallup Korea, a specialized survey agency in Korea, we adopted a multivariate probit model for the empirical analysis. The results show that consumers who pursued ease of use or had high awareness of online food delivery tended to choose online distribution channels for fresh food, unlike consumers who were sensitive to high quality or low prices. Consumers with high consumer spending, who are living in Seoul or a metropolitan area, have children of 10 years old or younger, and have a high educational level had positive relationships with the choice of an online distribution channel. Additionally, the estimates of the variance-covariance matrix showed a complementary relationship between large markets and small and medium-sized markets, with the possibility of a weak substitution effect between small and medium-sized markets and online distribution channels. © 2022 John Wiley & Sons Ltd

2.
International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents ; 58(41):67-68, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1695926
3.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology ; 32:40-41, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1489299

ABSTRACT

Background: There is limited data on the safety and efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). Methods: We conducted a prospective, multi-center study of 58 adult KTRs receiving mRNA-BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 vaccines to assess vaccine safety and efficacy. Primary outcome was biopsy-proven rejection within 3 months of vaccination. Secondary outcomes included adverse events, serum creatinine, proteinuria, donor-derived cell-free DNA (ddcfDNA) levels, and antibody and cellular immunity generation against SARSCoV-2. Results: Median age was 62 with 41% females. Median time post-transplantation was 48 months. Only one patient (2%) developed acute cellular rejection though patient had been recently converted to belatacept. There were no severe adverse events or deaths during follow-up. Two patients (3%) developed SARS-CoV-2 infection, one of whom required hospitalization. There was no significant change in serum creatinine, proteinuria or ddcfDNA during the study. Following vaccination, 36%, 25% and 20% of KTRs developed anti-spike, anti-S1 and anti-RBD antibodies. KTRs on mycophenolate-based and steroid-maintenance regimens were less likely to develop an anti-spike antibody response. 100% of KTRs with anti-spike and anti-RBD antibodies had a neutralizing response, compared to 44% in KTRs with anti-spike but without anti-RBD antibodies (RR 2.25, 95% CI 1.08-4.67). There was a significant increase in IFN-gamma spots per 106 PBMCs incubated with S1 peptides following vaccination (p=0.0143). Conclusions: SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in KTRs was safe and associated with the generation of cellular immune response and in a third of patients with anti-spike antibody response. The degree of protection gained by these responses needs to be evaluated in future studies.

4.
The Medical journal / US Army Medical Center of Excellence ; - (PB 8-21-01/02/03):90-96, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117865

ABSTRACT

As SARS-CoV-2 spread throughout the world military units had to develop ways of combatting risk to ensure force health protection and deployability of their soldiers. Medical functions were impacted and solutions needed to be found in order to incorporate these items as functioning medical platforms. In the following article, we address one unit's individual response to the difficulties faced as a Military Police Brigade in Europe. Lessons learned from the initial wave of COVID-19 across medical operations, medical readiness, virtual health, and behavioral health initiatives can be utilized for better planning and response in the future.

5.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology ; 31:308, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-984966

ABSTRACT

Background: Human kidney organoids have been utilized as a model to study genetic kidney diseases and kidney development. Innate or adaptive immune responses in organoids are currently poorly defined. Kidney transplant rejection and activation of complement pathways are two common renal immune phenomena. SARS-CoV-2 virus, the pathogen of the recent pandemic, leads to complement pathway activation in human kidneys and can infect kidney organoids. Here, we investigated (i) the alloimmunogenicity of kidney organoids in a humanized mice model, and (ii) the responses to exogenous complement C5a and spike protein (S1) of SARS-CoV-2 in kidney organoids. Methods: Kidney organoids were generated from human embryonic stem cells using protocols developed in our laboratory, and transplanted under the kidney capsule in humanized (BLT) mice. Immunophenotype, mixed lymphocyte reaction, and intracellular cytokine staining were analyzed from grafts and mouse splenocytes collected after 30 days of transplantation. In other experiments organoids were treated with S1 protein and human recombinant C5a for 24 hours or 3 days respectively, followed by qPCR and immunofluorescence analysis. Results: Transplanted organoids were extensively infiltrated by lymphocytes. Graft CD8+ T cells demonstrated a switch from naïve to memory T cells. Splenocytes isolated from transplanted BLT mice showed increased IFN-γ and TNF-α. Splenocytes proliferated after exposure to 2D kidney organoids (MLR) for 72 hours ex vivo, and organoids were markedly injured as reflected by DNA damage (γ-H2AX) and cleaved caspase 3. Reflecting innate responses, robust interstitial fibrosis was found in nontransplanted organoids after direct activation of C5aR by exogenous C5a. We confirmed ACE2 expression on proximal tubules and parietal epithelium of glomeruli, consistent with human autopsy results. Non-transplanted organoids treated with S1 protein showed transcriptionally upregulated C5a1 receptors. Conclusions: Our results indicate the alloimmunogenicity of kidney organoids and the deleterious effects of C5a in kidney organoids. Human kidney organoids represent a novel platform to study renal immunology including adaptive and innate immunity and the inflammatory responses to coronavirus disease (COVID-19).

6.
Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research ; (2287-3651 (Print))2020.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-854625

ABSTRACT

We evaluated the neutralizing activity in serum from three patients >1 year after recovery from Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) associated with mild pneumonia treated with antivirals during the MERS outbreak in South Korea at 2015. The neutralizing activity in serum was measured by pseudovirus inhibition assays. Three-fold diluted serum of subjects showed only 9.7%, 10.3%, and 2.2% reductions in relative light units. So, significant neutralizing activity was not demonstrated in any sera of three patients with mild pneumonia >1 year after being successfully treated with antiviral agents and recovering from MERS coronavirus infection. FAU - Choi, Jun Yong

7.
J Hosp Infect ; 106(3): 570-576, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-723894

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Identifying the extent of environmental contamination of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is essential for infection control and prevention. The extent of environmental contamination has not been fully investigated in the context of severe coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patients. AIM: To investigate environmental SARS-CoV-2 contamination in the isolation rooms of severe COVID-19 patients requiring mechanical ventilation or high-flow oxygen therapy. METHODS: Environmental swab samples and air samples were collected from the isolation rooms of three COVID-19 patients with severe pneumonia. Patients 1 and 2 received mechanical ventilation with a closed suction system, while patient 3 received high-flow oxygen therapy and non-invasive ventilation. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) was used to detect SARS-CoV-2; viral cultures were performed for samples not negative on rRT-PCR. FINDINGS: Of the 48 swab samples collected in the rooms of patients 1 and 2, only samples from the outside surfaces of the endotracheal tubes tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by rRT-PCR. However, in patient 3's room, 13 of the 28 environmental samples (fomites, fixed structures, and ventilation exit on the ceiling) showed positive results. Air samples were negative for SARS-CoV-2. Viable viruses were identified on the surface of the endotracheal tube of patient 1 and seven sites in patient 3's room. CONCLUSION: Environmental contamination of SARS-CoV-2 may be a route of viral transmission. However, it might be minimized when patients receive mechanical ventilation with a closed suction system. These findings can provide evidence for guidelines for the safe use of personal protective equipment.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Decontamination/standards , Environmental Pollution/analysis , Hyperbaric Oxygenation/standards , Patients' Rooms/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia/therapy , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Respiration, Artificial/standards , Air Microbiology , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics
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