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1.
Lab on a Chip ; 14:14, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2028739

ABSTRACT

For rapid detection of the COVID-19 infection, the digital polymerase chain reaction (dPCR) with higher sensitivity and specificity has been presented as a promising method of point-of-care testing (POCT). Unlike the conventional real-time PCR (qPCR), the dPCR system allows absolute quantification of the target DNA without a calibration curve. Although a number of dPCR systems have previously been reported, most of these previous assays lack multiplexing capabilities. As different variants of COVID-19 have rapidly emerged, there is an urgent need for highly specific multiplexed detection systems. Additionally, the advances in the Internet of Things (IoT) technology have enabled the onsite detection of infectious diseases. Here, we present an IoT-integrated multiplexed dPCR (IM-dPCR) system involving sample compartmentalization, DNA amplification, fluorescence imaging, and quantitative analysis. This IM-dPCR system comprises three modules: a plasmonic heating-based thermal cycler, a multi-color fluorescence imaging set-up, and a firmware control module. Combined with a custom-developed smartphone application built on an IoT platform, the IM-dPCR system enabled automatic processing, data collection, and cloud storage. Using a self-priming microfluidic chip, 9 RNA groups (e.g., H1N1, H3N2, IFZ B, DENV2, DENV3, DENV4, OC43, 229E, and NL63) associated with three infectious diseases (e.g., influenza, dengue, and human coronaviruses) were analyzed with higher linearity (>98%) and sensitivity (1 copy per muL). The IM-dPCR system exhibited comparable analytical accuracy to commercial qPCR platforms. Therefore, this IM-dPCR system plays a crucial role in the onsite detection of infectious diseases.

3.
Korean Journal of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery ; 65(7):401-407, 2022.
Article in Korean | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2022632

ABSTRACT

This study reports on patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV-2) presenting with sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The study included four adult patients who presented with the complaint of unilateral SSNHL after testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR from January to April 2022. Of the four patients, only one young adult recovered his hearing following a combination of oral and intratympanic steroid therapy. It is a challenge to confirm evidence of association between COVID-19 and SSNHL. Nevertheless, the early screening and diagnosis for SSNHL following COVID-19 enables prompt treatment with steroids, which offers the best chance of hearing recovery. Copyright © 2022 Korean Society of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery.

5.
Hepatology International ; 16:S500, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1995877

ABSTRACT

Objectives: In many studies, abnormal liver function test has been reported in more than half of the COVID-19 patients. However, it is not known for the liver involvement of the virus according to the strain. We investigated the features of liver injury in the COVID-19 patients with the SARS-CoV-2 Delta (B.1.617.2) variants. Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective study that included 375 patients between 1 February 2020 and 31 November 2020 (pre-Delta period (PDP) group) and 125 patients between 1 August 2021 and 31 August 2021 (Delta period (DP) group) hospitalized for COVID-19 at National Medical Center in Korea. Initial liver injury was defined as ALT or AST levels ≥ 3 9 upper limit of normal (ULN), or ALP or total bilirubin ≥ 2 9 ULN within 3 days from admission. Severe COVID-19 was defined as respiration rate ≥ 30, oxygen saturation ≤ 93%, or oxygen requirement with pneumonia. Results: Of 500 patients with COVID-19, 301 (60.2%) had abnormal liver test and 43 (8.6%) had liver injury within 3 days. The patients with abnormal liver test were similar in both groups. (58.4%vs60.8% P = 0.635). On the other hand, the DP group had a significantly higher proportion of liver injury than the PDP group (15.2% [n = 19]vs.6.4%[n = 24], P = 0.002). The DP group (Odds ratio (OR), 2.539;95% confidence interval (CI), 1.211-5.325;P = 0.014), patients with pneumonia involvement over 50% of lung field at admission (OR, 4.982;95% CI, 1.966-12.625;P = 0.001), younger patients (OR,0.963;95%CI,0.940-0.988;P = 0.003), lower creatinine at admission (OR,0.132;95%CI,0.028-0.631;P = 0.011), higher CRP at admission (OR,1.009;95%CI,1.003-1.015;P = 0.002) were independently associated with liver injury. During hospitalization, 164 patients had severe COVID-19. The DP group and initial liver injury were high odds of progressing to severe COVID-19 (OR 2.867;95%CI 1.244-6.608, and OR 3.229;95% CI 1.131-9.219, respectively). Conclusion: Initial liver injury is more common in COVID-19 patients with Delta variants. Also, Delta variants is associated with poor clinical outcomes. Therefore, careful monitoring in COVID-19 patients with Delta variants is needed.

6.
Ieee Access ; 10:77898-77921, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1978317

ABSTRACT

Deep learning based models on the edge devices have received considerable attention as a promising means to handle a variety of AI applications. However, deploying the deep learning models in the production environment with efficient inference on the edge devices is still a challenging task due to computation and memory constraints. This paper proposes a framework for the service robot named GuardBot powered by Jetson Xavier NX and presents a real-world case study of deploying the optimized face mask recognition application with real-time inference on the edge device. It assists the robot to detect whether people are wearing a mask to guard against COVID-19 and gives a polite voice reminder to wear the mask. Our framework contains dual-stage architecture based on convolutional neural networks with three main modules that employ (1) MTCNN for face detection, (2) our proposed CNN model and seven transfer learning based custom models which are Inception-v3, VGG16, denseNet121, resNet50, NASNetMobile, XceptionNet, MobileNet-v2 for face mask classification, (3) TensorRT for optimization of all the models to speedup inference on the Jetson Xavier NX. Our study carries out several analysis based on the models' performance in terms of their frames per second, execution time and images per second. It also evaluates the accuracy, precision, recall & F1-score and makes the comparison of all models before and after optimization with a main focus on high throughput and low latency. Finally, the framework is deployed on a mobile robot to perform experiments in both outdoor and multi-floor indoor environments with patrolling and non-patrolling modes. Compared to other state-of-the-art models, our proposed CNN model for face mask recognition based on the classification obtains 94.5%, 95.9% and 94.28% accuracy on training, validation and testing datasets respectively which is better than MobileNet-v2, Xception and InceptionNet-v3 while it achieves highest throughput and lowest latency than all other models after optimization at different precision levels.

8.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1927742

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Patient- and family-centered care is recognized as a key component of safe and effective care in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). The COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated the adoption of technologies in health care settings. It is timely to review the current state of science in technology use for family engagement in the ICU. Methods: Following Whittemore and Knafl's methodology, PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science, and SCOPUS were searched to describe studies that used technology-based strategies to promote family engagement in adult ICUs. We included studies that (1) were conducted in the adult ICU setting, (2) involved family engagement during ICU stay, and (3) involved technology use as a way to engage family members. We excluded studies that were not peer-reviewed journal publications or non-English papers. Study findings were further synthesized based on conceptual elements of patient and family engagement: Collaboration, Respect and Dignity, Activation and Participation, Information Sharing, and Decision Making (Brown et al., 2015, AJRCCM, 191, 358-360). Results: Out of 2702 possible citations, fifteen studies (four observational, five qualitative/mixed methods, and six experimental) were included. The majority of studies (n=14) were conducted between 2015 and 2021. Most studies were at the early stage of development and implementation to investigate participants' perceptions or user experiences with various technologies: web-, tablet-, SMS-, television-based technologies or video-conferencing and robotic telepresence. Those technologies were used to 1) provide information about ICU environment and patient care, 2) augment the decision-making process for caregivers, 3) virtual access to the family decisionmaking conference, or 4) increase family knowledge of interdisciplinary rounds. There was a wide variation in the inclusion of family engagement components among the technologies. At the simplest level, technology was used only for information sharing without tailoring or two-way communication (e.g., tablet-based family education package). In studies addressing most components of family engagement comprehensively, interactive devices enabled tailored information with two-way communication and active family involvement in decision making (e.g., interactive web-based decision aid). Figure 1 displays the conceptual elements of patient and family engagement included by types of technology. Conclusion: The findings of this review may be helpful for future considerations in developing and implementing technology-based strategies to improve family engagement in the ICU. Future research should use more robust methods and develop interventions with close family input. We recommend future studies address conceptual components of family engagement when designing technology-based interventions.

9.
Neurology ; 98(18 SUPPL), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1925472

ABSTRACT

Objective: To examine the temporal trends of humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines among multiple sclerosis (MS) patients on different immunomodulatory therapies. Background: The impact of various MS medications on the immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccine is of acute interest to patients and clinicians. Design/Methods: 22 MS patients treated with ocrelizumab (OCR, n=9), natalizumab (NTZ, n=8), fumarates (FUM, n=5;diroximel fumarate, 3 and dimethyl fumarate, 2) received BNT162b2 (Pfizer, n=15) or mRNA-1273 (Moderna, n=7) vaccines. Blood samples were collected before and after each of the two vaccine doses, and 2 months after second vaccine dose. AntiSARS-CoV-2 spike protein titers were measured using quantitative assay (Labcorp). Antibody neutralization was measured with a lentivirus-based pseudovirus particle expressing the D614 spike protein (Labcorp-Monogram Biosciences). T-cell reactivity was determined by measuring interferon-gamma and interleukin-2 in response to stimulation with SARS-CoV-2 peptides. Results: All patients in NTZ and FUM cohorts, but only 22% (2/9) of OCR cohort developed anti-spike and neutralizing antibodies. The highest titers were measured after the second vaccine dose, without significant difference between the NTZ and FUM cohorts in anti-spike IgG (69.7+/-55.1 vs 56.0+/-36.7 arbitrary units/ml) or neutralizing ID50 (1513+/-1317 vs 942+/ -566). Two months after the second vaccine, the antibody titers and neutralizing ID50 decreased by 72% and 79% in NTZ cohort, respectively, and by 45% and 49% in FUM cohort. T-cell reactivity was observed in all cohorts as early as 7 days after the first vaccine, and further increased following the second vaccine. Conclusions: Patients on NTZ and FUM mounted robust antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines, in contrast to OCR-treated patients. T-cell responses were comparable among all three treatment cohorts. Two months after the second vaccine, the serological responses decreased by 45-79%. These findings may inform the optimal timing of additional vaccine doses for MS patients.

10.
Asian Journal for Public Opinion Research ; 10(2):76-101, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1903970

ABSTRACT

Despite the increasing use of digital media and their powerful impact on risk management during recent outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases, the question of how digital media exposure influences preventive behaviors has not been fully explained. Using the appraisal tendency framework and protection motivation theory as theoretical frameworks, we theorized the affective and cognitive mechanisms under which the differential roles of three negative emotions (fear, anger, worry) on two cognitive appraisals (perceived threat and perceived efficacy) were examined. Based on data collected from a survey of 1,500 South Koreans during the COVID-19 pandemic, we found that while worry and anger increased perceived efficacy, fear reduced perceived efficacy. The results also showed that although exposure to COVID-19 information via digital formats increased preventive behavioral intention in general, digital media use for COVID-19 information had a negative influence on preventive behavioral intention through the sequential mediation of fear and perceived efficacy. © 2022, Center for Asian Public Opinion Research and Collaboration Initiative. All rights reserved.

11.
Annual Conference of the Canadian Society of Civil Engineering, CSCE 2021 ; 251:163-176, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1899088

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus pandemic has challenged the operation of municipal solid waste management systems (MSWMSs) in the United States and elsewhere. With the growing concern about the potential exposure to the coronavirus, people are spending more time in their homes while changing their waste generation behaviors. This phenomenon has changed not only how people produce waste but also how MSWMSs plan and adapt the operation of their facilities. Since solid waste management has been declared as an essential service in addition to public health, MSWMSs have faced new challenges and thus developed adaptive measures in order to keep their critical operations. This study (i) identifies a broad range of waste management and operational challenges and (ii) summarizes various adaptive measures taken by different MSWMSs. Ephemeral data were collected and analyzed on the longitudinal impact of the pandemic on multiple MSWMSs in severely affected U.S. states, such as Florida, California, and New York, over a nine-month period. Note that best management practices for such waste-related challenges and adaptive measures can vary across different MSWMSs and states. In order to facilitate the development of different MSWMSs’ plan for future pandemic events, this study will characterize the identified impact of the pandemic and its relevant adaptive measures in terms of system structure (i.e., what facilities exist [entity], how they interact with one another [interdependency], and who control which facilities [control]). © 2023, Canadian Society for Civil Engineering.

12.
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine ; 29(1):37-45, 2022.
Article in Korean | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1887351

ABSTRACT

Purpose: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, we conducted a Delphi survey that included the experts from the field of COVID-19 immunization in children aged 5–11 years. The aim was to organize collective expert opinions on COVID-19 vaccination in young children in the Republic of Korea, and so thus assist the vaccination policy. Methods: The panels included pediatric infectious disease specialists, preventive medicine experts, infectious disease physicians, and COVID-19 vaccine experts consulting the Ministry of Health and Welfare. The Delphi survey was conducted online using a questionnaire from February 14 to February 27, 2022. Results: The Delphi panels agreed that children were vulnerable to COVID-19, and the severity of illness was modest. Furthermore the panels reported that children with chronic illness were more susceptible to a worsening clinical course. There were generally positive opinions on the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccination in children aged 5–11 years, and experts gathered a slightly positive opinion that the adverse events of pediatric COVID-19 were not numerous. The benefits of COVID-19 vaccination were evaluated at a level similar to the potential risks in children. Currently, the only approved mRNA platform vaccine in children seemed to be sustainable;however, the recombinant protein platform COVID-19 vaccines were evaluated as better options. Conclusions: Due to the surge of the Omicron variant and an increase in pediatric cases, the COVID-19 vaccination in young children may have to be considered. Panels had neutral opinions regarding the COVID-19 vaccination in children aged 5–11 years. Thus monitoring of the epidemiology and the data about the safety of COVID-19 vaccination should be continued.

13.
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine ; 29(1):1-15, 2022.
Article in Korean | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1887349

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) presents as a mild-to-moderate respiratory illness in most children. However, a small proportion of children with COVID-19 develop severe or critical illnesses. Although pediatric clinical trials for the treatment of COVID-19 are sparse, some drugs are available for children and adolescents with severe COVID-19. This review summarizes clinical data focusing on antiviral agents and immunomodulators for use in treating COVID-19. In addition, current recommendations for therapeutics for children and adolescents with COVID-19 are discussed.

14.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 30(1 SUPPL):299, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1880591

ABSTRACT

Background: People who use unregulated drugs (PWUD) in Canada and the United States (US) are contending with the intersection of two simultaneous health crises: the COVID-19 pandemic and the longstanding drug poisoning crisis. However, the possible contributions of COVID-related factors to increases in overdoses during the pandemic are not well understood. Our study objectives were to assess the prevalence of non-fatal overdose and identify factors associated with overdose among participants in nine prospective cohorts of PWUD in urban centers in Canada (Vancouver, BC) and the US (Baltimore, MD;Miami, FL;Chicago, IL;Los Angeles, CA) during the COVID-19 pandemic. We further sought to examine the prevalence of and identify factors associated with reporting being highly impacted day-to-day by COVID-19. Methods: Data were derived from the nine cohorts in the NIDA-funded C3PNO consortium between May, 2020 and April, 2021. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with nonfatal overdose and day-to-day impact among participants who had used unregulated drugs in the past month. Results: Among 885 participants, 253 (28.6%) were female and 41 (4.6%) had reported experiencing a non-fatal overdose. Most of the sample reported being worried and approximately half reported being highly impacted day-to-day by the pandemic. In multivariable analyses, individuals who had experienced an overdose were more likely to be female (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR]=2.18;95% Confidence Interval [CI]:1.10-4.30);unstably housed/homeless (AOR = 2.16;95% CI: 1.11-4.26);engaged in medications for opioid use disorder (MOUD) (AOR = 2.45;95% CI: 1.19-4.97);and highly impacted day-to-day by COVID-19 (AOR = 2.42;95% CI: 1.22-5.10). In a second multivariable model, highly-impacted individuals were more likely to report higher levels of COVID-related worry (AOR = 1.30;95% CI: 1.23-1.37) and stocking up on drugs (AOR = 1.59, 95% CI: 1.09-2.32) due to the pandemic. Conclusion: Our findings indicate a need for a multi-level approach involving the spectrum of care services to meet the elevated risks of overdose in the context of the dual crises, particularly among women, those unstably housed/homeless and those who reported being highly impacted day-to-day by the pandemic. Efforts to prevent overdose, however, should prioritize addressing the root causes of the drug poisoning crisis, such as the continuous exposure to toxic and contaminated unregulated drug supplies among PWUD.

15.
Fertility and Sterility ; 116(3 SUPPL):e45-e46, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1880350

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic reshaped access to assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment. Following ASRM's March 2020 recommendation to halt all ART treatments, many patients were unable to pursue parenthood until resumption of clinical care. Our study assesses patient progression to reproductive care before, during and after the declaration of the COVID-19 pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study includes patients who sought ART treatment from January 1, 2018 to October 1, 2020. Only patients who underwent an initial consultation were included in the study. Patients were grouped by month in the years of 2018, 2019, and 2020. Patient progression to treatment was confirmed only if the ART procedure occurred within 90 days after initial consultation. RESULTS: A total of 27,626 initial consultations from patients who sought ART treatment were evaluated in the study. Treatment progression rates for 2018 and 2019 showed high correlation with nearly identical rates per month from March to July [Table 1]. Patient progression declined to 47.9% starting in January 2020 compared to 57.3% in 2018 and 59.4% in 2019 of the same month. Thereafter, progression to treatment dropped to an all-time low (February-March 2020 (32.0-33.0%)). Progression rate increased by late April 2020 (47.7%);and then surged in May 2020 (55.7%) superseding treatment progression rates between the same months during 2018 (47.4%) & 2019 (47.9%). By the end of August and throughout September 2020 progression to treatment restored itself to rates in 2018 & 2019 [Table 1]. CONCLUSIONS: As compared to cohorts in 2018 and 2019, our study demonstrated a marked decline in progression to ART treatment that coincided with the onset of the COVID pandemic and when many regions of the country restricted all but urgent medical procedures. As COVID-related restrictions lifted, treatment progression rates sharply rebounded and then stabilized by September 2020. The recovery to treatment progression displays fertility care as essential to patients and reaffirms a strong desire to have children. IMPACT STATEMENT: The barriers related to the onset of the COVID pandemic were short-lived for patients who sought ART treatment. Even with COVID's introduction of new normal, patients can be reassured that they have the ability to access reproductive care and achieve parenthood.

16.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205:2, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1880123
17.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205:1, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1880103
18.
Korean Chemical Engineering Research ; 60(2):282-288, 2022.
Article in Korean | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1870102

ABSTRACT

Facial masks have become indispensable in daily life to prevent infection and spread through respiratory droplets in the era of the corona pandemic. To understand how effective two different types of masks (i.e., KF-94 mask and dental mask) are in blocking respiratory droplets, i) we preferentially analyze wettability characteristics (e.g., contact angle and contact angle hysteresis) of filters consisting of each mask, and ii) subsequently observe the dynamic behaviors of microdroplets impacting at high velocities on the filter surfaces. Different wetting properties (i.e., hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity) are found to exhibit depending on the constituent materials and pore sizes of each filter. In addition, the pneumatic conditions for stably and uniformly dispensing microdroplets with a certain volume and impacting behaviors associated with the impacting velocity and filter type change are systematically explored. Three distinctive dynamics constituting the masks and droplet impact velocity. The present experimental results not only provide very useful

19.
9th International Conference on Robot Intelligence Technology and Applications, RiTA 2021 ; 429 LNNS:543-552, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1802618

ABSTRACT

Because of COVID-19’s social isolation, it’s difficult to go to karaoke. Singing songs with other people in a karaoke room is prohibited. As a result of these circumstances, we created a virtual reality (VR) platform that allows users to enjoy karaoke at home or in a private setting. The platform is designed to analyze and score users’ singing performances in real time, as well as incorporate emotional 3D avatar reactions to give users the impression of being in a karaoke room with other people. Our platform assesses the user’s singing voice based on the beat, notes, and lyrics. We were successful in achieving the desired outcome. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

20.
9th International Conference on Robot Intelligence Technology and Applications, RiTA 2021 ; 429 LNNS:201-209, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1802617

ABSTRACT

This research was carried out to provide an indoor service platform for employees with special needs. Disabled people have more energy/cost to adjust to the new work environment generated by COVID-19 than people without disabilities. Low job proficiency increases the number of customers waiting in the shop, which can reduce the café’s recycling rate and raise the danger of group infection. To resolve these issues, innovative technology must be used to prevent COVID-19 and improve employee health security for persons with disabilities. As a response to these issues, this paper proposes how to design an interactive delivery robot. The robot interacts with the human user via verbal expressions, such as explaining the destination using a speaker and a touch sensor and providing delivery services using a Lidar sensor and two actuators. The robot’s ability to go from the cafe to the target location, deliver the drink, and then return to the cafe to repeat the operation was proven as a consequence of the real design and implementation. We used ROS to bring those functions together on a single platform. This research is anticipated to revive the COVID-19 period, which has seen mutual communication go away, as well as contribute to economic restoration. Furthermore, I believe that given its aesthetic and practical benefits, it will be feasible to alleviate the job uncertainty that occurs in stores that employ individuals with impairments. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

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