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1.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(2)2022 Feb 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704293

ABSTRACT

Various vaccines against COVID-19 have been developed and proven to be effective, but their side effects, especially on kidney function, are not yet known in detail. In this study, we report the clinical courses and histopathologic findings of new-onset kidney diseases after COVID-19 vaccination as confirmed via kidney biopsy. Five patients aged 42 to 77 years were included in this study, and baseline kidney function was normal in all patients. The biopsy-proven diagnosis indicated newly developed kidney diseases: (1) IgA nephropathy presenting with painless gross hematuria, (2) minimal change disease presenting with nephrotic syndrome, (3) thrombotic microangiopathy, and (4) two cases of acute tubulointerstitial nephritis presenting with acute kidney injury. Individualized treatment was applied as per disease severity and underlying pathology, and the treatment outcomes of all patients were improved. Since this is not a controlled study, the specific pathophysiologic link and causality between the incidence of kidney diseases and COVID-19 vaccination are difficult to confirm. However, clinicians need to consider the possibility that kidney diseases may be provoked by vaccines in patients who have renal symptoms.

2.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 41(3): 455-466, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1694520

ABSTRACT

We describe a measles outbreak among previously vaccinated healthcare workers (HCWs) and inpatients and the control measures implemented at a tertiary care hospital in 2019. Case-patients were laboratory-confirmed measles with throat swabs tested by quantitative polymerase chain reactions (PCR), during April-May 2019. Medical histories and documented immunization records were obtained. We compared attack rates (ARs) among HCWs by occupational subgroup and age and examined the outbreak-associated costs. The index case was not ascertained. Among 26 measles case-patients (22 HCWs, four inpatients) aged 18-28 years, 25 had previously received measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine (12/26, 46% (two doses); 13/26, 50% (one dose)), and 16 (62%) had positive results of measles IgG prior to measles diagnosis. ARs were higher among HCWs aged < 30 years (1.88%), especially in the subgroup under 25 years of age (2.22%). Control measures included work restrictions for seronegative HCWs (218/2320, 9.4%) in immunity verification, administration of the MMR vaccine (207 HCWs) or intravenous immunoglobulin (2 HCWs and 11 inpatients), enhanced health surveillance of HCWs, and mandatory assessment of patients with measles-like symptoms at the infectious diseases screening units. The hospital spent 90,417,132 Korean won (US $79,733) in response to the outbreak. Measles outbreaks can occur in healthcare settings despite high population immunity, highlighting the importance of stronger vaccination policies, particularly among young HCWs. Moreover, an effective outbreak response comprising immunization activities and enhanced surveillance of HCWs and patients to rapidly detect measles-like symptoms at a prodromal phase is essential to control nosocomial measles outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection , Measles , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks , Hospitals , Humans , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/prevention & control , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Vaccination , Young Adult
3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315458

ABSTRACT

We investigated the association between angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE-I) or angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) and the risk of mortality in hospitalized severe COVID-19 patients. A retrospective cohort study was performed on all hospitalized COVID-19 patients in tertiary hospitals in Daegu, Korea. Patients were classified based on whether they received ACE-I or ARB before COVID-19 diagnosis. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used for the analysis of survival. Of 130 COVID-19 patients, 30 (23.1%) who received ACE-I or ARB showed an increased the risk of in-hospital mortality (adjusted HR, 2.15;95% CI, 1.04 to 4.44;P = 0.038). ACE-I or ARB were also associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome or mechanical ventilation (adjusted OR, 3.38;95% CI, 1.18 to 9.69;P = 0.024), and acute kidney injury or shock (adjusted OR, 2.81;95% CI, 1.04 to 7.56;P = 0.042). Among the patients with ACE-I or ARB, 14 (46.7%) discontinued the therapy and the cessation was associated with a higher mortality rate. ACE-I or ARB therapy in severe COVID-19 patients was associated with occurrence of severe complications and increased in-hospital mortality. Discontinuation of ACE-I or ARB in patients with more severe COVID-19 was not associated with improvement of mortality.

4.
Essays Biochem ; 65(3): 519-531, 2021 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370736

ABSTRACT

Recent advances in 3D printing (3DP) and tissue engineering approaches enable the potential application of these technologies to vaccine research. Reconstituting the native tissue or cellular microenvironment will be vital for successful evaluation of pathogenicity of viral infection and screening of potential vaccines. Therefore, establishing a reliable in vitro model to study the vaccine efficiency or delivery of viral disease is important. Here, this review summarizes two major ways that tissue engineering and 3DP strategies could contribute to vaccine research: (1) 3D human tissue models to study the response to virus can be served as a testbed for new potential therapeutics. Using 3D tissue platform attempts to explore alternative options to pre-clinical animal research for evaluating vaccine candidates. (2) 3DP technologies can be applied to improve the vaccination strategies which could replace existing vaccine delivery. Controlled antigen release using carriers that are generated with biodegradable biomaterials can further enhance the efficient development of immunity as well as combination of multiple-dose vaccines into a single injection. This mini review discusses the up-to-date report of current 3D tissue/organ models for potential vaccine potency and known bioengineered vaccine delivery systems.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Vaccines , Animals , Biocompatible Materials , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Tissue Engineering
5.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(30): e218, 2021 Aug 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1339471

ABSTRACT

Various coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines are being developed, which show practical preventive effects. Here, we report a 51-year-old healthy man with nephrotic syndrome secondary to minimal change disease (MCD) after Ad26.COV.2 (Janssen) vaccination. He had no comorbid disease and received Ad26.COV.2 on April 13, 2021. Seven days after vaccination, he developed edema and foamy urine. Edema rapidly aggravated with decreased urine volume. He was admitted to the hospital 28 days after vaccination, and his body weight increased by 21 kg after vaccination. His serum creatinine level was 1.54 mg/dL, and 24-h urinary protein excretion was 8.6 g/day. Kidney biopsy revealed no abnormality in the glomeruli and interstitium of the cortex and medulla under the light microscope. Electron microscopy revealed diffuse effacement of the podocyte foot processes, thus, he was diagnosed with MCD. High-dose steroid therapy was applied, and his kidney function improved three days after steroid therapy. Three weeks after steroid use, his serum creatinine decreased to 0.95 mg/dL, and spot urine protein-to-creatine decreased to 0.2 g/g. This case highlights the risk of new-onset nephrotic syndrome secondary to MCD after vectored COVID-19 vaccination. Although the pathogenesis is uncertain, clinicians need to be careful about adverse renal effects of COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Nephrotic Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nephrosis, Lipoid/etiology
6.
Electrolyte Blood Press ; 18(2): 23-30, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1013497

ABSTRACT

The worldwide coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is still in progress, but much remains unknown about the disease. In this article, we review the association of hypertension or the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) with COVID-19 and the correlation between electrolyte disorders and disease severity. Underlying hypertension is likely to be associated with severe or critical COVID-19, but the relationship is not clear owing to confounding factors. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) plays an important role in the non-classical RAS pathway and binds to a receptor binding domain of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The RAS blockade is known to increase ACE2 levels, but controversy remains regarding the effect of RAS blockade therapy in the course of COVID-19. Some reports have indicated a protective effect of RAS blockade on COVID-19, whereas others have reported an association of RAS blockade therapy with the occurrence of severe complications such as acute kidney injury and admission to the intensive care unit. Electrolyte disorders are not uncommon in patients with COVID-19, and severe COVID-19 has frequently shown hypokalemia, hyponatremia, and hypocalcemia. Electrolyte imbalances are caused by alteration of RAS, gastrointestinal loss, effects of proinflammatory cytokines, and renal tubular dysfunction by the invasion of SARS-CoV-2.

7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 20250, 2020 11 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-939445

ABSTRACT

The association between angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE-I) or angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) and the risk of mortality in hospitalized patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was investigated. This retrospective cohort study was performed in all hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in tertiary hospitals in Daegu, Korea. Patients were classified based on whether they received ACE-I or ARB before COVID-19 diagnosis. The analysis of the primary outcome, in-hospital mortality, was performed using the Cox proportional hazards regression model. Of 130 patients with COVID-19, 30 (23.1%) who received ACE-I or ARB exhibited an increased risk of in-hospital mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.20; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10-4.38; P = 0.025). ACE-I or ARB was also associated with severe complications, such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.58; 95% CI, 1.02-6.51; P = 0.045) and acute kidney injury (AKI) (aOR, 3.06; 95% CI, 1.15-8.15; P = 0.026). Among the patients with ACE-I or ARB therapy, 8 patients (26.7%) used high equivalent doses of ACE-I or ARB and they had higher in-hospital mortality and an increased risk of ARDS and AKI (all, P < 0.05). ACE-I or ARB therapy in patients with severe COVID-19 was associated with the occurrence of severe complications and increased in-hospital mortality. The potentially harmful effect of ACE-I or ARB therapy may be higher in patients who received high doses.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Aged , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Republic of Korea , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Tertiary Care Centers
8.
J Clin Med ; 9(6)2020 Jun 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-534530

ABSTRACT

The outcome of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with organ damage; however, the information about the relationship between acute kidney injury (AKI) and COVID-19 is still rare. We evaluated the clinical features and prognosis of COVID-19 patients with AKI according to the AKI severity. Medical data of hospitalized COVID-19 patients in two university-based hospitals during an outbreak in Daegu, South Korea, were retrospectively analyzed. AKI and its severity were defined according to the Acute Kidney Injury Network. Of the 164 hospitalized patients with COVID-19, 30 patients (18.3%) had AKI; 14, 4, and 12 patients had stage 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The median age was significantly higher in AKI patients than in non-AKI patients (75.5 vs. 67.0 years, p = 0.005). There were 17 deaths (56.7%) among AKI patients; 4 (28.6%), 1 (25.0%), and 12 (100.0%), respectively. In-hospital mortality was higher in AKI patients than in non-AKI patients (56.7% vs. 20.8%, p < 0.001). After adjusting for potential confounding factors, stage 3 AKI was associated with higher mortality than either non-AKI or stage 1 AKI (hazard ratio (HR) = 3.62 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.75-7.48), p = 0.001; HR = 15.65 (95% CI = 2.43-100.64), p = 0.004). Among the AKI patients, acute respiratory distress syndrome and low serum albumin on admission were considered independent risk factors for stage 3 AKI (both p < 0.05). Five patients with stage 3 AKI underwent dialysis and eventually died. In conclusion, COVID-19 patients with severe AKI had fatal outcomes.

9.
J Clin Med ; 9(6)2020 Jun 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-459464

ABSTRACT

Patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) or who are on hemodialysis (HD) could have increased susceptibility to the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) given their pre-existing comorbidities, older age, compromised immune system, and regular visits to populated outpatient dialysis centers. This study included 14 consecutive patients on HD or with advanced CKD who initiated HD after being diagnosed with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from February to April 2020 in hospitals throughout Daegu, South Korea. The included patients, 42.9% of whom were men, had a mean age of 63.5 years. Four patients had a history of contact with a patient suffering from COVID-19. The most common symptom was cough (50.0%), followed by dyspnea (35.7%). The mean time from symptom onset to diagnosis and admission was 2.6 and 3.5 days, respectively. Patients exhibited lymphopenia and elevated inflammatory markers, including C-reactive protein and ferritin. Chest radiography findings showed pulmonary infiltration in 10 patients. All patients underwent regular HD in a negative pressure room and received antiviral agents. Four patients received mechanical ventilation and continuous renal replacement therapy at a median duration of 14.0 and 8.5 days, respectively. One patient underwent extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for three days. Among the 14 patients included, two died due to acute respiratory distress syndrome, nine were discharged from the hospital, and three remained hospitalized. Despite the high-risk conditions associated with worse outcomes, patients on HD did not exhibit extremely poor overall COVID-19 outcomes perhaps due to early diagnosis, prompt hospitalization, and antiviral therapy.

10.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 528(3): 413-419, 2020 07 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-436643

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a worldwide pandemic. It has a high transmission rate among humans, and is a threat to global public health. However, there are no effective prophylactics or therapeutics available. It is necessary to identify vulnerable and susceptible groups for adequate protection and care against this disease. Recent studies have reported that COVID-19 has angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a functional receptor, which may lead to the development of severe cerebrovascular diseases (CVD), including strokes, in patients with risk factors for CVD such as diabetes and smoking. Thus, the World Health Organization (WHO) advised caution against COVID-19 for smokers and patients with underlying clinical symptoms, including cardiovascular diseases. Here, we observed ACE2 expression in the brain of rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model and evaluated the effects of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and diabetes on ACE2 expression in vessels. We showed that the levels of ACE2 expression was increased in the cortex penumbra after ischemic injuries. CSE treatment significantly elevated ACE2 expression in human brain vessels. We found that ACE2 expression was upregulated in primary cultured human blood vessels with diabetes compared to healthy controls. This study demonstrates that ACE2 expression is increased in ischemic brains and vessels exposed to diabetes or smoking, makes them vulnerable to COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Brain Ischemia/virology , Brain/blood supply , Diabetes Mellitus , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/biosynthesis , Receptors, Virus/biosynthesis , Smokers , Stroke/virology , Up-Regulation , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Brain/drug effects , Brain Ischemia/genetics , Brain Ischemia/metabolism , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Disease Susceptibility , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/complications , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Smoke/adverse effects , Stroke/genetics , Stroke/metabolism , Up-Regulation/drug effects
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