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1.
Vaccine ; 2022 Jul 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937282

ABSTRACT

The ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic continues to pose an enormous health challenge globally. The ongoing emergence of variants of concern has resulted in decreased vaccine efficacy necessitating booster immunizations. This was particularly highlighted by the recent emergence of the Omicron variant, which contains over 30 mutations in the spike protein and quickly became the dominant viral strain in global circulation. We previously demonstrated that delivery of a SARS-CoV-2 subunit vaccine via a high-density microarray patch (HD-MAP) induced potent immunity resulting in robust protection from SARS-CoV-2 challenge in mice. Here we show that serum from HD-MAP immunized animals maintained potent neutralisation against all variants tested, including Delta and Omicron. These findings highlight the advantages of HD-MAP vaccine delivery in inducing high levels of neutralising antibodies and demonstrates its potential at providing protection from emerging viral variants.

2.
Front Immunol ; 13: 926262, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911052

ABSTRACT

Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, multiple waves of SARS-CoV-2 variants have emerged. Of particular concern is the omicron variant, which harbors 28 mutations in the spike glycoprotein receptor binding and N-terminal domains relative to the ancestral strain. The high mutability of SARS-CoV-2 therefore poses significant hurdles for development of universal assays that rely on spike-specific immune detection. To address this, more conserved viral antigens need to be targeted. In this work, we comprehensively demonstrate the use of nucleocapsid (N)-specific detection across several assays using previously described nanobodies C2 and E2. We show that these nanobodies are highly sensitive and can detect divergent SARS-CoV-2 ancestral, delta and omicron variants across several assays. By comparison, spike-specific antibodies S309 and CR3022 only disparately detect SARS-CoV-2 variant targets. As such, we conclude that N-specific detection could provide a standardized universal target for detection of current and emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Single-Domain Antibodies , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Nucleocapsid/genetics , Nucleocapsid Proteins , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
3.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(4)2022 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1786092

ABSTRACT

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to disrupt essential health services in 90 percent of countries today. The spike (S) protein found on the surface of the causative agent, the SARS-CoV-2 virus, has been the prime target for current vaccine research since antibodies directed against the S protein were found to neutralize the virus. However, as new variants emerge, mutations within the spike protein have given rise to potential immune evasion of the response generated by the current generation of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. In this study, a modified, HexaPro S protein subunit vaccine, delivered using a needle-free high-density microarray patch (HD-MAP), was investigated for its immunogenicity and virus-neutralizing abilities. Mice given two doses of the vaccine candidate generated potent antibody responses capable of neutralizing the parental SARS-CoV-2 virus as well as the variants of concern, Alpha and Delta. These results demonstrate that this alternative vaccination strategy has the potential to mitigate the effect of emerging viral variants.

4.
Sci Adv ; 7(44): eabj8065, 2021 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494911

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has infected more than 160 million people and resulted in more than 3.3 million deaths, and despite the availability of multiple vaccines, the world still faces many challenges with their rollout. Here, we use the high-density microarray patch (HD-MAP) to deliver a SARS-CoV-2 spike subunit vaccine directly to the skin. We show that the vaccine is thermostable on the patches, with patch delivery enhancing both cellular and antibody immune responses. Elicited antibodies potently neutralize clinically relevant isolates including the Alpha and Beta variants. Last, a single dose of HD-MAP­delivered spike provided complete protection from a lethal virus challenge in an ACE2-transgenic mouse model. Collectively, these data show that HD-MAP delivery of a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine was superior to traditional needle-and-syringe vaccination and may be a significant addition to the ongoing COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) pandemic.

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