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1.
2021 Winter Simulation Conference, WSC 2021 ; 2021-December, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1746009

ABSTRACT

We introduce DeepABM, a computational framework for agent-based modeling that leverages geometric message passing for simulating action and interactions over large agent populations. Using DeepABM allows scaling simulations to large agent populations in real-time and running them efficiently on GPU architectures. Using the DeepABM framework, we build DeepABM-COVID simulator to provide support for various non-pharmaceutical interventions (quarantine, exposure notification, vaccination, testing) for the COVID-19 pandemic, and can scale to populations of representative size in real-time on a GPU. DeepABM-COVID can model 200 million interactions (over 100,000 agents across 180 time-steps) in 90 seconds, and is made available online to help researchers with modeling and analysis of various interventions. We explain various components of the framework and discuss results from one research study to evaluate the impact of delaying the second dose of the COVID-19 vaccine in collaboration with clinical and public health experts. © 2021 IEEE.

2.
Journal of Crohn's and Colitis ; 16:i537-i538, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1722348

ABSTRACT

Background: The immunogenicity and safety following standard twodose SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs) are not well characterised, and data on third dose vaccination in this patient group are currently lacking. Methods: This prospective, observational cohort study included adult patients on immunosuppressive therapy for Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), spondyloarthritis (SpA), psoriatic arthritis (PsA), and healthy controls receiving standard two-dose SARS CoV-2 vaccination. Patients with a weak serologic response (<100 AU/ml) were allotted a third vaccine dose. Serum samples were collected prior to, and after vaccination for analyses of antibodies to the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. The aim of the study was to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety following standard and three dose SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in IMID patients on immunosuppressive therapies. Results: A total of 1641 patients (280 CD, 195 UC, 566 RA, 305 SpA, 295 PsA, median age 52 [IQR 40-63], 899 [55%] women), and 1114 healthy controls (median age 43 [IQR 32-55], 854 [77%] women), were included in the study. After standard SARS-CoV-2 two dose vaccination, 1504 (91%) patients compared to 1096 (98%) healthy controls (p<0,001) were responders. Anti-RBD levels were lower in patients (median 619 AU/ml [IQR 192-4191]) than controls (median 3355 AU/ml [IQR 896-7849]), p<0,001. Response was shown in ≥90% of patients receiving methotrexate, tumor necrosis factor inhibitor (TNFi) monotherapy, ustekinumab, tozilizumab and vedolizumab, in 80-90% of patients receiving TNFi combination therapy and secukinumab and in ≤ 80% for JAK inhibitors (78%), and abatacept (53%) (Fig 1). Lower age (OR 0.96 [95% CI 0.95-0.98]) and receiving the mRNA-1273 vaccine (OR 5.4 [95% CI 2.4-11.9]) were predictors of response. Of 153 patients with a weak response receiving a third vaccine dose, 129 (84%) became responders. After standard two dose vaccination, adverse events (AE) were reported in 50% of patients and in 78% of controls, with a comparable safety profile. Following the third dose, 44% of patients reported AEs, without new safety issues emerging. No serious AEs were reported. Conclusion: Response rate as well as anti-RBD levels were lower in IMID patients than healthy controls following standard vaccination. Third dose vaccination in serologically weak responders was safe and resulted in a response in most patients. Our data facilitate identification of patient groups at risk of an attenuated vaccine response eligible for post-vaccination serological monitoring. The data also support a third vaccine dose following standard SARS-CoV-2 vaccination to weakresponding IMID-patients.

3.
Canadian Journal of Economics ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1707823

ABSTRACT

We outline a macro-pandemic model where individuals can select into working from home or in the market. Market work increases the risk of infection. Occupations differ in the ease of substitution between market and home work and in the risk of infection. We examine the evolution of a pandemic in the model as well as its macroeconomic and distributional consequences. The model is calibrated to British Columbian data to examine the implications of shutting down different industries by linking industries to occupations. We find that endogenous choice to self-isolate is key: it reduces the peak weekly infection rate by two percentage points but reduces the trough consumption level by four percentage points, even without policy-mandated lockdowns. The model also produces widening consumption inequality, a fact that has characterized COVID-19. © 2022 Canadian Economics Association

4.
Value in Health ; 25(1):S258, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1650280

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The study gauged about the people who seemed to be at higher risk of worse prognosis and required intensive care unit after COVID-19 infection. Methods: This retrospective observational study included patients diagnosed with COVID-19 infection between 1st April to 30th September 2020 with ICD-10 CM diagnosis recorded in a large deidentified database of US health insurance claims. Only the patients having continuous enrollment between 1 year before (baseline period) to 3 months post (follow-up period) first diagnosis of COVID-19 (index date) were included in study. Comorbid conditions were identified using ICD-10 CM codes during the 1-year baseline period. The primary outcome variable was the advanced medical care admission due to COVID-19. Multivariate regression model was used to assess the association between sociodemographic characteristics, baseline comorbid conditions and advanced medical care admission related to COVID-19. Results: The study included 176,284 patients with diverse race/ethnicity (83,863 [47.6%] White, 18,708 [10.6%] African-American, and 27,211 [15.4%] Hispanic), a mean (SD) age of 55.5 (21.9) years and 44% males. Regression adjusted clinical predictors for ICU admission included asthma (OR: 1.32 CI: 1.16-1.50), chronic kidney disease (OR: 1.36 CI: 1.23-1.51), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (OR: 1.35 CI: 1.20-1.52), diabetes (OR: 1.55 CI: 1.41-1.72), heart failure (OR: 1.15 CI: 1.01-1.31), hyperlipidemia (OR: 1.18 CI: 1.07-1.31), hypertension (OR: 1.81 CI: 1.61-2.01), rheumatoid arthritis / osteo arthritis (OR: 1.14 CI: 1.04-1.25). Demographics related risk factors included male sex (OR: 1.52 CI: 1.40-1.66) older age->=55 years (OR: 2.11 CI: 1.90-2.36) and African-American race (OR: 1.19 CI: 1.05-1.36) and Hispanic race (OR: 1.37 CI: 1.29-1.54). Conclusions: Identification of patients at higher risk for complication was critical during COVID-19 pandemic. Mostly, elderly male population having high comorbidity burden required advanced care unit. These results call for further investigation of risk factors, additional studies should be performed on large potential cohorts to increase their validity.

5.
Value in Health ; 25(1):S248, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1650251

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Growing evidences suggest that COVID-19 infection should be considered as a systemic disease which involves multiple organ systems leading to numerous respiratory and non-respiratory complications. The current study evaluated all the potential complications associated with COVID-19 infections from administrative claims data. Methods: This retrospective, cross-over and observational study included patients diagnosed with COVID-19 infection between 1st April to 30th September 2020 with ICD-10 CM diagnosis recorded in the a large deidentified database of US health insurance claims. Only the patients having continuous eligibility between 4 months before (baseline period) to 1-month post (follow-up period) the first diagnosis of COVID-19 (index date) were included in study. Frequency of all ICD-10-CM diagnosis codes occurring during baseline period and during follow-up period were evaluated. For every ICD-10 CM diagnosis code, the risk estimates and odds ratios (ORs) of association with COVID-19 were evaluated. Results: The study included 208,886 patients with a mean (SD) age of 53.65 (21.4) years, 44% males and 56% females. 486 out of 1,564 ICD codes evaluated found to be statistically significant with COVID-19 infection exposure. Notable disorders having higher odds and high absolute risk included viral pneumonia (OR: 90.09;CI:73.12-111.00;absolute risk: 16.12%), acute respiratory distress syndrome (OR: 46.92;CI:28.42-77.48;absolute risk: 1.5%), respiratory failure (OR: 17.44;CI:16.18-18.81;absolute risk: 10.74%), sepsis (OR: 7.94;CI:7.21-8.75;absolute risk: 5.25%), acute kidney failure (OR: 5.70;CI:5.33-6.09;absolute risk: 6.30%), essential hypertension (OR: 1.78;CI:1.74-1.82;absolute risk: 16.77%), Ischemic heart disease (OR: 1.97;CI:1.88-2.05;absolute risk: 4.46%) and heart failure (OR: 2.39;CI:2.27-2.51;absolute risk: 3.58%). Conclusions: Apart from respiratory system which is the primary site of infection for COVID-19, many other organs like cardiovascular, kidney and liver with varying degree are also involved in COVID-19 infection.

6.
Value in Health ; 25(1):S248, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1650250

ABSTRACT

Objectives: A detailed understanding around the risk factors associated with COVID-19 infection will help in understanding the disease prognosis, resource utilization, and treatment. This study evaluated the risk factors associated with hospitalization in patients with COVID-19 infection. Methods: This retrospective observational study included patients diagnosed with COVID-19 infection between 1st April to 30th September 2020 with ICD-10 CM diagnosis recorded in a large deidentified database of US health insurance claims. Patients having continuous enrollment between 1 year before (baseline period) to 3 months post (follow-up period) first diagnosis of COVID-19 (index date) were included in study. Comorbid conditions were identified using ICD-10 CM codes during the 1-year baseline period. The primary outcome variable was the hospitalizations due to COVID-19. Multivariate regression model was used to assess the association between sociodemographic characteristics, baseline comorbid conditions and hospitalization related to COVID-19. Results: The study included 176,284 patients with diverse race/ethnicity (83,863 [47.6%] White, 18,708 [10.6%] African-American, and 27,211 [15.4%] Hispanic), a mean (SD) age of 55.5 (21.9) years and 44% males. Regression adjusted clinical predictors for hospitalization included asthma (OR: 1.27 CI: 1.21-1.32), chronic kidney disease (OR: 1.38 CI: 1.34-1.43), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (OR: 1.20 CI: 1.16-1.25), diabetes (OR: 1.30 CI: 1.26-1.34), hyperlipidemia (OR: 1.12 CI: 1.09-1.16), hypertension (OR: 1.54 CI: 1.49-1.60), ischemic heart disease (OR: 1.15 CI: 1.11-1.19), rheumatoid arthritis / osteo arthritis (OR: 1.09 CI: 1.06-1.13), prostate cancer (OR: 1.11 CI: 1.03-1.20), endometrial cancer (OR: 1.29 CI: 1.05-1.57) and lung cancer (OR: 1.35 CI: 1.18-1.54). Demographics related risk factors included male sex (OR: 1.29 CI: 1.25-1.33) older age->=55 years (OR: 1.77 CI: 1.70-1.85) and African-American race (OR: 1.58 CI: 1.51-1.65) and Hispanic race (OR: 1.25 CI: 1.20-1.30). Conclusions: In this study COVID-19 hospitalizations were significantly associated with older age, male sex, and comorbidity burden. Prospective studies are needed to understand mechanism and causality.

7.
2nd IEEE International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Knowledge Economy, ICCIKE 2021 ; : 267-272, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1232275

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this paper is to find out the effects of covid19 pandemic on Indian banks functioning in the Dubai International Financial Center (DIFC) additionally, also how banks are combatting the negative impacts on the business therefore, finding the strategies and tactics of the banks. The design used to receive data was primarily questionnaires and analyzing them using various statistics tools. The aftermath of analysis, banks have made sure that there is minimum burden on their customers. Furthermore banks have also provided various health safety guidelines to protect their employees, banks have had various negative impacts too for example the number of NPA's has increased, slowdown in operation of business. The conclusion would be that the pandemic has ruptured the financial institutions, but the banks are trying to prevent the business from heading into a major loss as banks also have alternative income like investing in corporate and sovereign bonds. © 2021 IEEE.

8.
2nd IEEE International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Knowledge Economy, ICCIKE 2021 ; : 273-278, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1232273

ABSTRACT

this paper examines that how COVID 2019 has negatively impacted the food industry in the U.A.E, resulting to the reliance of third-party applications to deliver food to their consumers. Food delivery apps have become popular not only in the U.A.E, but worldwide, as people take precaution through social distancing and quarantine in the hopes of curbing the spread of the coronavirus. Restaurant owners have put delivery services on the spotlight, urging them to cut down their commission rates as they are negatively implicating their businesses. Third-party services have been known to take commissions out of the restaurant owners they partner with. However, restaurant owners complain that these rates have increased over the years, with zero reductions especially with slow business as a result of the pandemic. Delivery apps have not waivered their commissions, charging as high as 35% per order, which is not inclusive of a delivery fee for the consumer. The food industry is requesting third-party companies for a 10% reduction for each order, for them to be able to make ends meet. The paper encloses a survey conducted on restaurants in the U.A.E to assess the impact of commission rates by these delivery apps. The results showed that the restaurants are struggling to keep afloat, a factor that is bound to affect the employment of many staff members in these hotels. The paper, therefore, outlines the impact of these commission rates among other charges on restaurants and other food businesses in the United Arab Emirates.. © 2021 IEEE.

9.
Critical Care Medicine ; 49(1 SUPPL 1):114, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1193941

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Remdesivir (RDV) is an antiviral agent with in-vitro activity against SARS-CoV-2 that has been used during the COVID-19 pandemic. Dosing strategies for pediatric and adolescent patients have primarily been extrapolated from adult dosing recommendations and, to date, there is a lack of pharmacokinetic (PK) data of RDV in this patient population. METHODS: Electronic medical record review of patients receiving RDV with concurrent therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). RDV and GS-441524 concentrations were determined by LC-MS/MS methodology. RESULTS: 3 patients (2 female:1 male) met inclusion criteria and contributed 74 samples for determination of RDV and the active GS-441524 metabolite. The median age was 16 yrs (IQR 15.5-16 yrs) with a median weight of 76.4 kg (IQR 74.9-94.3kg). Patient #1 received ECMO support for the duration of RDV therapy. Patients #1 and 2 received RDV for 10 days with levels obtained daily. Patient #3 received RDV for 5 days with levels obtained daily. For all patients, mean RDV exposures, range 272-893 ng/mL were below the mean exposures reported in the RDV investigators brochure, 2900-7800 ng/mL. Patient #1 received ECMO and RDV exposures did not appear impacted by ECMO when compared with patients #2 and #3 that did not receive ECMO. For all patients, mean GS-441524 exposures, range 109-258 ng/mL, were similar to the mean exposures reported in the RDV investigators brochure, range 69-184 ng/mL. Similarly, the GS-441524 exposure did not appear to be affected by ECMO. Patients #1 and #2 did not appear to have any observable adverse events as a result of receiving RDV. Patient #3 experienced and increase in ALT >5x ULN which resulted in having RDV discontinued. All 3 patients experienced clinical resolution. CONCLUSIONS: These are the first PK data of RDV in critically ill adolescent patients. These preliminary data suggest using adult dosing recommendations in adolescent patients result in RDV exposures below mean values demonstrated in adults with similar exposures of GS-441524 which could be a result of rapid conversion of RDV to GS- 441524 with delayed elimination in the setting of critical illness. Additional PK data of RDV in the critically ill pediatric population is warranted.

10.
American Journal of Blood Research ; 11(1):53-58, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1158678

ABSTRACT

Background: There is conflicting data in the literature about the association of ABO blood type and susceptibility to COVID-19 infection. Moreover, very few studies have examined the effect of blood type on severity of COVID-19 infection. Methods: This was a retrospective, single-center analysis of adult patients with COVID-19 infection who were hospitalized between March 8th to July 31st, 2020 at a regional tertiary care hospital. All patients who were hospitalized with a diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2) infection and had a documented ABO blood type were enrolled in this analysis. Aims of this study were to examine the prevalence of ABO blood types in patients with COVID-19 infection and to determine the frequency of severe COVID-19 infection among ABO blood types. Results: A total of 227 cases were identified. Our cohort had a mean age of 63.3 years and 60% were males. The most common blood type was O (49%) followed by A (36%), which was similar to the prevalence of ABO blood types in our regional population. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the frequency of severe COVID-19 infection between ABO blood types (O: 50%, A: 53%, B: 56%, AB: 57%;P=0.93), or any additional outcomes including in-hospital mortality rate (P=0.72), need for ICU admission (P=0.66), ICU free days at day 28 (P=0.51), hospital free days at day 28 (P=0.43), or need for acute renal replacement therapy (P=0.09). Conclusion: We did not find an increased susceptibility of any blood type to COVID-19 infection, nor was there an increased risk of severe COVID-19 infection in any ABO blood types.

11.
International Journal of Dentistry and Oral Science ; 8(3):1970-1976, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1151372
12.
Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Intelligent Sustainable Systems, ICISS 2020 ; : 1136-1141, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1096601

ABSTRACT

Passwords have always been a medium of authentication which is widely used and implemented for accessing control over devices or an account. With COVID-19 pandemic, the entire world stays at home and doing the kind of work from home jobs where the bank transactions, data transfers and all happening through online modes. Situations like these where offline mode has taken a back seat, the online attacks, and security breaches have drastically increased. People can't move and have to serve from their homes but feel protected as they deal and transact through passwords only. But, if these passwords are not fully protected, then it can be exposed to others such kind of situations is risky and breaks user's trust. To avoid such repetitive circumstances user has to be more cautious while keeping passwords. In this article, a secure and easy password generating technique has been proposed based on an attractive Graphical User Interface. This technique is efficient in terms of privacy, security, and memorability. © 2020 IEEE.

14.
European Journal of Molecular and Clinical Medicine ; 7(1):1506-1519, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-958653

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of coronavirus has quickly impacted the entire world, and the government has responded with a lock down. The lock down involves shutting of schools and colleges and a shift from traditional classrooms to online classes and e-learning. This has a lot of benefits such as flexible timings, convenience, no commute et cetera. However, these are contradicted by no practical classes, no personal attention from staff and a strayed student teacher relationship. A questionnaire survey consisting of 12 questions was prepared and circulated through an online survey portal among 100 dental students in India. The questions were prepared to analyse the perception of dental students towards online classes. Online classes have changed the education system for the time being. Students are involved in e-learning through online education portals and online platforms, which helps them to efficiently utilise their time. Despite the advantages that online classrooms have, results show that dental students prefer traditional classrooms over them. © 2020 Ubiquity Press. All rights reserved.

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