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1.
J Food Biochem ; 46(10): e14354, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956771

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Several vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 have been approved; however, variants of concern (VOCs) can evade vaccine protection. Therefore, developing small compound drugs that directly block the interaction between the viral spike glycoprotein and ACE2 is urgently needed to provide a complementary or alternative treatment for COVID-19 patients. We developed a viral infection assay to screen a library of approximately 126 small molecules and showed that peimine inhibits VOCs viral infections. In addition, a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay showed that peimine suppresses the interaction of spike and ACE2. Molecular docking analysis revealed that peimine exhibits a higher binding affinity for variant spike proteins and is able to form hydrogen bonds with N501Y in the spike protein. These results suggest that peimine, a compound isolated from Fritillaria, may be a potent inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 variant infection. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: In this study, we identified a naturally derived compound of peimine, a major bioactive alkaloid extracted from Fritillaria, that could inhibit SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) viral infection in 293T/ACE2 and Calu-3 lung cells. In addition, peimine blocks viral entry through interruption of spike and ACE2 interaction. Moreover, molecular docking analysis demonstrates that peimine has a higher binding affinity on N501Y in the spike protein. Furthermore, we found that Fritillaria significantly inhibits SARS-CoV-2 viral infection. These results suggested that peimine and Fritillaria could be a potential functional drug and food for COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cevanes , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Binding Sites , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Glycoproteins , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Virus Internalization
2.
Int J Biol Sci ; 18(12): 4677-4689, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1954700

ABSTRACT

In the current climate, many countries are in dire need of effective preventive methods to curb the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. The purpose of this research is to screen and explore natural plant extracts that have the potential to against SARS-CoV-2 and provide alternative options for SARS-CoV-2 prevention and hand sanitizer or spray-like disinfectants. We first used Spike-ACE2 ELISA and TMPRSS2 fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assays to screen extracts from agricultural by-products from Taiwan with the potential to impede SARS-CoV-2 infection. Next, the SARS-CoV-2 pseudo-particles (Vpp) infection assay was tested to validate the effectiveness. We identified an extract from coffee leaf (Coffea Arabica), a natural plant that effectively inhibited wild-type SARS-CoV-2, and five Variants of Concern (Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, and Omicron strain) from entering host cells. In an attempt to apply coffee leaf extract for hand sanitizer or spray-like disinfectants, we designed a skin-like gelatin membrane experiment. We showed that the high concentration of coffee leaf extract on the skin surface could block SARS-CoV-2 into cells more potently than 75% Ethanol, a standard disinfectant to inactivate SARS-CoV-2. Finally, LC-HRMS analysis was used to identify compounds such as caffeine, chlorogenic acid (CGA), quinic acid, and mangiferin that are associated with an anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity. Our results demonstrated that coffee leaf extract, an agricultural by-product effectively inhibits SARS-CoV-2 Vpp infection through an ACE2-dependent mechanism and may be utilized to develop products against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coffea , Hand Sanitizers , Plant Extracts , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Coffea/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
3.
J Biomed Sci ; 29(1): 49, 2022 Jul 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1923546

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the continuous emergence of new SARS-CoV-2 variants that feature increased transmission and immune escape, there is an urgent demand for a better vaccine design that will provide broader neutralizing efficacy. METHODS: We report an mRNA-based vaccine using an engineered "hybrid" receptor binding domain (RBD) that contains all 16 point-mutations shown in the currently prevailing Omicron and Delta variants. RESULTS: A booster dose of hybrid vaccine in mice previously immunized with wild-type RBD vaccine induced high titers of broadly neutralizing antibodies against all tested SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs). In naïve mice, hybrid vaccine generated strong Omicron-specific neutralizing antibodies as well as low but significant titers against other VOCs. Hybrid vaccine also elicited CD8+/IFN-γ+ T cell responses against a conserved T cell epitope present in wild type and all VOCs. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that inclusion of different antigenic mutations from various SARS-CoV-2 variants is a feasible approach to develop cross-protective vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Mice , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
4.
J Clin Invest ; 132(10)2022 05 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846632

ABSTRACT

BackgroundThe Delta and Omicron variants of SARS-CoV-2 are currently responsible for breakthrough infections due to waning immunity. We report phase I/II trial results of UB-612, a multitope subunit vaccine containing S1-RBD-sFc protein and rationally designed promiscuous peptides representing sarbecovirus conserved helper T cell and cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitopes on the nucleocapsid (N), membrane (M), and spike (S2) proteins.MethodWe conducted a phase I primary 2-dose (28 days apart) trial of 10, 30, or 100 µg UB-612 in 60 healthy young adults 20 to 55 years old, and 50 of them were boosted with 100 µg of UB-612 approximately 7 to 9 months after the second dose. A separate placebo-controlled and randomized phase II study was conducted with 2 doses of 100 µg of UB-612 (n = 3,875, 18-85 years old). We evaluated interim safety and immunogenicity of phase I until 14 days after the third (booster) dose and of phase II until 28 days after the second dose.ResultsNo vaccine-related serious adverse events were recorded. The most common solicited adverse events were injection site pain and fatigue, mostly mild and transient. In both trials, UB-612 elicited respective neutralizing antibody titers similar to a panel of human convalescent sera. The most striking findings were long-lasting virus-neutralizing antibodies and broad T cell immunity against SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VoCs), including Delta and Omicron, and a strong booster-recalled memory immunity with high cross-reactive neutralizing titers against the Delta and Omicron VoCs.ConclusionUB-612 has presented a favorable safety profile, potent booster effect against VoCs, and long-lasting B and broad T cell immunity that warrants further development for both primary immunization and heterologous boosting of other COVID-19 vaccines.Trial RegistrationClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04545749, NCT04773067, and NCT04967742.FundingUBI Asia, Vaxxinity Inc., and Taiwan Centers for Disease Control, Ministry of Health and Welfare.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes , Young Adult
5.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-335937

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic continues to threaten human health worldwide, as new variants of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have emerged. Currently, the predominant circulating strains around the world are Omicron variants, which can evade many therapeutic antibodies. Thus, the development of new broadly neutralizing antibodies remains an urgent need. In this work, we address this need by using the mRNA-lipid nanoparticle immunization method to generate a set of Omicron-targeting monoclonal antibodies. Five of our novel K-RBD-mAbs show strong binding and neutralizing activities toward all SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta and Omicron). Notably, the epitopes of these five K-RBD-mAbs are overlapping and localized around K417 and F486 of the spike protein receptor binding domain (RBD). Chimeric derivatives of the five antibodies (K-RBD-chAbs) neutralize Omicron sublineages BA.1 and BA.2 with low IC 50 values that range from 5.7 to 12.9 ng/mL. Additionally, we performed antibody humanization on a broadly neutralizing chimeric antibody to create K-RBD-hAb-62, which still retains excellent neutralizing activity against Omicron. Our results collectively suggest that these five therapeutic antibodies may effectively combat current and emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants, including Omicron BA.1 and BA.2. Therefore, the antibodies can potentially be used as universal neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2.

6.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(639): eabm0899, 2022 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714341

ABSTRACT

A major challenge to end the pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is to develop a broadly protective vaccine that elicits long-term immunity. As the key immunogen, the viral surface spike (S) protein is frequently mutated, and conserved epitopes are shielded by glycans. Here, we revealed that S protein glycosylation has site-differential effects on viral infectivity. We found that S protein generated by lung epithelial cells has glycoforms associated with increased infectivity. Compared to the fully glycosylated S protein, immunization of S protein with N-glycans trimmed to the mono-GlcNAc-decorated state (SMG) elicited stronger immune responses and better protection for human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) transgenic mice against variants of concern (VOCs). In addition, a broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibody was identified from SMG-immunized mice that could neutralize wild-type SARS-CoV-2 and VOCs with subpicomolar potency. Together, these results demonstrate that removal of glycan shields to better expose the conserved sequences has the potential to be an effective and simple approach for developing a broadly protective SARS-CoV-2 vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , Polysaccharides , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/metabolism , Humans , Mice , Models, Animal , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
7.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327285

ABSTRACT

The emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOC) harbor mutations associated with increasing transmission and immune escape, hence undermine the effectiveness of current COVID-19 vaccines. In late November of 2021, the Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant was identified in South Africa and rapidly spread across the globe. It was shown to exhibit significant resistance to neutralization by serum not only from convalescent patients, but also from individuals recieving currently used COVID-19 vaccines with multiple booster shots. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop next generation vaccines against VOCs like Omicron. In this study, we develop a panel of mRNA-LNP-based vaccines using the receptor binding domain (RBD) of Omicron and Delta variants, which are dominant in the current wave of COVID-19. In addition to the Omicron- and Delta-specific vaccines, the panel also includes a Hybrid vaccine that uses the RBD containing all 16 point-mutations shown in Omicron and Delta RBD, as well as a bivalent vaccine composed of both Omicron and Delta RBD-LNP in half dose. Interestingly, both Omicron-specific and Hybrid RBD-LNP elicited extremely high titer of neutralizing antibody against Omicron itself, but few to none neutralizing antibody against other SARS-CoV-2 variants. The bivalent RBD-LNP, on the other hand, generated antibody with broadly neutralizing activity against the wild-type virus and all variants. Surprisingly, similar cross-protection was also shown by the Delta-specifc RBD-LNP. Taken together, our data demonstrated that Omicron-specific mRNA vaccine can induce potent neutralizing antibody response against Omicron, but the inclusion of epitopes from other variants may be required for eliciting cross-protection. This study would lay a foundation for rational development of the next generation vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 VOCs.

8.
Front Immunol ; 12: 771011, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1639016

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is an ongoing pandemic. Detection and vaccination are essential for disease control, but they are distinct and complex operations that require significant improvements. Here, we developed an integrated detection and vaccination system to greatly simplify these efforts. We constructed recombinant baculoviruses to separately display the nucleocapsid (N) and spike (S) proteins of SARS-CoV-2. Insect cells infected by the recombinant baculoviruses were used to generate a cell-based system to accurately detect patient serum. Notably, although well-recognized by our newly developed detection system in which S-displaying insect cells acted as antigen, anti-S antibodies from many patients were barely detectable by Western blot, evidencing that COVID-19 patients primarily produce conformation-dependent anti-S antibodies. Furthermore, the same baculovirus constructs can display N (N-Bac) or S (S-Bac) on the baculovirus envelope and serve as vector vaccines. Animal experiments show that S-Bac or N-Bac immunization in mice elicited a strong and specific antibody response, and S-Bac in particular stimulated effective neutralizing antibodies without the need for adjuvant. Our integrated system maintains antigen conformation and membrane structure to facilitate serum detection and antibody stimulation. Thus, compared with currently available technologies, our system represents a simplified and efficient platform for better SARS-CoV-2 detection and vaccination.


Subject(s)
Baculoviridae/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Baculoviridae/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cell Line , Cell Surface Display Techniques , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Middle Aged , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Phosphoproteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spodoptera , Vaccination , Young Adult
9.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-294970

ABSTRACT

A major challenge to end the pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 is to develop a broadly protective vaccine. As the key immunogen, the spike protein is frequently mutated with conserved epitopes shielded by glycans. Here, we reveal that spike glycosylation has site-differential effects on viral infectivity and lung epithelial cells generate spike with more infective glycoforms. Compared to the fully glycosylated spike, immunization of spike protein with N-glycans trimmed to the monoglycosylated state (S mg ) elicits stronger immune responses and better protection for hACE2 transgenic mice against variants of concern. In addition, a broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibody was identified from the S mg immunized mice, demonstrating that removal of glycan shields to better expose the conserved sequences is an effective and simple approach to broad-spectrum vaccine development. One-Sentence Summary Removing glycan shields to expose conserved epitopes is an effective approach to develop a broad-spectrum SARS-CoV-2 vaccine.

10.
J Biomed Sci ; 28(1): 80, 2021 Nov 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533257

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), an RNA virus with a high mutation rate. Importantly, several currently circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants are associated with loss of efficacy for both vaccines and neutralizing antibodies. METHODS: We analyzed the binding activity of six highly potent antibodies to the spike proteins of SARS-CoV-2 variants, assessed their neutralizing abilities with pseudovirus and authentic SARS-CoV-2 variants and evaluate efficacy of antibody cocktail in Delta SARS-CoV-2-infected hamster models as prophylactic and post-infection treatments. RESULTS: The tested RBD-chAbs, except RBD-chAb-25, maintained binding ability to spike proteins from SARS-CoV-2 variants. However, only RBD-chAb-45 and -51 retained neutralizing activities; RBD-chAb-1, -15, -25 and -28 exhibited diminished neutralization for all SARS-CoV-2 variants. Notably, several cocktails of our antibodies showed low IC50 values (3.35-27.06 ng/ml) against the SARS-CoV-2 variant pseudoviruses including United Kingdom variant B.1.1.7 (Alpha), South Africa variant B.1.351 (Beta), Brazil variant P1 (Gamma), California variant B.1.429 (Epsilon), New York variant B.1.526 (Iota), and India variants, B.1.617.1 (Kappa) and B.1.617.2 (Delta). RBD-chAb-45, and -51 showed PRNT50 values 4.93-37.54 ng/ml when used as single treatments or in combination with RBD-chAb-15 or -28, according to plaque assays with authentic Alpha, Gamma and Delta SARS-CoV-2 variants. Furthermore, the antibody cocktail of RBD-chAb-15 and -45 exhibited potent prophylactic and therapeutic effects in Delta SARS-CoV-2 variant-infected hamsters. CONCLUSIONS: The cocktail of RBD-chAbs exhibited potent neutralizing activities against SARS-CoV-2 variants. These antibody cocktails are highly promising candidate tools for controlling new SARS-CoV-2 variants, including Delta.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/genetics , Humans , Rabbits , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
11.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(11): 1899-1905, 2022 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504298

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Variants of concern (VoCs) have the potential to diminish the neutralizing capacity of antibodies elicited by vaccines. MVC-COV1901 is a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine consisting of recombinant prefusion stabilized spike protein S-2P adjuvanted with CpG 1018 and aluminum hydroxide. We explored the effectiveness of MVC-COV1901 against the VoCs. METHODS: Serum samples were taken from rats and phase 1 clinical trial human subjects immunized with a low, medium, or high dose of MVC-COV1901. The neutralizing titers of serum antibodies were assayed with pseudoviruses coated with the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein of the wild-type (WT), D614G, Alpha, or Beta variants. RESULTS: Rats vaccinated twice with vaccine containing high doses of antigen retained high levels of neutralization activity against the Beta variant, albeit with a slight reduction compared to WT. After the third dose, neutralizing titers against the Beta variant were noticeably enhanced regardless of the amount of antigen used for immunization. In humans, vaccinated phase 1 subjects still showed appreciable neutralization abilities against the D614G, Alpha, and Beta variants, although neutralizing titers were significantly reduced against the Beta variant. CONCLUSIONS: Two doses of MVC-COV1901 were able to elicit neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 variants with an overall tendency of inducing higher immune response at a higher dose level. The neutralizing titers to the Beta variant in rats and humans were lower than those for WT and the Alpha variant. An additional third dose in rats was able to partially compensate for the reduction in neutralization against the Beta variant. We have demonstrated that immunization with MVC-COV1901 was effective against VoCs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Rats , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccines, Subunit , Viral Envelope Proteins
12.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-291772

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infection occurs due to waning immunity time-to-vaccine, to which the globally-dominant, highly-contagious Delta variant is behind the scene. In the primary 2-dose and booster series of clinical Phase-1 trial, UB-612 vaccine, which contains S1-RBD and synthetic Th/CTL peptide pool for activation of humoral and T-cell immunity, induces substantial, prolonged viral-neutralizing antibodies that goes parallel with a long-lasting T-cell immunity;and a booster (3rd ) dose can prompt recall of memory immunity to induce profound, striking antibodies with the highest level of 50% viral-neutralizing GMT titers against live Delta variant reported for any vaccine. The unique design of S1-RBD only plus multitope T-cell peptides may have underpinned UB-612’s potent anti-Delta effect, while the other full S protein-based vaccines are affected additionally by mutations in the N-terminal domain sequence which contains additional neutralizing epitopes. UB-612, safe and well-tolerated, could be effective for boosting other vaccine platforms that have shown modest homologous boosting. [Funded by United Biomedical Inc., Asia;ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT04967742 and NCT04545749]

13.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257191, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1412845

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 in humans is caused by Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) that belongs to the beta family of coronaviruses. SARS-CoV-2 causes severe respiratory illness in 10-15% of infected individuals and mortality in 2-3%. Vaccines are urgently needed to prevent infection and to contain viral spread. Although several mRNA- and adenovirus-based vaccines are highly effective, their dependence on the "cold chain" transportation makes global vaccination a difficult task. In this context, a stable lyophilized vaccine may present certain advantages. Accordingly, establishing additional vaccine platforms remains vital to tackle SARS-CoV-2 and any future variants that may arise. Vaccinia virus (VACV) has been used to eradicate smallpox disease, and several attenuated viral strains with enhanced safety for human applications have been developed. We have generated two candidate SARS-CoV-2 vaccines based on two vaccinia viral strains, MVA and v-NY, that express full-length SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Whereas MVA is growth-restricted in mammalian cells, the v-NY strain is replication-competent. We demonstrate that both candidate recombinant vaccines induce high titers of neutralizing antibodies in C57BL/6 mice vaccinated according to prime-boost regimens. Furthermore, our vaccination regimens generated TH1-biased immune responses in mice. Most importantly, prime-boost vaccination of a Syrian hamster infection model with MVA-S and v-NY-S protected the hamsters against SARS-CoV-2 infection, supporting that these two vaccines are promising candidates for future development. Finally, our vaccination regimens generated neutralizing antibodies that partially cross-neutralized SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/immunology , Vaccinia virus/genetics , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/analysis , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Female , Immunization, Secondary , Lung/pathology , Male , Mesocricetus , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
14.
Front Immunol ; 12: 641360, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247859

ABSTRACT

Human SP-D is a potent innate immune molecule whose presence at pulmonary mucosal surfaces allows its role in immune surveillance against pathogens. Higher levels of serum SP-D have been reported in the patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Studies have suggested the ability of human SP-D to recognise spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV; its interaction with HCoV-229E strain leads to viral inhibition in human bronchial epithelial (16HBE) cells. Previous studies have reported that a recombinant fragment of human SP-D (rfhSP-D) composed of 8 Gly-X-Y repeats, neck and CRD region, can act against a range of viral pathogens including influenza A Virus and Respiratory Syncytial Virus in vitro, in vivo and ex vivo. In this context, this study was aimed at examining the likely protective role of rfhSP-D against SARS-CoV-2 infection. rfhSP-D showed a dose-responsive binding to S1 spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 and its receptor binding domain. Importantly, rfhSP-D inhibited interaction of S1 protein with the HEK293T cells overexpressing human angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (hACE2). The protective role of rfhSP-D against SARS-CoV-2 infection as an entry inhibitor was further validated by the use of pseudotyped lentiviral particles expressing SARS-CoV-2 S1 protein; ~0.5 RLU fold reduction in viral entry was seen following treatment with rfhSP-D (10 µg/ml). These results highlight the therapeutic potential of rfhSP-D in SARS-CoV-2 infection and merit pre-clinical studies in animal models.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Influenza A virus/physiology , Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein D/metabolism , Respiratory Mucosa/physiology , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/physiology , Virion/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Protein Binding , Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein D/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Respiratory Mucosa/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Virus Internalization
15.
EMBO Mol Med ; 13(1): e12828, 2021 01 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-914845

ABSTRACT

To circumvent the devastating pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, a humanized decoy antibody (ACE2-Fc fusion protein) was designed to target the interaction between viral spike protein and its cellular receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). First, we demonstrated that ACE2-Fc could specifically abrogate virus replication by blocking the entry of SARS-CoV-2 spike-expressing pseudotyped virus into both ACE2-expressing lung cells and lung organoids. The impairment of viral entry was not affected by virus variants, since efficient inhibition was also observed in six SARS-CoV-2 clinical strains, including the D614G variants which have been shown to exhibit increased infectivity. The preservation of peptidase activity also enables ACE2-Fc to reduce the angiotensin II-mediated cytokine cascade. Furthermore, this Fc domain of ACE2-Fc was shown to activate NK cell degranulation after co-incubation with Spike-expressing H1975 cells. These promising characteristics potentiate the therapeutic prospects of ACE2-Fc as an effective treatment for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacology , Antibodies, Viral/pharmacology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Chlorocebus aethiops , HEK293 Cells , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/drug effects , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/immunology , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vero Cells
16.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 17(3): 654-655, 2021 03 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-801647

ABSTRACT

A safe and effective vaccine candidate is urgently needed for the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, caused by SARS-CoV-2. Here we report that recombinant SARS-CoV-2 RBD protein immunization in mice is able to elicit a strong antibody response and potent neutralizing capability as measured using live or pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 neutralization assays.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Protein Binding/immunology , Protein Domains/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Cell Line , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mice , Pandemics/prevention & control , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
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