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J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 2022 Apr 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1796470


BACKGROUND: In Taiwan, there were only 799 confirmed COVID-19 cases in 2020. The unique backdrop amidst a pandemic and promotion of nonpharmaceutical interventions generated some distinct changes in the epidemiology of common respiratory pathogens. In this study, we aimed to investigate the dynamic changes in respiratory pathogens in children during 2020. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study at a tertiary hospital in southern Taiwan during 2020. Patients aged 0-18 years who visited the pediatric emergency department were enrolled. Children who presented with clinical symptoms (fever or respiratory illness) and received nasopharyngeal swabs for multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were included in our analysis. We also compared respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) trends from previous years by PCR and lateral flow immunochromatographic assays from 2017 to 2020. RESULTS: A total of 120 children were tested. The overall detection rate was 55%. With strengthened restrictions, the detection rate dropped from 70% to 30%. However, non-enveloped viruses (rhinovirus/enterovirus and adenovirus) were in constant circulation. Upon easing prevention measures, the detection rate remained above 60%, and an outbreak of an enveloped virus (RSV and parainfluenza virus) was noted. Compared with 2017-2019, the cyclical RSV epidemic was delayed, with a large surge in late 2020. CONCLUSIONS: We observed a constant circulation of non-enveloped viruses when strict nonpharmaceutical interventions were employed and a delayed surge of enveloped viruses during the easing of restrictions. Continuous surveillance and monitoring of the evolutionary dynamics of respiratory viruses is important, while easing restrictions requires balanced judgment.

Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477978


BACKGROUND: Lockdown is an effective nonpharmaceutical intervention to reduce coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) transmission, but it restricts daily activity. We aimed to investigate the impact of lockdown on pediatric body weight and body mass index (BMI). METHODS: The systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) statement. Four online databases (EMBASE, Medline, the Cochrane Library and CINAHL) were searched. RESULTS: The pooled results showed that lockdown was associated with significant body weight gain (MD 2.67, 95% CI 2.12-3.23; p < 0.00001). The BMI of children with comorbidities or obesity did not change significantly. The BMI of general population was significantly higher during lockdown than before the pandemic (MD 0.94, 95% CI 0.32-1.56; p = 0.003). However, heterogeneity was high (I2 = 84%). Among changes in weight classification, increases in the rates of obesity (OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.10-1.37; p = 0.0002) and overweight (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.06-1.29; p = 0.001) were reported. CONCLUSIONS: Our meta-analysis showed significant increases in body weight and BMI during lockdown among school-age children and adolescents. The prevalence of obesity and overweight also increased. The COVID-19 pandemic worsened the burden of childhood obesity.

Body Mass Index , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Quarantine/methods , Social Isolation , Weight Gain , Adolescent , Child , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2