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Artif Organs ; 2022 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685202


BACKGROUND: Patients with COVID-19 infection are at increased risk of thrombosis. We wished to determine whether this was is due to an increase in prothrombotic or reduction in anticoagulant factors and whether heparin would be an appropriate anticoagulant. METHODS: We measured routine coagulation and prothrombotic factors in dialysis patients after a positive COVID-19 test between March 2020 -April 2021. RESULTS: Routine coagulation tests were measured in 227 dialysis patients, 148 males (65.2%), median age 67.5 (53.8-77.0) years. The international normalized ratio was prolonged in 11.5%, activated partial thromboplastin time in 48.5%, thrombin time in 57%. Factor VIII was increased in 59.1%, fibrinogen 73.8%, and D-dimer 95.5%. Protein C was reduced in 15.3%, protein S 28%, and antithrombin (AT) in 12.1%. Two patients were Lupus anticoagulant positive, and two Factor VLeiden positive. Factor VIII levels increased with clinical disease; outpatients 159 (136-179) IU/dl, hospitalized but not ventilated 228 (167-311) IU, ventilated 432 (368-488) IU/dl (p < 0.01). Overall 75% had an AT level ≥ 88 IU/dl (reference range 79-106), but only 11.7% of non-hospitalized patients compared to 45% of those who died, p < 0.01, fibrinogen, D-dimers, and protein S or C did not differ with clinical disease severity, whether patients required hospital admission or not and between survivors and those who died. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 dialysis patients have increased levels of fibrinogen and D-Dimers, but only factor VIII levels in the clotting profile increased with clinical disease severity increasing systemic hypercoagulability. AT concentrations are maintained and as such should not compromise anticoagulation with heparins.

Ther Adv Hematol ; 12: 20406207211048364, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582496


Background: COVID-19 patients present with both elevated D-dimer and a higher incidence of pulmonary embolism (PE). This single-centre retrospective observational study investigated the prevalence of early PE in COVID-19 patients and its relation to D-dimer at presentation. Methods: The study included 1038 COVID-19-positive patients, with 1222 emergency department (ED) attendances over 11 weeks (16 March to 31 May 2020). Computed tomography pulmonary angiogram (CTPA) for PE was performed in 123 patients within 48 h of ED presentation, of whom 118 had D-dimer results. The remaining 875 attendances had D-dimer performed. Results: CTPA performed in 11.8% of patients within 48 h of ED presentation confirmed PE in 37.4% (46/123). Thrombosis was observed at all levels of pulmonary vasculature with and without right ventricular strain. In the CTPA cohort, patients with PE had significantly higher D-dimer, prothrombin time, C-reactive protein, troponin, total bilirubin, neutrophils, white cell count and lower albumin compared with non-PE patients. However, there was no difference in the median duration of inpatient stay or mortality. A receiver operator curve analysis demonstrated that D-dimer could discriminate between PE and non-PE COVID-19 patients (area under the curve of 0.79, p < 0.0001). Furthermore, 43% (n = 62/145) of patients with D-dimer >5000 ng/ml had CTPA with PE confirmed in 61% (n = 38/62), that is, 26% of >5000 ng/ml cohort. The sensitivity and specificity were related to D-dimer level; cutoffs of 2000, 3000, 4000, and 5000 ng/ml, respectively, had a sensitivity of 93%, 90%, 90% and 86%, and a specificity of 38%, 54%, 59% and 68%, and if implemented, an additional 229, 141, 106 and 83 CTPAs would be required. Conclusion: Our data suggested an increased PE prevalence in COVID-19 patients attending ED with an elevated D-dimer, and patients with levels >5000 ng/ml might benefit from CTPA to exclude concomitant PE.

J Thromb Haemost ; 18(7): 1548-1555, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-116254


The global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which requires ventilation in critically ill patients. The pathophysiology of ARDS results from acute inflammation within the alveolar space and prevention of normal gas exchange. The increase in proinflammatory cytokines within the lung leads to recruitment of leukocytes, further propagating the local inflammatory response. A consistent finding in ARDS is the deposition of fibrin in the air spaces and lung parenchyma. COVID-19 patients show elevated D-dimers and fibrinogen. Fibrin deposits are found in the lungs of patients due to the dysregulation of the coagulation and fibrinolytic systems. Tissue factor (TF) is exposed on damaged alveolar endothelial cells and on the surface of leukocytes promoting fibrin deposition, while significantly elevated levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) from lung epithelium and endothelial cells create a hypofibrinolytic state. Prophylaxis treatment of COVID-19 patients with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) is important to limit coagulopathy. However, to degrade pre-existing fibrin in the lung it is essential to promote local fibrinolysis. In this review, we discuss the repurposing of fibrinolytic drugs, namely tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA), to treat COVID-19 associated ARDS. tPA is an approved intravenous thrombolytic treatment, and the nebulizer form has been shown to be effective in plastic bronchitis and is currently in Phase II clinical trial. Nebulizer plasminogen activators may provide a targeted approach in COVID-19 patients to degrade fibrin and improving oxygenation in critically ill patients.

Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Fibrinolysis/drug effects , Fibrinolytic Agents/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Drug Repositioning , Fibrinolytic Agents/adverse effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombolytic Therapy/adverse effects , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome