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1.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 11(12):e40068, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2154532

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Digital equity denotes that all individuals and communities have equitable access to the information technology required to participate in digital life and can fully capitalize on this technology for their individual and community gain and benefits. Recent research highlighted that COVID-19 heightened the existing structural inequities and further exacerbated the technology-related social divide, especially for racialized communities, including new immigrants, refugees, and ethnic minorities. The intersection of challenges associated with racial identity (eg, racial discrimination and cultural differences), socioeconomic marginalization, and age- and gender-related barriers affects their access to health and social services, education, economic activity, and social life owing to digital inequity. OBJECTIVE: Our aim is to understand the current state of knowledge on digital equity and the digital divide (which is often considered a complex social-political challenge) among racialized communities in urban cities of high-income countries and how they impact the social interactions, economic activities, and mental well-being of racialized city dwellers. METHODS: We will conduct an integrative review adapting the Whittemore and Knafl methodology to summarize past empirical or theoretical literature describing digital equity issues pertaining to urban racialized communities. The context will be limited to studies on multicultural cities in high-income countries (eg, Calgary, Alberta) in the last 10 years. We will use a comprehensive search of 8 major databases across multiple disciplines and gray literature (eg, Google Scholar), using appropriate search terms related to digital "in/equity" and "divide." A 2-stage screening will be conducted, including single citation tracking and a hand search of reference lists. Results will be synthesized using thematic analysis guidelines. RESULTS: As of August 25, 2022, we have completed a systematic search of 8 major academic databases from multiple disciplines, gray literature, and citation or hand searching. After duplicate removal, we identified 8647 articles from all sources. Two independent reviewers are expected to complete the 2-step screening (title, , and full-text screening) using Covidence followed by data extraction and analysis in 4 months (by December 2022). Data will be extracted regarding digital equity-related initiatives, programs, activities, research findings, issues, barriers, policies, recommendations, etc. Thematic analysis will reveal how barriers and facilitators of digital equity affect or benefit racialized population groups and what social, material, and systemic issues need to be addressed to establish digital equity for racialized communities in the context of a multicultural city. CONCLUSIONS: This project will inform public policy about digital inequity alongside conventional systemic inequities (eg, education and income levels);promote digital equity by exploring and examining the pattern, extent, and determinants and barriers of digital inequity across sociodemographic variables and groups;and analyze its interconnectedness with spatial dimensions and variations of the urban sphere (geographic differences). INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/40068.

2.
Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology ; 15(1):4749-4756, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2125962

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 is a highly infectious respiratory disorder affecting millions around the world. Practitioners from various sectors of the medical field are deliberating and daily exchanging knowledge to understand this disease, along with ongoing research related to the vaccines and medications for combating it. Design and methods: This is a cross sectional study conducted among the health care professionals of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia using an online survey. A total 571 participants from Riyadh were used in this study and were contacted using social media.

3.
Quantitative Biology ; 10(2):188-207, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1955124

ABSTRACT

Background: Due to the limited availability and high cost of the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test, many studies have proposed machine learning techniques for detecting COVID-19 from medical imaging. The purpose of this study is to systematically review, assess and synthesize research articles that have used different machine learning techniques to detect and diagnose COVID-19 from chest X-ray and CT scan images. Methods: A structured literature search was conducted in the relevant bibliographic databases to ensure that the survey solely centered on reproducible and high-quality research. We selected papers based on our inclusion criteria. Results: In this survey, we reviewed 98 articles that fulfilled our inclusion criteria. We have surveyed a complete pipeline of chest imaging analysis techniques related to COVID-19, including data collection, pre-processing, feature extraction, classification, and visualization. We have considered CT scans and X-rays as both are widely used to describe the latest developments in medical imaging to detect COVID-19. Conclusions: This survey provides researchers with valuable insights into different machine learning techniques and their performance in the detection and diagnosis of COVID-19 from chest imaging. At the end, the challenges and limitations in detecting COVID-19 using machine learning techniques and the future direction of research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2022.

4.
1st Asia Pacific International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management, IEOM 2021 ; : 391-392, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1743682

ABSTRACT

The pandemic, COVID 19, has affected global economy severely which caused an outbreak of crisis in all sectors of business. Firms are struggling to keep up with the normal functions in different stages of supply chain which brought sustainability under a big risk. Concerned by the COVID-19 outbreak, the main aim of this paper is to determine the threatening barriers to supply chain sustainability in the pharmaceutical industry of the South Asian region. This industry is one of the most pivotal and developing sectors in the south Asian region with respect to other industries in this region. Although economic growth is noticeable in this sector, many questions are arising about its sustainability and resilience in a true sense amidst the global pandemic. To establish the sustainability of this sector under a pandemic scenario, the major barriers in terms of social, economic, and environmental perspectives have been identified and analysed in this research. Twenty crucial constraints have been identified and classified in five categories through an extensive study of literature and opinion of industry expert. This paper uses, Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM) approach to develop the hierarchical structure and connection between these obstacles. ISM presents the interdependency of the driving and driven power of these barriers. Another modernistic approach, Matrix of Cross-Impact Multiplications Applied to Classification (MICMAC), has been used to recognize the barriers as driving factors, dependent variables, and link variables using. The modelling of this study provides companies insight into obstacles and the efficient and effective management of their resources while making their supply chains sustainable. The study closes by discussing findings and future area of the research. © IEOM Society International.

5.
2nd South American Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management, IEOM 2021 ; : 1315-1325, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1589600

ABSTRACT

Supply chains are encountering more uncertain conditions and risks. Disruptions that impede the flow of material through a supply chain that can also result in failure to deliver end goods are a significant category of risks. The consequence of the Covid-19 outbreak has led to shut down production in the supply chain system, resulting in significant impediments for many foreign supply-dependent enterprises. The constraints cause substantial disruptions of the supply chain, production delays, and supplier delays. In recent years, managing supply chain risks has been given more importance to protect supply chains from interruptions by forecasts and prevention. The effects of disruptions on logistics, costs, demand, profits, and inventory levels of the supply chain are analyzed. SVM is one of the most convenient and effective supervised learning algorithms commonly used for classification and regression challenges. This paper presents a modernistic machine learning model, multi-category support vector machines (MC-SVM) algorithm through training on selected samples. In order to abet MC-SVM model to perform well on imbalanced data, k-means clustering algorithm has been proposed to classify clusters of nodes at-disruption, which share similar interruption profiles and can find the relationships between the data object, provide massive information and contribute significantly to accelerating classification and prediction of the SVM model. Data from portfolios of different firms in pharmaceutical industry has been used to train the MC-SVM model which maps the economic performance of a firm to a certain type of supply chain disruption (SCD). The potentiality of this research will privilege better management of the supply chain and thus will permit a network to approach faster response times to the customer, lower costs in all respects of the chain and to the end customer terrific levels of stretch-ability, lower inventories throughout the chain, and diminished the bottleneck effect in the supply chain logistics. © IEOM Society International.

6.
2nd South American Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management, IEOM 2021 ; : 1372-1381, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1589470

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic has significantly interrupted the global production and supply chain operation in all aspects of the consumer market. Along with other domains, the pharmaceutical industry has experienced its outbreaks on supply chain drivers impacting sustainable production and consumption patterns during the post-pandemic era. This motive stimulated the necessity for analyzing supply chain disruptions that severely affected logistics, procurement, production and distribution in the supply chain. Elimination of these disruptions in the supply chain may depend on many critical drivers which can accelerate the implementation of sustainability thus enhancing the performance of the supply chain in the context of an impending environment. In order to improve the resilience and performance of the supply chain, this study identifies and addresses those critical drivers and characterizes them based on their percentage implemented by Pareto analysis. Furthermore, a grey based Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) model is proposed to establish the causal relationships among these critical drivers. The findings of this work will demonstrate the structure and interrelationships between drivers and identify the most critical drivers for a long term sustainability of supply chain to eliminate disruptions in the supply chain. The findings can pave a way to business managers, policymakers and other stakeholders in numerous industries to identify critical drivers in attaining undisrupted business environment in the pandemic context. © IEOM Society International.

7.
Lifestyle Medicine ; : e52, 2021.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1557793

ABSTRACT

Introduction Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patients and survivors face stigma, discrimination, and negligence. The motives for and the different types and consequences of COVID-19-related stigmatization remain underexplored in Bangladesh. Therefore, this study examined how the COVID-19 stigmatization process is interlinked with transmission flow. Methods Using a qualitative research design, we conducted 20 in-depth interviews with infected and suspected caregivers and five key informant interviews with physicians, local media representatives, leaders, law enforcement officials, and local administrative officials in three divisional cities of Bangladesh. We performed thematic analysis to analyze the data. Results Participants expressed their experiences with multiple subthemes within three themes (stigma related to symptoms, stigma associated with isolation and quarantine, and stigma associated with health services). Participants reportedly faced stigma, for example, exclusion, hesitation to interact, avoidance, bullying, threat, and negligence caused by misinformation, rumors, and fear. Stigmatized individuals reportedly hid their symptoms and refrained from seeking healthcare services, contributing to COVID-19 transmission flow. Conclusion Revealed insights may contribute to effective prevention, control, and management of such an emerging pandemic. Further in-depth exploration of such stigmatization process will enrich unexpected outbreaks management effectively.

8.
IEEE International Conference on Electro Information Technology (EIT) ; : 146-150, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1537686

ABSTRACT

The effects of the Covid pandemic have been, similar to the population at-large, unequal on academicians - some groups have been more susceptible than others. Traditional CVs are inadequate to highlight these imbalances. CovidCV is a framework for academicians that allows them to document their life in a holistic way during the pandemic. It creates a color-coded CV from the user's data entries documenting the work and home life and categorizing corresponding events as good or bad. It, thus, provides a visual representation of an academician's life during the current pandemic. The user can mark any event as major or minor indicating the impact of the event on their life. The CovidCV prototypical system is developed using a three tier architecture. The first tier, the front-end, is a user interface layer that is a web application. This prototype has a back-end layer consisting of two tiers which are responsible for handling the business logic and the data management respectively. The CovidCV system design is described in this paper. A preliminary experimentation with the prototype highlights the usefulness of CovidCV.

9.
The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India ; 69(7):11-12, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1431386

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since its first identification in December 2019, in WUHAN (CHINA), SARS-COV-2, causative agent of Corona virus pandemic, has affected millions of people worldwide, causing thousands of death. There is much speculation about the interplay between ACEI/ARB and Corona virus infection, as for internalization into host cell SARS-COV-2 binds through S spike protein to ACE-2, aided TMPRSS2. METHODS: A record based observational study has been conducted (data obtained from the clinics of fourteen physicians) in two worst affected districts of West Bengal, to find out the association of ACEI/ARB on patients, suffering from Corona virus infection. The study-protocol has already been approved by Clinical Research Ethics Committee of Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine. (IEC Ref. No: CREC-STM/2020-AS-37) Results: Increasing age, male sex and presence of co-morbidities (viz. Diabetes, COPD) are significantly associated with the occurrence of moderate and severe disease. Drugs (viz. ACEI/ARB), though are associated with less severe disease, have not achieved statistical significance, in the present study. CONCLUSION: Drugs, like ACEI/ARB, should be continued in patients suffering from COVID-19 infection, (if they are already on these drugs). © Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 2011.

10.
Journal of Association of Physicians of India ; 69(7):28-33, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1361002

ABSTRACT

Background: Since its first identification in December 2019, in WUHAN (CHINA), SARS-COV-2, causative agent of Corona virus pandemic, has affected millions of people worldwide, causing thousands of death. There is much speculation about the interplay between ACEI/ARB and Corona virus infection, as for internalization into host cell SARS-COV-2 binds through S spike protein to ACE-2, aided TMPRSS2. Methods: A record based observational study has been conducted (data obtained from the clinics of fourteen physicians) in two worst affected districts of West Bengal, to find out the association of ACEI/ARB on patients, suffering from Corona virus infection. The study-protocol has already been approved by Clinical Research Ethics Committee of Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine. (IEC Ref. No: CREC-STM/2020-AS-37) Results: Increasing age, male sex and presence of co-morbidities (viz. Diabetes, COPD) are significantly associated with the occurrence of moderate and severe disease. Drugs (viz. ACEI/ARB), though are associated with less severe disease, have not achieved statistical significance, in the present study. Conclusion: Drugs, like ACEI/ARB, should be continued in patients suffering from COVID-19 infection, (if they are already on these drugs). © 2021 Journal of Association of Physicians of India. All rights reserved.

11.
2021 IEEE International Conference on Electro Information Technology, EIT 2021 ; 2021-May:146-150, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1354429

ABSTRACT

The effects of the Covid pandemic have been, similar to the population at-large, unequal on academicians - some groups have been more susceptible than others. Traditional CVs are inadequate to highlight these imbalances. CovidCV is a framework for academicians that allows them to document their life in a holistic way during the pandemic. It creates a color-coded CV from the user's data entries documenting the work and home life and categorizing corresponding events as good or bad. It, thus, provides a visual representation of an academician's life during the current pandemic. The user can mark any event as major or minor indicating the impact of the event on their life. The CovidCV prototypical system is developed using a three tier architecture. The first tier, the front-end, is a user interface layer that is a web application. This prototype has a back-end layer consisting of two tiers which are responsible for handling the business logic and the data management respectively. The CovidCV system design is described in this paper. A preliminary experimentation with the prototype highlights the usefulness of CovidCV. © 2021 IEEE.

12.
Annals of Emergency Medicine ; 78(2):S39-S40, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1351523

ABSTRACT

Study Objectives: As the COVID-19 pandemic continues, it is necessary to elucidate its impact on services in the emergency department (ED). The research project aims to identify and analyze changes in medical presentations and disease severity within the ED at Hurley Medical Center (HMC) in Flint, Michigan due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: The present study is a retrospective chart review on HMC’s ED encounters focusing on adults 18 years and above in Flint/Genesee County in Michigan. Data collected for the study was obtained from patient charts from February 1, 2019 to July 31, 2019 and from February 1, 2020 to July 31, 2020. Data from 2019 versus 2020 was analyzed using a combination of independent t-test, chi-square analysis, and regression modeling. Results: There were a total of 59,345 visits analyzed within the study;33,648 ED visits within the study were in 2019 compared to 25,697 visits in 2020. There was a significant difference in patient sex between 2019 and 2020 with a larger percentage of males presenting in 2020 vs 2019 (p<0.001). Furthermore, the ICD-10 diagnosis differed between 2019 and 2020 with significant increase in the percentage of infectious disease, COVID-19, generalized symptoms, pneumonia, respiratory failure/insufficiency/arrest, patients with socioeconomic factors, mental health, nausea/vomiting, patients with history or family history of chronic disease, disorders of lipid metabolism, and myocardial infarction presentations in 2020 compared to 2019. Dispositions also significantly differed in 2020 compared to 2019 with more patients receiving admission or dying in the ED (p<0.001). Patients who presented to the ED often presented with more severe illness in 2020 as reflected in increased length of stay in 2020 (p=0.01) and increased case-medical-index (p<0.001). Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic significantly reduced the total number of ED visits to HMC in Flint, Michigan in 2020, when compared to the same time period in 2019. Notably, patients were more likely to have a longer length-of-stay, present with more severe illness, and more likely to be admitted or pass away in the ED when compared to the same time period in 2019. Analysis also revealed that visits for respiratory diagnoses and other life-threatening conditions like myocardial infarction increased, whereas less life-threatening/acute conditions like sprains, urinary tract infections, and sexually transmitted infections decreased. Interestingly as well, the pandemic drove statistically significant increased visits for mental health and socioeconomic factors. Limitations include analyzing 6 months of data as opposed to the whole calendar year and the use of broad ICD-10 code categories. It is also important to note that diagnosis codes were analyzed versus what the patient subjectively presented for, so there is a gray area between being able to elucidate what motivated the patient to come to the ED and verus what was analyzed in this project as patient’s ICD-10 diagnoses. [Formula presented] [Formula presented] [Formula presented] [Formula presented] [Formula presented]

13.
Brics Law Journal ; 8(2):10-40, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1339776

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 narrative spotlights the necessity to conserve biological diversity (biodiversity) including ecosystems and wildlife. Biodiversity problems are global, and associated governance issues range beyond geographical and spatial boundaries. The globalisation and internationalisation of biodiversity concerns have resulted in the emergence of biodiversity legal frameworks designed to conserve and sustainably use our planet's biological resources. As an "organic and evolving discipline," biodiversity laws are increasingly important and affect the Earth's natural systems that support human life. The article analyses the judicial space that makes, interprets and enforces laws that conserve and support the sustainable use of biodiversity. The proactive, creative judiciary, acting as amicus environment, has produced a major shift in the Indian environmental landscape. The use of public interest litigation (PIL) in both environmental and biodiversity matters is welcomed by the senior judiciary (Supreme Court and High Courts) and also by the specialised environmental tribunal, National Green Tribunal (NGT). The terminological reach of the popular descriptive words, environment, nature and ecology, on occasions including biodiversity, introduced matters litigated in the courts and tribunal. The combination of legal, scientific, and technical expertise in the three judicial fora recognize and consider conservation and protection of biodiversity as an inextricable part of life. The article follows the chronological path of biodiversity litigation, i.e. pre 1992-2002;then 2002-2010 and finally 2010-2020 and examines significant aspects of the three decades of biodiversity litigation.

14.
International Journal of One Health ; 6(2):153-159, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1005127

ABSTRACT

Background and Aim: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been announced as a life-threatening, highly transmissible infectious novel emerging disease worldwide. Rapid detection and epidemiological information are desperately needed to overcome the existing pandemic situation and alleviate national and international crises. Still, to date, there is no significant epidemiological study of COVID-19 available in Bangladesh, especially in the Chattogram division. However, the current study focuses on molecular detection, prevalence, and risk factors associated with COVID-19 in Southern Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: Standard diagnostic protocols through real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) were performed for molecular confirmation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Different patient demographics were analyzed for exploring the relationship of four factors – region, sex, age, and symptoms with the accumulated number of COVID-19 cases in the Southern Bangladesh during the period of May 13, 2020, to June 12, 2020. Results: A total of 2954 samples were tested where the cumulative prevalence of circulating SARS-CoV-2 was 29.76% (n=879;95% CI: 28.11-31.44) in the selected study region. Among the risk factors, the present study revealed that flatland people (35.62%, 95% CI 33.61-37.67, OR=3.13) were more vulnerable to getting infected by SARS-CoV-2 than the people living in hill tracts (13.04%, 95% CI 10.73-15.63). People older than 50 years (34.68%, 95% CI 30.38-39.18) were designated the highest risk than other different age groups. A higher number of COVID-19 cases were confirmed in patients (36.0%, 95% CI 33.77-38.29, OR=1.76) with typical symptoms, but interestingly a significant number of asymptomatic carriers (20.39%, 95% CI 18.13-22.80) also positive for SARS-CoV-2. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first epidemiological report in the Southern Bangladesh for COVID-19. The study’s findings will contribute to health professionals and the policy-makers to take preventive measures against the next outbreak emergency for Bangladesh. Copyright: Rana, et al. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/ publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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