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1.
PLoS Pathogens ; 18(12):e1010994, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2162605

ABSTRACT

The emergence of new variants of SARS-CoV-2 necessitates unremitting efforts to discover novel therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Here, we report an extremely potent mAb named P4A2 that can neutralize all the circulating variants of concern (VOCs) with high efficiency, including the highly transmissible Omicron. The crystal structure of the P4A2 Fab:RBD complex revealed that the residues of the RBD that interact with P4A2 are a part of the ACE2-receptor-binding motif and are not mutated in any of the VOCs. The pan coronavirus pseudotyped neutralization assay confirmed that the P4A2 mAb is specific for SARS-CoV-2 and its VOCs. Passive administration of P4A2 to K18-hACE2 transgenic mice conferred protection, both prophylactically and therapeutically, against challenge with VOCs. Overall, our data shows that, the P4A2 mAb has immense therapeutic potential to neutralize the current circulating VOCs. Due to the overlap between the P4A2 epitope and ACE2 binding site on Spike-RBD, P4A2 may also be highly effective against a number of future variants.

2.
India Migration Report 2021: Migrants and Health ; : 223-245, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2066984

ABSTRACT

This chapter discusses some of the important issues of migrant population in the context of COVID-19 pandemic. Most of the unskilled/semi-skilled workers earn subsistence levels of wages, and no social protection is available. Central and state governments and society did not take any concrete measures to address their concerns related to livelihood and health, especially during the nationwide lockdown and phased unlocking period. This qualitative study was conducted to understand the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on their lives and livelihood. We also explored the common vulnerabilities that migrants faced across the states and the type of assistance they received from various stakeholders. Health care and health-seeking behaviour during COVID times were other important areas that we focused upon. © 2022 selection and editorial matter, S. Irudaya Rajan;individual chapters, the contributors.

3.
Journal of Scientometric Research ; 11(1):47-54, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1897066

ABSTRACT

This study aims to analyze the dynamics of the published articles and preprints of Covid-19 related literature from different scientific databases and sharing platforms. The PubMed, ScienceDirect, and ResearchGate (RG) databases were under consideration in this study over a specific time. Analyses were carried out on the number of publications as (a) function of time (day), (b) journals and (c) authors. Doubling time of the number of publications was analyzed for PubMed "all articles" and ScienceDirect published articles. Analyzed databases were (1A) PubMed (01/12/2019-12/06/2020) "all_articles" (16) PubMed Review articles) and (1C) PubMed Clinical Trials (2) ScienceDirect all publications (01/12/2019- 25/05/2020) (3) RG (Article, Pre Print, Technical Report) (15/04/2020 - 30/4/2020). Total publications in the observation period for PubMed, ScienceDirect, and RG were 23000, 5898 and 5393 respectively. The average number of publications/day for PubMed, ScienceDirect and RG were 70.0 +/- 128.6, 77.6 +/- 125.3 and 255.6 +/- 205.8 respectively. PubMed shows an avalanche in the number of publications around May 10, the number of publications jumped from 6.0 +/- 8.4/day to 282.5 +/- 110.3/ day. The average doubling time for PubMed, ScienceDirect, and RG was 10.3 +/- 4 days, 20.6 days, and 2.3 +/- 2.0 days respectively. The average number of publications per author for PubMed, ScienceDirect, and RG was 1.2 +/- 1.4, 1.3 +/- 0.9, and 1.1 +/- 0.4 respectively. Subgroup analysis, PubMed review articles mean review <0 vertical bar 17 +/- 17 vertical bar 77> days: and reducing at a rate of -0.21 days (count)/day. The number of publications related to the COVID-19 until now is huge and growing very fast with time. It is essential to rationalize and limit the publications.

4.
PLoS Global Public Health ; 2(4), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1854946

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, workplace violence was widespread against healthcare personnel. Workplace violence (WPV) against nurses exhilarates their turnover intention (TI). The objective of this study was to investigate the association between workplace violence and turnover intention and also identify other factors associated with TI among Bangladeshi female nurses. An exploratory cross-sectional study was carried out among 881 female nurses between April 26 and July 10, 2021. The TI of the female nurses was the outcome variable of this study. The primary exposure variable was WPV faced by the nurses. Workplace Violence Scale (WPVS) was used to measure the WPV, and Turnover Intention Scale-6 (TIS-6) was used to measure the TI of the nurses. Multiple linear regression model was fitted to find the adjusted association of TI with WPV and other study variables. A stratified analysis by type of job (government vs. private) was also performed. The majority of the nurses (74.46%) faced low to high levels of WPV. The overall mean score of TIS was found 16.33 (+or- 4.72). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that compared to government jobholders, the mean score of TIS (15.81 vs. 17.20) was found significantly higher among the private jobholders (p < 0.001). Nurses exposed to the intermediate and high level of WPV had a significantly higher TI score (beta = 4.35, 95% CI: 3.36, 5.34) than the non-exposures. The TI of private jobholders was found significantly higher (beta = 2.04, 95% CI: 1.09, 3.00) than the government jobholders. Compared to diploma degree holders, significantly higher TI was observed among the B.Sc. degree holders (beta = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.22, 1.55) and M.Sc. degree holders (beta = 1.46, 95% CI: 0.58, 2.34). Besides, the nurses who did not get timely salaries scored higher TI (beta = 1.17, 95% CI: 0.12, 2.22). Moreover, the nurses who did not receive any training against WPV scored significantly higher TI (beta = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.03, 2.74). The stratified analysis by type of job also revealed significant factors of TI in government and private settings. This study found a high prevalence of WPV and a high rate of TI among Bangladeshi female nurses. Moreover, this study explored an association between WPV and TI. The study findings could help policymakers facilitate a comfortable working environment by preventing WPV and addressing the factors to reduce nurses' frequent TI.

6.
Economic and Political Weekly ; 56(41):54-60, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1481706

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has been an unprecedented exogenous shock in the world economy unlike the global financial crisis in 2008, which was endogenously determined in the structure of capitalist financial market. Given the fact that Indian export sector significantly contributes to the Indian economy in general and employment in particular, it is worth examining how the Indian gross domestic product and exports changed in comparison with the world GDP and world exports respectively, in the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020-21 vis-à-vis the GFC in 2008. Which industries are affected the most, in terms of export loss, during this COVID-19 crisis? What have been the consequences of these falling export on employment and earnings in the Indian export sector? This study estimates that in the COVID-19 year 2020-21, Indian exports have fallen by 3.74 lakh crore, with a plausible loss of direct employment by 5.06 lakh and an estimated loss of earnings around 12.4 thousand crore across 85 commodities. © 2021 Economic and Political Weekly. All rights reserved.

7.
International Journal of Information and Education Technology ; 11(8):356-367, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1317359

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused major disruptions in every sector of human activity around the world. The education sector is no exception. Due to physical restrictions in accessing campus infrastructures, students and instructors at academic institutions have forcibly adapted to the new norm of virtual learning with mixed expectations and outcomes. There have been several studies conducted by educational practitioners since the pandemic began, which mostly focused on how academic constituents quickly adapt to virtual learning in a general sense. The main objective of this study is to examine the effects of virtual learning infrastructure and environment on student learning, specific to the civil engineering program at Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd University (PMU). A survey was distributed to civil engineering students at PMU at the end of the fall 2020 term to gather perceptions about virtual learning and check the adequacy of online learning tools and associated environments. Student performance during virtual learning in terms of grade achievement was also investigated and compared with a normal situation. In general, it was found that students are satisfied with the current technology used to facilitate virtual learning. The anticipated outcomes of this study, including online technology readiness, curriculum adjustment, and teaching styles or methods, are to be used for virtual learning improvement should the current pandemic restriction extend to the end of the 2020–21 academic year and possibly far beyond. © 2021, International Journal of Information and Education Technology. All rights reserved.

8.
Diabetic Medicine ; 38(SUPPL 1):42, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1238417

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Hypoglycaemia has manifold potential aetiologies, from environmental to iatrogenic, presenting in isolation to as part of syndrome, from insulin excess to defects in endogenous pathways, and simple Mendelian to complex modes of inheritance. We investigated 3 patients with Hypoglycaemic Episodes (HE) in December 2020 in a District General Hospital. Case series: • A 27-year- old man without co-morbidities presenting with neuroglycopaenic symptoms and HE, with a family history of maternal neuroendocrine tumour. During the 72-hour fast, patient developed hypoglycaemia (1.8 mmol/L) with inappropriately raised c-peptides (718 nmol/L) and insulin (25.7 pmol/L) levels. MRI pancreas demonstrated 1-cm lesion in tail. MRI pituitary was normal in spite of raised prolactin (687 mIU/L). Started on Diazoxide, he is awaiting pancreatic surgery and genetic testing. • A 85-year- old woman with heart failure presented with hypothermia, hypotension and hypoglycaemia (1.4 mmol/L). Treated for urosepsis with normal 9 am cortisol, fasting HE persisted. Medication review led to sacubitril as rare cause for HE. This was proven on resolution of HE on stopping of culprit agent. • A 67-year- old woman, type 1 diabetic for 50 years with dementia, referred for severe HE throughout 24 hours. Normal 9 am cortisol ruled out Addison's and clinical examination ruled out lipoatrophy/hypertrophy. Though erratic diet accounted for HE, district nurse administration made BD mix insulin imperative. Careful written dietary guidance with carer supervision was introduced to avoid life-threatening HE. Conclusion: Hypoglycaemia affects life and livelihood with varying aetiologies. Thus we should always be on the lookout for causes and think outside the box.

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