Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 4 de 4
Filter
1.
JRSM Cardiovasc Dis ; 10: 20480040211059374, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528667

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Susceptibility to and severity of COVID-19 is associated with risk factors for and presence of cardiovascular disease. METHODS: We performed a 2-sample Mendelian randomization to determine whether blood pressure (BP), body mass index (BMI), presence of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and coronary artery disease (CAD) are causally related to presentation with severe COVID-19. Variant-exposure instrumental variable associations were determined from most recently published genome-wide association and meta-analysis studies (GWAS) with publicly available summary-level GWAS data. Variant-outcome associations were obtained from a recent GWAS meta-analysis of laboratory confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 with severity determined according to need for hospitalization/death. We also examined reverse causality using exposure as diagnosis of severe COVID-19 causing cardiovascular disease. RESULTS: We found no evidence for a causal association of cardiovascular risk factors/disease with severe COVID-19 (compared to population controls), nor evidence of reverse causality. Causal odds ratios (OR, by inverse variance weighted regression) for BP (OR for COVID-19 diagnosis 1.00 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99-1.01, P = 0.604] per genetically predicted increase in BP) and T2DM (OR for COVID-19 diagnosis to that of genetically predicted T2DM 1.02 [95% CI: 0.9-1.05, P = 0.927], in particular, were close to unity with relatively narrow confidence intervals. CONCLUSION: The association between cardiovascular risk factors/disease with that of hospitalization with COVID-19 reported in observational studies could be due to residual confounding by socioeconomic factors and /or those that influence the indication for hospital admission.

2.
Hypertension ; 77(6): 2014-2022, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1221676

ABSTRACT

Presence of heart failure is associated with a poor prognosis in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The aim of the present study was to examine whether first-phase ejection fraction (EF1), the ejection fraction measured in early systole up to the time of peak aortic velocity, a sensitive measure of preclinical heart failure, is associated with survival in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. A retrospective outcome study was performed in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 who underwent echocardiography (n=380) at the West Branch of the Union Hospital, Wuhan, China and in patients admitted to King's Health Partners in South London, United Kingdom. Association of EF1 with survival was performed using Cox proportional hazards regression. EF1 was compared in patients with COVID-19 and in historical controls with similar comorbidities (n=266) who had undergone echocardiography before the COVID-19 pandemic. In patients with COVID-19, EF1 was a strong predictor of survival in each patient group (Wuhan and London). In the combined group, EF1 was a stronger predictor of survival than other clinical, laboratory, and echocardiographic characteristics including age, comorbidities, and biochemical markers. A cutoff value of 25% for EF1 gave a hazard ratio of 5.23 ([95% CI, 2.85-9.60]; P<0.001) unadjusted and 4.83 ([95% CI, 2.35-9.95], P<0.001) when adjusted for demographics, comorbidities, hs-cTnI (high-sensitive cardiac troponin), and CRP (C-reactive protein). EF1 was similar in patients with and without COVID-19 (23.2±7.3 versus 22.0±7.6%, P=0.092, adjusted for prevalence of risk factors and comorbidities). Impaired EF1 is strongly associated with mortality in COVID-19 and probably reflects preexisting, preclinical heart failure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Echocardiography , Heart Failure , Stroke Volume , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Echocardiography/methods , Echocardiography/statistics & numerical data , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Predictive Value of Tests , Prevalence , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Survival Analysis , United Kingdom/epidemiology
3.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 87(12): 4598-4607, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1205938

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Antihypertensive drugs have been implicated in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) susceptibility and severity, but estimated associations may be susceptible to bias. We aimed to evaluate antihypertensive medications and COVID-19 diagnosis and mortality, accounting for healthcare-seeking behaviour. METHODS: A population-based case-control study was conducted including 16 866 COVID-19 cases and 70 137 matched controls from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink. We evaluated all-cause mortality among COVID-19 cases. Exposures were angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), beta-blockers (B), calcium-channel blockers (C), thiazide diuretics (D) and other antihypertensive drugs (O). Analyses were adjusted for covariates and consultation frequency. RESULTS: ACEIs were associated with lower odds of COVID-19 diagnosis (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.82, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.77-0.88) as were ARBs (AOR 0.87, 95% CI 0.80-0.95) with little attenuation from adjustment for consultation frequency. C and D were also associated with lower odds of COVID-19 diagnosis. Increased odds of COVID-19 for B (AOR 1.19, 95% CI 1.12-1.26) were attenuated after adjustment for consultation frequency (AOR 1.01, 95% CI 0.95-1.08). Patients treated with ACEIs or ARBs had similar odds of mortality (AOR 1.00, 95% CI 0.83-1.20) to patients treated with classes B, C, D or O or patients receiving no antihypertensive therapy (AOR 0.99, 95% CI 0.83-1.18). CONCLUSIONS: There was no evidence that antihypertensive therapy is associated with increased risk of COVID-19 diagnosis or mortality; most classes of antihypertensive therapy showed negative associations with COVID-19 diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Testing , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Therm Biol ; 93: 102705, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-739933

ABSTRACT

Heat adaption through acclimatisation or acclimation improves cardiovascular stability by maintaining cardiac output due to compensatory increases in stroke volume. The main aim of this study was to assess whether 2D transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) could be used to confirm differences in resting echocardiographic parameters, before and after active heat acclimation (HA). Thirteen male endurance trained cyclists underwent a resting blinded TTE before and after randomisation to either 5 consecutive daily exertional heat exposures of controlled hyperthermia at 32°C with 70% relative humidity (RH) (HOT) or 5-days of exercise in temperate (21°C with 36% RH) environmental conditions (TEMP). Measures of HA included heart rate, gastrointestinal temperature, skin temperature, sweat loss, total non-urinary fluid loss (TNUFL), plasma volume and participant's ratings of perceived exertion (RPE). Following HA, the HOT group demonstrated increased sweat loss (p = 0.01) and TNUFL (p = 0.01) in comparison to the TEMP group with a significantly decreased RPE (p = 0.01). On TTE, post exposure, there was a significant comparative increase in the HOT group in left ventricular end diastolic volume (p = 0.029), SV (p = 0.009), left atrial volume (p = 0.005), inferior vena cava diameter (p = 0.041), and a significant difference in mean peak diastolic mitral annular velocity (e') (p = 0.044). Cardiovascular adaptations to HA appear to be predominantly mediated by improvements in increased preload and ventricular compliance. TTE is a useful tool to demonstrate and quantify cardiac HA.


Subject(s)
Exercise , Heart/physiology , Sweating , Thermotolerance , Adult , Echocardiography , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Heart Rate , Humans , Male , Plasma Volume , Random Allocation , Vasodilation
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL