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4.
Case Reports in Dermatology ; 14(1):1-5, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1824228

ABSTRACT

The clinical presentation of dermatomyositis (DM) is diverse, with varied phenotypes that may be correlated with specific autoantibodies. The anti-melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) antibody in DM is associated with an amyopathic phenotype of DM, with several unusual cutaneous manifestation and increased risk for rapidly progressive interstitial lung disease. Initial presentation may be subtle, but early diagnosis is key to initiation of proper immunosuppressive therapy. In this report, we describe perinasal edema and erythema as a presenting complaint of anti-MDA5 DM in an otherwise healthy 40-year-old woman. The edema began shortly after heavy sun exposure and was followed by painful papules in her hands and arthritis within a few weeks. She was found to have high titer of anti-CCP and anti-MDA5, and thus was diagnosed with DM and rheumatoid arthritis overlap. A CT chest, abdomen, and pelvis showed patchy ground-glass and interstitial opacities in bilateral lower lobes consistent with mild interstitial lung disease without evidence of malignancy. Perinasal cutaneous findings and arthralgias improved with initiation of prednisone. To our knowledge, this is the first report of perinasal edema as a presenting symptom for DM and should raise suspicion for MDA-5 disease.

5.
JCI Insight ; 7(9)2022 05 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765225

ABSTRACT

BackgroundSome clinical features of severe COVID-19 represent blood vessel damage induced by activation of host immune responses initiated by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. We hypothesized autoantibodies against angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the SARS-CoV-2 receptor expressed on vascular endothelium, are generated during COVID-19 and are of mechanistic importance.MethodsIn an opportunity sample of 118 COVID-19 inpatients, autoantibodies recognizing ACE2 were detected by ELISA. Binding properties of anti-ACE2 IgM were analyzed via biolayer interferometry. Effects of anti-ACE2 IgM on complement activation and endothelial function were demonstrated in a tissue-engineered pulmonary microvessel model.ResultsAnti-ACE2 IgM (not IgG) autoantibodies were associated with severe COVID-19 and found in 18/66 (27.2%) patients with severe disease compared with 2/52 (3.8%) of patients with moderate disease (OR 9.38, 95% CI 2.38-42.0; P = 0.0009). Anti-ACE2 IgM autoantibodies were rare (2/50) in non-COVID-19 ventilated patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Unexpectedly, ACE2-reactive IgM autoantibodies in COVID-19 did not undergo class-switching to IgG and had apparent KD values of 5.6-21.7 nM, indicating they are T cell independent. Anti-ACE2 IgMs activated complement and initiated complement-binding and functional changes in endothelial cells in microvessels, suggesting they contribute to the angiocentric pathology of COVID-19.ConclusionWe identify anti-ACE2 IgM as a mechanism-based biomarker strongly associated with severe clinical outcomes in SARS-CoV-2 infection, which has therapeutic implications.FUNDINGBill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Gates Philanthropy Partners, Donald B. and Dorothy L. Stabler Foundation, and Jerome L. Greene Foundation; NIH R01 AR073208, R01 AR069569, Institutional Research and Academic Career Development Award (5K12GM123914-03), National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute R21HL145216, and Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship (DGE1746891).


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Autoantibodies , Endothelial Cells , Humans , Immunoglobulin M , SARS-CoV-2
6.
ACR Open Rheumatol ; 4(5): 457-463, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712012

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Patients with anti-melanoma-differentiation-associated 5 (anti-MDA5)-positive dermatomyositis (DM) share several striking similarities to patients with SARS-CoV-2. Our objective was to assess the prevalence of anti-angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies, found in patients with severe SARS-CoV-2, in two independent anti-MDA5-positive DM cohorts. METHODS: Anti-ACE2 IgM antibodies were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in two anti-MDA5-positive DM cohorts: a predominantly outpatient North American cohort (n = 52) and a Japanese cohort enriched for new-onset disease (n = 32). Additionally, 118 patients with SARS-CoV-2 with a spectrum of clinical severity were tested for anti-MDA5 antibodies by ELISA. RESULTS: Five of fifty-two (9.6%) North American patients and five of thirty-two (15%) Japanese patients were positive for anti-ACE2 IgM. In the North American cohort, all five patients with anti-ACE2 IgM antibodies had proximal muscle weakness, had interstitial lung disease, were significantly more likely to receive pulse dose methylprednisolone (80% vs 30%, P = 0.043), and had worse forced vital capacity (median 59% predicted vs 78%, P = 0.056) compared with the anti-ACE2-IgM-negative group. In the Japanese cohort, all five anti-ACE2-IgM-positive patients also required pulse dose methylprednisolone, and three of five (60%) patients died. Japanese patients with anti-ACE2 IgM had significantly worse oxygenation, as defined by a lower partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2)/fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) ratio (233 vs 390, P = 0.021), and a higher alveolar-arterial oxygenation gradient (91 vs 23 mm Hg, P = 0.024) than the IgM-negative group. CONCLUSION: We describe anti-ACE2 IgM autoantibodies in two independent cohorts with anti-MDA5-positive DM. These autoantibodies may be biomarkers for severe disease and provide insight into disease pathogenesis.

7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(3): 427-436, 2022 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684536

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People with autoimmune or inflammatory conditions taking immunomodulatory/suppressive medications may have higher risk of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Chronic disease care has also changed for many patients, with uncertain downstream consequences. METHODS: We included participants with autoimmune or inflammatory conditions followed by specialists at Johns Hopkins. Participants completed periodic surveys querying comorbidities, disease-modifying medications, exposures, COVID-19 testing and outcomes, social behaviors, and disruptions to healthcare. We assessed whether COVID-19 risk is higher among those on immunomodulating or suppressive agents and characterized pandemic-associated changes to care and mental health. RESULTS: In total, 265 (5.6%) developed COVID-19 over 9 months of follow-up (April-December 2020). Patient characteristics (age, race, comorbidity, medications) were associated with differences in social distancing behaviors during the pandemic. Glucocorticoid exposure was associated with higher odds of COVID-19 in models incorporating behavior and other potential confounders (odds ratio [OR]: 1.43; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08, 1.89). Other medication classes were not associated with COVID-19 risk. Diabetes (OR: 1.72; 95% CI: 1.08, 2.73), cardiovascular disease (OR: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.24, 2.28), and kidney disease (OR: 1.76; 95% CI: 1.04, 2.97) were associated with higher odds of COVID-19. Of the 2156 reporting pre-pandemic utilization of infusion, mental health or rehabilitative services, 975 (45.2%) reported disruptions therein, which disproportionately affected individuals experiencing changes to employment or income. CONCLUSIONS: Glucocorticoid exposure may increase risk of COVID-19 in people with autoimmune or inflammatory conditions. Disruption to healthcare and related services was common. Those with pandemic-related reduced income may be most vulnerable to care disruptions.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Autoimmune Diseases/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 74(1): 28-32, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340236

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate disease flare and postvaccination reactions (reactogenicity) in patients with rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMDs) following 2-dose SARS-CoV-2 messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccination. METHODS: RMD patients (n = 1,377) who received 2-dose SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination between December 16, 2020 and April 15, 2021 completed questionnaires detailing local and systemic reactions experienced within 7 days of each vaccine dose (dose 1 and dose 2), and 1 month after dose 2, detailing any flares of RMD. Associations between demographic/clinical characteristics and flares requiring treatment were evaluated using modified Poisson regression. RESULTS: Among the patients, 11% reported flares requiring treatment; there were no reports of severe flares. Flares were associated with prior SARS-CoV-2 infection (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 2.09, P = 0.02), flares in the 6 months preceding vaccination (IRR 2.36, P < 0.001), and the use of combination immunomodulatory therapy (IRR 1.95, P < 0.001). The most frequently reported local and systemic reactions included injection site pain (87% after dose 1, 86% after dose 2) and fatigue (60% after dose 1, 80% after dose 2). Reactogenicity increased after dose 2, particularly for systemic reactions. No allergic reactions or SARS-CoV-2 diagnoses were reported. CONCLUSION: Flares of underlying RMD following SARS-CoV-2 vaccination were uncommon. There were no reports of severe flares. Local and systemic reactions typically did not interfere with daily activity. These early safety data can help address vaccine hesitancy in RMD patients.


Subject(s)
/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Musculoskeletal Diseases/immunology , Rheumatic Diseases/immunology , /administration & dosage , Adult , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Symptom Flare Up
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