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1.
Journal of Veterinary Behavior ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2041992

ABSTRACT

In the United Kingdom, companion animal veterinary practices offer in-clinic puppy socialization programs, referred to as “Puppy parties”. Studies examining puppy parties are limited, and minimal data is available on the delivery of these programs. This study aimed to describe the methods and approaches used by UK veterinary professionals providing in-clinic puppy parties. A cross-sectional descriptive survey was distributed via social media and by direct email to veterinary practices known to offer puppy parties on their public domains. Respondents were required to have worked in a UK veterinary practice offering parties or equivalent between January 2010 and March 2019. Descriptive data was collected on participant and practice demographics, puppy eligibility, program structure and environment, the inclusion of canine behavior and training, client education and the effect of COVID-19. All (n=81) respondents were included for analysis. Findings described variation in the structure of in-clinic puppy parties, particularly as they relate to puppy age, class size, and program duration. “Habituation to practice” was the most common reason for delivery (60.5%), with “Monetary gain” the least likely reason (50.6%). Puppy parties commonly began at 8-9 weeks of age (53.1%), and most (77.8%) persisted beyond the sensitive period of socialization (>12 weeks). Where some puppy parties did not permit intra-species interactions (6.2%), others provided the opportunity for socialization through controlled play (53.1%). Program duration ranged from a singular session (28.4%) to cumulative sessions of ≥4 weeks (34.6%). The “1st vaccination of the primary course” was the minimum requirement to attend most parties (75.3%) and deworming was rarely required (24.7%). While behavior topics (87.2%) were commonly discussed, staff generally lacked training and behavior qualifications (65.4%). Finally, all parties were discontinued following COVID-19 restrictions. In conclusion, the results of the study provided a descriptive framework of puppy party programs run by UK veterinary practices. Future researchers may seek to examine which methods used in the delivery of puppy programs best promote canine welfare and behavioral wellness.

2.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0269885, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021808

ABSTRACT

Monitoring the levels of IgG antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 is important during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, to plan an adequate and evidence-based public health response. After this study we report that the plasma levels of IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein were higher in individuals with evidence of prior infection who received at least one dose of either an mRNA-based vaccine (Comirnaty BNT162b2/Pfizer-BioNTech or Spikevax mRNA-1273/Moderna) or an adenoviral-based vaccine (Vaxzervia ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 /Oxford-Astra Zeneca) (n = 39) compared to i) unvaccinated individuals with evidence of prior infection with SARS-CoV-2 (n = 109) and ii) individuals without evidence of prior infection with SARS-CoV-2 who received one or two doses of one of the aforementioned vaccines (n = 342). Our analysis also revealed that regardless of the vaccine technology (mRNA-based and adenoviral vector-based) two doses achieved high anti- SARS-CoV-2 IgG responses. Our results indicate that vaccine-induced responses lead to higher levels of IgG antibodies compared to those produced following infection with the virus. Additionally, in agreement with previous studies, our results suggest that among individuals previously infected with SARS-CoV-2, even a single dose of a vaccine is adequate to elicit high levels of antibody response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Cyprus , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
3.
researchsquare; 2022.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-1294394.v1

ABSTRACT

Background: Four vaccines that have been authorized in the European Union offer different levels of protection against SARS-CoV-2 by generating immune responses against the spike receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the virus. Monitoring the levels of IgG antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 is important during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic to plan an adequate and evidence-based public health response. Methods: We compared the levels of serum IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in three groups: i) individuals without evidence of prior infection with SARS-CoV-2 who received one or two doses of either an mRNA-based (Comirnaty BNT162b2/Pfizer-BioNTech or Spikevax mRNA-1273/Moderna) or an adenoviral-based vaccine (Vaxzervia ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 /Oxford-Astra Zeneca) (n=227), ii) unvaccinated individuals with evidence of prior infection with SARS-CoV-2 (n=109), and iii) individuals with evidence of prior infection with SARS-CoV-2 who received at least one dose of a vaccine (n=30). Unvaccinated individuals without evidence of prior infection with SARS-CoV-2 were used as a control group (n=211). Results: The levels of specific SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies in all three groups were significantly higher (p<0.001) compared to the control group. The highest levels of virus-specific IgG antibodies were observed in individuals who were infected with SARS-CoV-2 and received at least one dose of a vaccine. Our analyses also revealed that the levels of specific anti- SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels were higher in individuals who received two doses of a licensed vaccine, regardless of the vaccine technology (mRNA-based and adenoviral vector-based). Furthermore, anti- SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels were higher in previously uninfected participants who received at least one dose of a vaccine compared to the unvaccinated individuals with evidence of prior infection. Conclusions: Our results indicate that vaccine-induced responses lead to higher levels of IgG antibodies compared to those produced following infection with the virus. In agreement with previous studies, our results suggest that among individuals previously infected with SARS-CoV-2, even a single dose of a vaccine is adequate to elicit high levels of humoral immunity.

4.
Exp Dermatol ; 30 Suppl 1: 18-22, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258931

ABSTRACT

The reported incidence of COVID-19 among cohorts of patients with inflammatory bowel and skin diseases under treatment with biologicals is low. Treatment may further modify disease severity as some biological modifiers, such as anakinra, are also proposed for the management of COVID-19 patients potentially providing HS patients with an advantage. The above preliminary evidence suggests that hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) does probably not provide an increased susceptibility for COVID-19 and that any susceptibility is unlikely to be modified negatively by treatment with biologicals. On the occasion of its 10th International Conference, experts of the European Hidradenitis Suppurativa Foundation e.V. have prepared a consensus statement regarding anti-COVID-19 measurements for HS patients. Based on the available knowledge, patients with HS may be vaccinated against SARS-CoV2 and patients affected by metabolic syndrome constitute a high-risk group for COVID-19 and should be vaccinated at the earliest convenient point in time. HS patients on treatment with adalimumab can be vaccinated with non-living virus anti-SARS-CoV2 vaccines. A possible suboptimal effect of the vaccine may be suspected but might not be expected universally. The management of the biological treatment in HS patients is at the discretion of the dermatologist / responsible physician.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hidradenitis Suppurativa/complications , Hidradenitis Suppurativa/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Adalimumab/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , Cohort Studies , Disease Susceptibility , Europe , Foundations , Hidradenitis Suppurativa/immunology , Humans , Incidence , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Metabolic Syndrome/complications , Metabolic Syndrome/immunology , Pandemics , Severity of Illness Index
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