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1.
Clin Chem ; 68(1): 143-152, 2021 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243230

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The urgent need for massively scaled clinical testing for SARS-CoV-2, along with global shortages of critical reagents and supplies, has necessitated development of streamlined laboratory testing protocols. Conventional nucleic acid testing for SARS-CoV-2 involves collection of a clinical specimen with a nasopharyngeal swab in transport medium, nucleic acid extraction, and quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (RT-qPCR). As testing has scaled across the world, the global supply chain has buckled, rendering testing reagents and materials scarce. To address shortages, we developed SwabExpress, an end-to-end protocol developed to employ mass produced anterior nares swabs and bypass the requirement for transport media and nucleic acid extraction. METHODS: We evaluated anterior nares swabs, transported dry and eluted in low-TE buffer as a direct-to-RT-qPCR alternative to extraction-dependent viral transport media. We validated our protocol of using heat treatment for viral inactivation and added a proteinase K digestion step to reduce amplification interference. We tested this protocol across archived and prospectively collected swab specimens to fine-tune test performance. RESULTS: After optimization, SwabExpress has a low limit of detection at 2-4 molecules/µL, 100% sensitivity, and 99.4% specificity when compared side by side with a traditional RT-qPCR protocol employing extraction. On real-world specimens, SwabExpress outperforms an automated extraction system while simultaneously reducing cost and hands-on time. CONCLUSION: SwabExpress is a simplified workflow that facilitates scaled testing for COVID-19 without sacrificing test performance. It may serve as a template for the simplification of PCR-based clinical laboratory tests, particularly in times of critical shortages during pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Humans , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity , Specimen Handling
2.
Dig Dis Sci ; 2023 Jun 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240479

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are recognized sequelae of acute respiratory illness (ARI), but their prevalence is not well documented. Our study aim was to assess the incidence of GI symptoms in community ARI cases for persons of all ages and their association with clinical outcomes. METHODS: We collected mid-nasal swabs, clinical, and symptom data from Seattle-area individuals during the 2018-2019 winter season as part of a large-scale prospective community surveillance study. Swabs were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for 26 respiratory pathogens. Likelihood of GI symptoms given demographic, clinical, and microbiological covariates were analyzed with Fisher's exact, Wilcoxon-rank-sum, and t-tests and multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: In 3183 ARI episodes, 29.4% had GI symptoms (n = 937). GI symptoms were significantly associated with pathogen detection, illness interfering with daily life, seeking care for the illness, and greater symptom burden (all p < 0.05). Controlling for age, > 3 symptoms, and month, influenza (p < 0.001), human metapneumovirus (p = 0.004), and enterovirus D68 (p = 0.05) were significantly more likely to be associated with GI symptoms than episodes with no pathogen detected. Seasonal coronaviruses (p = 0.005) and rhinovirus (p = 0.04) were significantly less likely to be associated with GI symptoms. CONCLUSION: In this community-surveillance study of ARI, GI symptoms were common and associated with illness severity and respiratory pathogen detection. GI symptoms did not track with known GI tropism, suggesting GI symptoms may be nonspecific rather than pathogen-mediated. Patients presenting with GI and respiratory symptoms should have respiratory virus testing, even if the respiratory symptom is not the primary concern.

3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(23): e2220948120, 2023 06 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236312

ABSTRACT

The antiviral benefit of antibodies can be compromised by viral escape especially for rapidly evolving viruses. Therefore, durable, effective antibodies must be both broad and potent to counter newly emerging, diverse strains. Discovery of such antibodies is critically important for SARS-CoV-2 as the global emergence of new variants of concern (VOC) has compromised the efficacy of therapeutic antibodies and vaccines. We describe a collection of broad and potent neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) isolated from an individual who experienced a breakthrough infection with the Delta VOC. Four mAbs potently neutralize the Wuhan-Hu-1 vaccine strain, the Delta VOC, and also retain potency against the Omicron VOCs through BA.4/BA.5 in both pseudovirus-based and authentic virus assays. Three mAbs also retain potency to recently circulating VOCs XBB.1.5 and BQ.1.1 and one also potently neutralizes SARS-CoV-1. The potency of these mAbs was greater against Omicron VOCs than all but one of the mAbs that had been approved for therapeutic applications. The mAbs target distinct epitopes on the spike glycoprotein, three in the receptor-binding domain (RBD) and one in an invariant region downstream of the RBD in subdomain 1 (SD1). The escape pathways we defined at single amino acid resolution with deep mutational scanning show they target conserved, functionally constrained regions of the glycoprotein, suggesting escape could incur a fitness cost. Overall, these mAbs are unique in their breadth across VOCs, their epitope specificity, and include a highly potent mAb targeting a rare epitope outside of the RBD in SD1.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Breakthrough Infections , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Epitopes , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Antibodies, Viral
4.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 1079, 2023 06 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234438

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People experiencing homelessness (PEH) are at increased risk for acquiring SARS-CoV-2, but the burden of long COVID in this population is unknown. METHODS: We conducted a matched prospective cohort study to assess the prevalence, characteristics, and impact of long COVID among sheltered PEH in Seattle, WA between September 2020-April 2022. Adults ≥ 18 years, residing across nine homeless shelters with active respiratory virus surveillance, were eligible to complete in-person baseline surveys and interval follow-up phone surveys. We included a subset of 22 COVID-19-positive cases who tested positive or inconclusive for SARS-CoV-2 and 44 COVID-19-negative controls who tested negative for SARS-CoV-2, frequency matched on age and sex. Among controls, 22 were positive and 22 were negative for one of 27 other respiratory virus pathogens. To assess the impact of COVID-19 on the risk of symptom presence at follow-up (day 30-225 post-enrollment test), we performed log-linear regression with robust standard errors, adjusting for confounding by shelter site and demographic variables determined a priori. RESULTS: Of 53 eligible COVID-19 cases, 22 (42%) completed ≥ 1 follow-up survey. While five (23%) cases reported ≥ 1 symptom at baseline, this increased to 77% (10/13) between day 30-59 and 33% (4/12) day 90 + . The most commonly reported symptoms day 30 + were fatigue (27%) and rhinorrhea (27%), with 8 (36%) reporting symptoms that interfered with or prevented daily activities. Four (33%) symptomatic cases reported receiving medical care outside of a medical provider at an isolation facility. Of 44 controls, 12 (27%) reported any symptoms day 90 + . Risk of any symptoms at follow-up was 5.4 times higher among COVID-19 cases compared to controls (95% CI: 2.7-10.5). CONCLUSIONS: Shelter residents reported a high prevalence of symptoms 30 + days after their SARS-CoV-2 detection, though few accessed medical care for persistent illness. The impact of COVID-19 extends beyond acute illness and may exacerbate existing challenges that marginalized populations face in maintaining their health and wellbeing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ill-Housed Persons , Humans , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Longitudinal Studies , Prospective Studies
5.
JAMA ; 329(22): 1934-1946, 2023 06 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243721

ABSTRACT

Importance: SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with persistent, relapsing, or new symptoms or other health effects occurring after acute infection, termed postacute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC), also known as long COVID. Characterizing PASC requires analysis of prospectively and uniformly collected data from diverse uninfected and infected individuals. Objective: To develop a definition of PASC using self-reported symptoms and describe PASC frequencies across cohorts, vaccination status, and number of infections. Design, Setting, and Participants: Prospective observational cohort study of adults with and without SARS-CoV-2 infection at 85 enrolling sites (hospitals, health centers, community organizations) located in 33 states plus Washington, DC, and Puerto Rico. Participants who were enrolled in the RECOVER adult cohort before April 10, 2023, completed a symptom survey 6 months or more after acute symptom onset or test date. Selection included population-based, volunteer, and convenience sampling. Exposure: SARS-CoV-2 infection. Main Outcomes and Measures: PASC and 44 participant-reported symptoms (with severity thresholds). Results: A total of 9764 participants (89% SARS-CoV-2 infected; 71% female; 16% Hispanic/Latino; 15% non-Hispanic Black; median age, 47 years [IQR, 35-60]) met selection criteria. Adjusted odds ratios were 1.5 or greater (infected vs uninfected participants) for 37 symptoms. Symptoms contributing to PASC score included postexertional malaise, fatigue, brain fog, dizziness, gastrointestinal symptoms, palpitations, changes in sexual desire or capacity, loss of or change in smell or taste, thirst, chronic cough, chest pain, and abnormal movements. Among 2231 participants first infected on or after December 1, 2021, and enrolled within 30 days of infection, 224 (10% [95% CI, 8.8%-11%]) were PASC positive at 6 months. Conclusions and Relevance: A definition of PASC was developed based on symptoms in a prospective cohort study. As a first step to providing a framework for other investigations, iterative refinement that further incorporates other clinical features is needed to support actionable definitions of PASC.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Female , Adult , Humans , Middle Aged , Male , COVID-19/complications , Prospective Studies , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Cohort Studies , Disease Progression , Fatigue
6.
N Engl J Med ; 383(19): 1813-1826, 2020 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2292084

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although several therapeutic agents have been evaluated for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19), no antiviral agents have yet been shown to be efficacious. METHODS: We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of intravenous remdesivir in adults who were hospitalized with Covid-19 and had evidence of lower respiratory tract infection. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either remdesivir (200 mg loading dose on day 1, followed by 100 mg daily for up to 9 additional days) or placebo for up to 10 days. The primary outcome was the time to recovery, defined by either discharge from the hospital or hospitalization for infection-control purposes only. RESULTS: A total of 1062 patients underwent randomization (with 541 assigned to remdesivir and 521 to placebo). Those who received remdesivir had a median recovery time of 10 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 9 to 11), as compared with 15 days (95% CI, 13 to 18) among those who received placebo (rate ratio for recovery, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.12 to 1.49; P<0.001, by a log-rank test). In an analysis that used a proportional-odds model with an eight-category ordinal scale, the patients who received remdesivir were found to be more likely than those who received placebo to have clinical improvement at day 15 (odds ratio, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2 to 1.9, after adjustment for actual disease severity). The Kaplan-Meier estimates of mortality were 6.7% with remdesivir and 11.9% with placebo by day 15 and 11.4% with remdesivir and 15.2% with placebo by day 29 (hazard ratio, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.52 to 1.03). Serious adverse events were reported in 131 of the 532 patients who received remdesivir (24.6%) and in 163 of the 516 patients who received placebo (31.6%). CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that remdesivir was superior to placebo in shortening the time to recovery in adults who were hospitalized with Covid-19 and had evidence of lower respiratory tract infection. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and others; ACTT-1 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04280705.).


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/administration & dosage , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Administration, Intravenous , Adult , Aged , Alanine/administration & dosage , Alanine/adverse effects , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Double-Blind Method , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Female , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , Young Adult , COVID-19 Drug Treatment
7.
J Immunol ; 210(9): 1236-1246, 2023 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2276385

ABSTRACT

mRNA vaccination of individuals with prior SARS-CoV-2 infection provides superior protection against breakthrough infections with variants of concern compared with vaccination in the absence of prior infection. However, the immune mechanisms by which this hybrid immunity is generated and maintained are unknown. Whereas genetic variation in spike glycoprotein effectively subverts neutralizing Abs, spike-specific T cells are generally maintained against SARS-CoV-2 variants. Thus, we comprehensively profiled human T cell responses against the S1 and S2 domains of spike glycoprotein in a cohort of SARS-CoV-2-naive (n = 13) or -convalescent (n = 17) individuals who received two-dose mRNA vaccine series and were matched by age, sex, and vaccine type. Using flow cytometry, we observed that the overall functional breadth of CD4 T cells and polyfunctional Th1 responses was similar between the two groups. However, polyfunctional cytotoxic CD4 T cell responses against both S1 and S2 domains trended higher among convalescent subjects. Multimodal single-cell RNA sequencing revealed diverse functional programs in spike-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells in both groups. However, convalescent individuals displayed enhanced cytotoxic and antiviral CD8 T cell responses to both S1 and S2 in the absence of cytokine production. Taken together, our data suggest that cytotoxic CD4 and CD8 T cells targeting spike glycoprotein may partially account for hybrid immunity and protection against breakthrough infections with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Breakthrough Infections , RNA, Messenger , Vaccination , Adaptive Immunity , Glycoproteins , Antibodies, Viral , Antibodies, Neutralizing
8.
Nat Rev Microbiol ; 2022 Oct 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2255058

ABSTRACT

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused substantial global morbidity and deaths, leading governments to turn to non-pharmaceutical interventions to slow down the spread of infection and lessen the burden on health care systems. These policies have evolved over the course of the COVID-19 pandemic, including after the availability of COVID-19 vaccines, with regional and country-level differences in their ongoing use. The COVID-19 pandemic has been associated with changes in respiratory virus infections worldwide, which have differed between virus types. Reductions in respiratory virus infections, including by influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus, were most notable at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic and continued in varying degrees through subsequent waves of SARS-CoV-2 infections. The decreases in community infection burden have resulted in reduced hospitalizations and deaths associated with non-SARS-CoV-2 respiratory infections. Respiratory virus evolution relies on the maintaining of a diverse genetic pool, but evidence of genetic bottlenecking brought on by case reduction during the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in reduced genetic diversity of some respiratory viruses, including influenza virus. By describing the differences in these changes between viral species across different geographies over the course of the COVID-19 pandemic, we may better understand the complex factors involved in community co-circulation of respiratory viruses.

9.
Viruses ; 15(2)2023 02 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2241322

ABSTRACT

New variants of SARS-CoV-2 continue to emerge and evade immunity. We isolated SARS-CoV-2 temporally across the pandemic starting with the first emergence of the virus in the western hemisphere and evaluated the immune escape among variants. A clinic-to-lab viral isolation and characterization pipeline was established to rapidly isolate, sequence, and characterize SARS-CoV-2 variants. A virus neutralization assay was applied to quantitate humoral immunity from infection and/or vaccination. A panel of novel monoclonal antibodies was evaluated for antiviral efficacy. We directly compared all variants, showing that convalescence greater than 5 months post-symptom onset from ancestral virus provides little protection against SARS-CoV-2 variants. Vaccination enhances immunity against viral variants, except for Omicron BA.1, while a three-dose vaccine regimen provides over 50-fold enhanced protection against Omicron BA.1 compared to a two-dose. A novel Mab neutralizes Omicron BA.1 and BA.2 variants better than the clinically approved Mabs, although neither can neutralize Omicron BA.4 or BA.5. Thus, the need remains for continued vaccination-booster efforts, with innovation for vaccine and Mab improvement for broadly neutralizing activity. The usefulness of specific Mab applications links with the window of clinical opportunity when a cognate viral variant is present in the infected population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antiviral Agents
10.
Cell ; 186(6): 1263-1278.e20, 2023 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2229215

ABSTRACT

A major challenge in understanding SARS-CoV-2 evolution is interpreting the antigenic and functional effects of emerging mutations in the viral spike protein. Here, we describe a deep mutational scanning platform based on non-replicative pseudotyped lentiviruses that directly quantifies how large numbers of spike mutations impact antibody neutralization and pseudovirus infection. We apply this platform to produce libraries of the Omicron BA.1 and Delta spikes. These libraries each contain ∼7,000 distinct amino acid mutations in the context of up to ∼135,000 unique mutation combinations. We use these libraries to map escape mutations from neutralizing antibodies targeting the receptor-binding domain, N-terminal domain, and S2 subunit of spike. Overall, this work establishes a high-throughput and safe approach to measure how ∼105 combinations of mutations affect antibody neutralization and spike-mediated infection. Notably, the platform described here can be extended to the entry proteins of many other viruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , RNA Viruses , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Mutation , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral
11.
Lancet Reg Health Am ; 15: 100348, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2228942

ABSTRACT

Background: The circulation of respiratory viruses poses a significant health risk among those residing in congregate settings. Data are limited on seasonal human coronavirus (HCoV) infections in homeless shelter settings. Methods: We analysed data from a clinical trial and SARS-CoV-2 surveillance study at 23 homeless shelter sites in King County, Washington between October 2019-May 2021. Eligible participants were shelter residents aged ≥3 months with acute respiratory illness. We collected enrolment data and nasal samples for respiratory virus testing using multiplex RT-PCR platform including HCoV. Beginning April 1, 2020, eligibility expanded to shelter residents and staff regardless of symptoms. HCoV species was determined by RT-PCR with species-specific primers, OpenArray assay or genomic sequencing for samples with an OpenArray relative cycle threshold <22. Findings: Of the 14,464 samples from 3281 participants between October 2019-May 2021, 107 were positive for HCoV from 90 participants (median age 40 years, range: 0·9-81 years, 38% female). HCoV-HKU1 was the most common species identified before and after community-wide mitigation. No HCoV-positive samples were identified between May 2020-December 2020. Adults aged ≥50 years had the highest detection of HCoV (11%) among virus-positive samples among all age-groups. Species and sequence data showed diversity between and within HCoV species over the study period. Interpretation: HCoV infections occurred in all congregate homeless shelter site age-groups with the greatest proportion among those aged ≥50 years. Species and sequencing data highlight the complexity of HCoV epidemiology within and between shelters sites. Funding: Gates Ventures, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute of Health.

12.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 17(1): e13092, 2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2213680

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Persons experiencing homelessness face increased risk of influenza as overcrowding in congregate shelters can facilitate influenza virus spread. Data regarding on-site influenza testing and antiviral treatment within homeless shelters remain limited. METHODS: We conducted a cluster-randomized stepped-wedge trial of point-of-care molecular influenza testing coupled with antiviral treatment with baloxavir or oseltamivir in residents of 14 homeless shelters in Seattle, WA, USA. Residents ≥3 months with cough or ≥2 acute respiratory illness (ARI) symptoms and onset <7 days were eligible. In control periods, mid-nasal swabs were tested for influenza by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The intervention period included on-site rapid molecular influenza testing and antiviral treatment for influenza-positives if symptom onset was <48 h. The primary endpoint was monthly influenza virus infections in the control versus intervention periods. Influenza whole genome sequencing was performed to assess transmission and antiviral resistance. RESULTS: During 11/15/2019-4/30/2020 and 11/2/2020-4/30/2021, 1283 ARI encounters from 668 participants were observed. Influenza virus was detected in 51 (4%) specimens using RT-PCR (A = 14; B = 37); 21 influenza virus infections were detected from 269 (8%) intervention-eligible encounters by rapid molecular testing and received antiviral treatment. Thirty-seven percent of ARI-participant encounters reported symptom onset < 48 h. The intervention had no effect on influenza virus transmission (adjusted relative risk 1.73, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.50-6.00). Of 23 influenza genomes, 86% of A(H1N1)pdm09 and 81% of B/Victoria sequences were closely related. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest feasibility of influenza test-and-treat strategies in shelters. Additional studies would help discern an intervention effect during periods of increased influenza activity.


Subject(s)
Ill-Housed Persons , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human , Orthomyxoviridae Infections , Humans , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/genetics , Oseltamivir/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/drug therapy
13.
Vaccine X ; 12: 100232, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2181109

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Achieving high COVID-19 vaccination coverage in homeless shelters is critical in preventing morbidity, mortality, and outbreaks, however, vaccination coverage remains lower among people experiencing homelessness (PEH) than the general population. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study to retrospectively describe attitudes and identify factors associated with change in COVID-19 vaccination intent among shelter residents and staff during March 2020 - August 2021. To identify factors associated with change in COVID-19 vaccine intent becoming more positive overall compared to other attitudes, we utilized a Poisson model to calculate Risk Ratios with robust standard errors, adjusting for confounding by shelter site and demographic variables determined a priori. Results: From July 12 - August 2, 2021, 97 residents and 20 staff participated in surveys across six shelters in Seattle King County, Washington. Intent to be vaccinated against COVID-19 increased from 45.3 % (n = 53) when recalling attitudes in March 2020 to 74.4 % (n = 87) as of August 2021, and was similar among residents and staff. Many participants (43.6 %, n = 51) indicated feeling increasingly accepting about receiving a COVID-19 vaccine since March 2020, while 13.7 % (n = 16) changed back and forth, 10.3 % (n = 12) became more hesitant, and 32.5 % (n = 38) had no change in intent. In the model examining the relationship between becoming more positive about receiving a COVID-19 vaccine compared to all other attitudes (n = 116), we found a 57.2 % increase in vaccine acceptability (RR 1.57; 95 % CI: 1.01, 2.45) among those who reported worsening mental health since the start of the pandemic. Conclusions: Findings highlight opportunities to improve communication with residents and staff about COVID-19 vaccination and support a need for continued dialogue and a person-centered approach to understanding the sociocultural complexities and dynamism of vaccine attitudes at shelters.Clinical Trial Registry Number: NCT04141917.

14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(12): e2245861, 2022 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2157641

ABSTRACT

Importance: Few US studies have reexamined risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 positivity in the context of widespread vaccination and new variants or considered risk factors for cocirculating endemic viruses, such as rhinovirus. Objectives: To evaluate how risk factors and symptoms associated with SARS-CoV-2 test positivity changed over the course of the pandemic and to compare these with the risk factors associated with rhinovirus test positivity. Design, Setting, and Participants: This case-control study used a test-negative design with multivariable logistic regression to assess associations between SARS-CoV-2 and rhinovirus test positivity and self-reported demographic and symptom variables over a 25-month period. The study was conducted among symptomatic individuals of all ages enrolled in a cross-sectional community surveillance study in King County, Washington, from June 2020 to July 2022. Exposures: Self-reported data for 15 demographic and health behavior variables and 16 symptoms. Main Outcomes and Measures: Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 or rhinovirus infection. Results: Analyses included data from 23 498 individuals. The median (IQR) age of participants was 34.33 (22.42-45.08) years, 13 878 (59.06%) were female, 4018 (17.10%) identified as Asian, 654 (2.78%) identified as Black, and 2193 (9.33%) identified as Hispanic. Close contact with an individual with SARS-CoV-2 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 3.89; 95% CI, 3.34-4.57) and loss of smell or taste (aOR, 3.49; 95% CI, 2.77-4.41) were the variables most associated with SARS-CoV-2 test positivity, but both attenuated during the Omicron period. Contact with a vaccinated individual with SARS-CoV-2 (aOR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.56-2.79) was associated with lower odds of testing positive than contact with an unvaccinated individual with SARS-CoV-2 (aOR, 4.04; 95% CI, 2.39-7.23). Sore throat was associated with Omicron infection (aOR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.68-3.20) but not Delta infection. Vaccine effectiveness for participants fully vaccinated with a booster dose was 93% (95% CI, 73%-100%) for Delta, but not significant for Omicron. Variables associated with rhinovirus test positivity included being younger than 12 years (aOR, 3.92; 95% CI, 3.42-4.51) and experiencing a runny or stuffy nose (aOR, 4.58; 95% CI, 4.07-5.21). Black race, residing in south King County, and households with 5 or more people were significantly associated with both SARS-CoV-2 and rhinovirus test positivity. Conclusions and Relevance: In this case-control study of 23 498 symptomatic individuals, estimated risk factors and symptoms associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection changed over time. There was a shift in reported symptoms between the Delta and Omicron variants as well as reductions in the protection provided by vaccines. Racial and sociodemographic disparities persisted in the third year of SARS-CoV-2 circulation and were also present in rhinovirus infection. Trends in testing behavior and availability may influence these results.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Female , Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Male , Rhinovirus , Case-Control Studies , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors
15.
Sci Immunol ; : eadf1421, 2022 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116491

ABSTRACT

Numerous safe and effective COVID-19 vaccines have been developed worldwide that utilize various delivery technologies and engineering strategies. We show here that vaccines containing prefusion-stabilizing S mutations elicit antibody responses in humans with enhanced recognition of S and the S1 subunit relative to postfusion S, as compared to vaccines lacking these mutations or natural infection. Prefusion S and S1 antibody binding titers positively and equivalently correlated with neutralizing activity and depletion of S1-directed antibodies completely abrogated plasma neutralizing activity. We show that neutralizing activity is almost entirely directed to the S1 subunit and that variant cross-neutralization is mediated solely by RBD-specific antibodies. Our data provide a quantitative framework for guiding future S engineering efforts to develop vaccines with higher resilience to the emergence of variants than current technologies.

16.
Science ; 378(6620): 619-627, 2022 11 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2078696

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron sublineages carry distinct spike mutations resulting in escape from antibodies induced by previous infection or vaccination. We show that hybrid immunity or vaccine boosters elicit plasma-neutralizing antibodies against Omicron BA.1, BA.2, BA.2.12.1, and BA.4/5, and that breakthrough infections, but not vaccination alone, induce neutralizing antibodies in the nasal mucosa. Consistent with immunological imprinting, most antibodies derived from memory B cells or plasma cells of Omicron breakthrough cases cross-react with the Wuhan-Hu-1, BA.1, BA.2, and BA.4/5 receptor-binding domains, whereas Omicron primary infections elicit B cells of narrow specificity up to 6 months after infection. Although most clinical antibodies have reduced neutralization of Omicron, we identified an ultrapotent pan-variant-neutralizing antibody that is a strong candidate for clinical development.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , COVID-19 , Immune Evasion , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Humans , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Immunologic Memory , Memory B Cells/immunology
17.
Vaccine: X ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2072942

ABSTRACT

Introduction Achieving high COVID-19 vaccination coverage in homeless shelters is critical in preventing morbidity, mortality, and outbreaks, however, vaccination coverage remains lower among people experiencing homelessness (PEH) than the general population. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study to retrospectively describe attitudes and identify factors associated with change in COVID-19 vaccination intent among shelter residents and staff during March 2020 – August 2021. To identify factors associated with change in COVID-19 vaccine intent becoming more positive overall compared to other attitudes, we utilized a Poisson model to calculate Risk Ratios with robust standard errors, adjusting for confounding by shelter site and demographic variables determined a priori. Results From July 12 – August 2, 2021, 97 residents and 20 staff participated in surveys across six shelters in Seattle King County, Washington. Intent to be vaccinated against COVID-19 increased from 45.3% (n=53) when recalling attitudes in March 2020 to 74.4% (n=87) as of August 2021, and was similar among residents and staff. Many participants (43.6%, n=51) indicated feeling increasingly accepting about receiving a COVID-19 vaccine since March 2020, while 13.7% (n=16) changed back and forth, 10.3% (n=12) became more hesitant, and 32.5% (n=38) had no change in intent. In the model examining the relationship between becoming more positive about receiving a COVID-19 vaccine compared to all other attitudes (n=116), we found a 57.2% increase in vaccine acceptability (RR 1.57;95% CI: 1.01, 2.45) among those who reported worsening mental health since the start of the pandemic. Conclusions Findings highlight opportunities to improve communication with residents and staff about COVID-19 vaccination and support a need for continued dialogue and a person-centered approach to understanding the sociocultural complexities and dynamism of vaccine attitudes at shelters. Clinical Trial Registry Number: NCT04141917

18.
J Med Virol ; 94(12): 6091-6096, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2059508

ABSTRACT

Two randomized controlled trials demonstrated no clinical benefit of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) for either postexposure prophylaxis or early treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Using data from these studies, we calculated the time-weighted average change from baseline SARS-CoV-2 viral load and demonstrated that HCQ did not affect viral clearance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Viral Load
19.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(11): 2343-2347, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054907

ABSTRACT

To determine the epidemiology of human parainfluenza virus in homeless shelters during the COVID-19 pandemic, we analyzed data and sequences from respiratory specimens collected in 23 shelters in Washington, USA, during 2019-2021. Two clusters in children were genetically similar by shelter of origin. Shelter-specific interventions are needed to reduce these infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ill-Housed Persons , Paramyxoviridae Infections , Child , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Washington/epidemiology , Paramyxoviridae Infections/epidemiology
20.
Viruses ; 14(9)2022 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043976

ABSTRACT

Neutralization assays are experimental surrogates for the effectiveness of infection- or vaccine-elicited polyclonal antibodies and therapeutic monoclonal antibodies targeting SARS-CoV-2. However, the measured neutralization can depend on the details of the experimental assay. Here, we systematically assess how ACE2 expression in target cells affects neutralization by antibodies to different spike epitopes in lentivirus pseudovirus neutralization assays. For high ACE2-expressing target cells, receptor-binding domain (RBD) antibodies account for nearly all neutralizing activity in polyclonal human sera. However, for lower ACE2-expressing target cells, antibodies targeting regions outside the RBD make a larger (although still modest) contribution to serum neutralization. These serum-level results are mirrored for monoclonal antibodies: N-terminal domain (NTD) antibodies and RBD antibodies that do not compete for ACE2 binding incompletely neutralize on high ACE2-expressing target cells, but completely neutralize on cells with lower ACE2 expression. Our results show that the ACE2 expression level in the target cells is an important experimental variable, and that high ACE2 expression emphasizes the role of a subset of RBD-directed antibodies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Epitopes , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
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