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1.
Vaccine X ; 12: 100232, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2181109

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Achieving high COVID-19 vaccination coverage in homeless shelters is critical in preventing morbidity, mortality, and outbreaks, however, vaccination coverage remains lower among people experiencing homelessness (PEH) than the general population. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study to retrospectively describe attitudes and identify factors associated with change in COVID-19 vaccination intent among shelter residents and staff during March 2020 - August 2021. To identify factors associated with change in COVID-19 vaccine intent becoming more positive overall compared to other attitudes, we utilized a Poisson model to calculate Risk Ratios with robust standard errors, adjusting for confounding by shelter site and demographic variables determined a priori. Results: From July 12 - August 2, 2021, 97 residents and 20 staff participated in surveys across six shelters in Seattle King County, Washington. Intent to be vaccinated against COVID-19 increased from 45.3 % (n = 53) when recalling attitudes in March 2020 to 74.4 % (n = 87) as of August 2021, and was similar among residents and staff. Many participants (43.6 %, n = 51) indicated feeling increasingly accepting about receiving a COVID-19 vaccine since March 2020, while 13.7 % (n = 16) changed back and forth, 10.3 % (n = 12) became more hesitant, and 32.5 % (n = 38) had no change in intent. In the model examining the relationship between becoming more positive about receiving a COVID-19 vaccine compared to all other attitudes (n = 116), we found a 57.2 % increase in vaccine acceptability (RR 1.57; 95 % CI: 1.01, 2.45) among those who reported worsening mental health since the start of the pandemic. Conclusions: Findings highlight opportunities to improve communication with residents and staff about COVID-19 vaccination and support a need for continued dialogue and a person-centered approach to understanding the sociocultural complexities and dynamism of vaccine attitudes at shelters.Clinical Trial Registry Number: NCT04141917.

2.
Sci Immunol ; : eadf1421, 2022 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116491

ABSTRACT

Numerous safe and effective COVID-19 vaccines have been developed worldwide that utilize various delivery technologies and engineering strategies. We show here that vaccines containing prefusion-stabilizing S mutations elicit antibody responses in humans with enhanced recognition of S and the S1 subunit relative to postfusion S, as compared to vaccines lacking these mutations or natural infection. Prefusion S and S1 antibody binding titers positively and equivalently correlated with neutralizing activity and depletion of S1-directed antibodies completely abrogated plasma neutralizing activity. We show that neutralizing activity is almost entirely directed to the S1 subunit and that variant cross-neutralization is mediated solely by RBD-specific antibodies. Our data provide a quantitative framework for guiding future S engineering efforts to develop vaccines with higher resilience to the emergence of variants than current technologies.

3.
Science ; 378(6620): 619-627, 2022 11 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2078696

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron sublineages carry distinct spike mutations resulting in escape from antibodies induced by previous infection or vaccination. We show that hybrid immunity or vaccine boosters elicit plasma-neutralizing antibodies against Omicron BA.1, BA.2, BA.2.12.1, and BA.4/5, and that breakthrough infections, but not vaccination alone, induce neutralizing antibodies in the nasal mucosa. Consistent with immunological imprinting, most antibodies derived from memory B cells or plasma cells of Omicron breakthrough cases cross-react with the Wuhan-Hu-1, BA.1, BA.2, and BA.4/5 receptor-binding domains, whereas Omicron primary infections elicit B cells of narrow specificity up to 6 months after infection. Although most clinical antibodies have reduced neutralization of Omicron, we identified an ultrapotent pan-variant-neutralizing antibody that is a strong candidate for clinical development.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , COVID-19 , Immune Evasion , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Humans , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Immunologic Memory , Memory B Cells/immunology
4.
Nat Rev Microbiol ; 2022 Oct 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077070

ABSTRACT

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused substantial global morbidity and deaths, leading governments to turn to non-pharmaceutical interventions to slow down the spread of infection and lessen the burden on health care systems. These policies have evolved over the course of the COVID-19 pandemic, including after the availability of COVID-19 vaccines, with regional and country-level differences in their ongoing use. The COVID-19 pandemic has been associated with changes in respiratory virus infections worldwide, which have differed between virus types. Reductions in respiratory virus infections, including by influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus, were most notable at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic and continued in varying degrees through subsequent waves of SARS-CoV-2 infections. The decreases in community infection burden have resulted in reduced hospitalizations and deaths associated with non-SARS-CoV-2 respiratory infections. Respiratory virus evolution relies on the maintaining of a diverse genetic pool, but evidence of genetic bottlenecking brought on by case reduction during the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in reduced genetic diversity of some respiratory viruses, including influenza virus. By describing the differences in these changes between viral species across different geographies over the course of the COVID-19 pandemic, we may better understand the complex factors involved in community co-circulation of respiratory viruses.

5.
Vaccine: X ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2072942

ABSTRACT

Introduction Achieving high COVID-19 vaccination coverage in homeless shelters is critical in preventing morbidity, mortality, and outbreaks, however, vaccination coverage remains lower among people experiencing homelessness (PEH) than the general population. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study to retrospectively describe attitudes and identify factors associated with change in COVID-19 vaccination intent among shelter residents and staff during March 2020 – August 2021. To identify factors associated with change in COVID-19 vaccine intent becoming more positive overall compared to other attitudes, we utilized a Poisson model to calculate Risk Ratios with robust standard errors, adjusting for confounding by shelter site and demographic variables determined a priori. Results From July 12 – August 2, 2021, 97 residents and 20 staff participated in surveys across six shelters in Seattle King County, Washington. Intent to be vaccinated against COVID-19 increased from 45.3% (n=53) when recalling attitudes in March 2020 to 74.4% (n=87) as of August 2021, and was similar among residents and staff. Many participants (43.6%, n=51) indicated feeling increasingly accepting about receiving a COVID-19 vaccine since March 2020, while 13.7% (n=16) changed back and forth, 10.3% (n=12) became more hesitant, and 32.5% (n=38) had no change in intent. In the model examining the relationship between becoming more positive about receiving a COVID-19 vaccine compared to all other attitudes (n=116), we found a 57.2% increase in vaccine acceptability (RR 1.57;95% CI: 1.01, 2.45) among those who reported worsening mental health since the start of the pandemic. Conclusions Findings highlight opportunities to improve communication with residents and staff about COVID-19 vaccination and support a need for continued dialogue and a person-centered approach to understanding the sociocultural complexities and dynamism of vaccine attitudes at shelters. Clinical Trial Registry Number: NCT04141917

6.
J Med Virol ; 94(12): 6091-6096, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2059508

ABSTRACT

Two randomized controlled trials demonstrated no clinical benefit of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) for either postexposure prophylaxis or early treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Using data from these studies, we calculated the time-weighted average change from baseline SARS-CoV-2 viral load and demonstrated that HCQ did not affect viral clearance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Viral Load
7.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(11): 2343-2347, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054907

ABSTRACT

To determine the epidemiology of human parainfluenza virus in homeless shelters during the COVID-19 pandemic, we analyzed data and sequences from respiratory specimens collected in 23 shelters in Washington, USA, during 2019-2021. Two clusters in children were genetically similar by shelter of origin. Shelter-specific interventions are needed to reduce these infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Homeless Persons , Paramyxoviridae Infections , Child , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Washington/epidemiology , Paramyxoviridae Infections/epidemiology
8.
Viruses ; 14(9)2022 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043976

ABSTRACT

Neutralization assays are experimental surrogates for the effectiveness of infection- or vaccine-elicited polyclonal antibodies and therapeutic monoclonal antibodies targeting SARS-CoV-2. However, the measured neutralization can depend on the details of the experimental assay. Here, we systematically assess how ACE2 expression in target cells affects neutralization by antibodies to different spike epitopes in lentivirus pseudovirus neutralization assays. For high ACE2-expressing target cells, receptor-binding domain (RBD) antibodies account for nearly all neutralizing activity in polyclonal human sera. However, for lower ACE2-expressing target cells, antibodies targeting regions outside the RBD make a larger (although still modest) contribution to serum neutralization. These serum-level results are mirrored for monoclonal antibodies: N-terminal domain (NTD) antibodies and RBD antibodies that do not compete for ACE2 binding incompletely neutralize on high ACE2-expressing target cells, but completely neutralize on cells with lower ACE2 expression. Our results show that the ACE2 expression level in the target cells is an important experimental variable, and that high ACE2 expression emphasizes the role of a subset of RBD-directed antibodies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Epitopes , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
10.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 5240, 2022 09 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008277

ABSTRACT

Novel variants continue to emerge in the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. University testing programs may provide timely epidemiologic and genomic surveillance data to inform public health responses. We conducted testing from September 2021 to February 2022 in a university population under vaccination and indoor mask mandates. A total of 3,048 of 24,393 individuals tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR; whole genome sequencing identified 209 Delta and 1,730 Omicron genomes of the 1,939 total sequenced. Compared to Delta, Omicron had a shorter median serial interval between genetically identical, symptomatic infections within households (2 versus 6 days, P = 0.021). Omicron also demonstrated a greater peak reproductive number (2.4 versus 1.8), and a 1.07 (95% confidence interval: 0.58, 1.57; P < 0.0001) higher mean cycle threshold value. Despite near universal vaccination and stringent mitigation measures, Omicron rapidly displaced the Delta variant to become the predominant viral strain and led to a surge in cases in a university population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Genome, Viral/genetics , Genomics , Humans , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Universities
11.
Lancet Regional Health. Americas ; 15:100348-100348, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1998577

ABSTRACT

Background The circulation of respiratory viruses poses a significant health risk among those residing in congregate settings. Data are limited on seasonal human coronavirus (HCoV) infections in homeless shelter settings. Methods We analysed data from a clinical trial and SARS-CoV-2 surveillance study at 23 homeless shelter sites in King County, Washington between October 2019-May 2021. Eligible participants were shelter residents aged ≥3 months with acute respiratory illness. We collected enrolment data and nasal samples for respiratory virus testing using multiplex RT-PCR platform including HCoV. Beginning April 1, 2020, eligibility expanded to shelter residents and staff regardless of symptoms. HCoV species was determined by RT-PCR with species-specific primers, OpenArray assay or genomic sequencing for samples with an OpenArray relative cycle threshold <22. Findings Of the 14,464 samples from 3281 participants between October 2019-May 2021, 107 were positive for HCoV from 90 participants (median age 40 years, range: 0·9-81 years, 38% female). HCoV-HKU1 was the most common species identified before and after community-wide mitigation. No HCoV-positive samples were identified between May 2020-December 2020. Adults aged ≥50 years had the highest detection of HCoV (11%) among virus-positive samples among all age-groups. Species and sequence data showed diversity between and within HCoV species over the study period. Interpretation HCoV infections occurred in all congregate homeless shelter site age-groups with the greatest proportion among those aged ≥50 years. Species and sequencing data highlight the complexity of HCoV epidemiology within and between shelters sites. Funding Gates Ventures, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute of Health.

12.
J Immunol Methods ; 510: 113328, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1977497

ABSTRACT

Monocytes are highly versatile innate immune cells responsible for pathogen clearance, innate immune coordination, and induction of adaptive immunity. Monocytes can directly and indirectly integrate pathogen-destructive instructions and contribute to disease control via pathogen uptake, presentation, or the release of cytokines. Indirect pathogen-specific instructions are conferred via Fc-receptor signaling and triggered by antibody opsonized material. Given the tremendous variation in polyclonal humoral immunity, defining the specific antibody-responses able to arm monocytes most effectively remains incompletely understood. While monocyte cell line-based assays have been used previously, cell lines may not faithfully recapitulate the full biology of monocytes. Thus, here we describe a multifaceted antigen-specific method for probing antibody-dependent primary monocyte phagocytosis (ADMP) and secondary responses. The assay not only reliably captures phagocytic uptake of immune complexes, but also detects unique changes in surface markers and cytokine secretions profiles, poorly detected by monocytic cell lines. The assay captures divergent polyclonal-monocyte recruiting activity across subjects with varying SARS-CoV-2 disease severity and also revealed biological nuances in Fc-mutant monoclonal antibody activity related to differences in Fc-receptor binding. Thus, the ADMP assay is a flexible assay able to provide key insights into the role of humoral immunity in driving monocyte phenotypic transitions and downstream functions across many diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monocytes , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antigen-Antibody Complex , Antigens , Cytokines , Humans , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments , Phagocytosis , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Science ; 377(6608): 890-894, 2022 08 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1949930

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron variant of concern comprises several sublineages, with BA.2 and BA.2.12.1 having replaced the previously dominant BA.1 and with BA.4 and BA.5 increasing in prevalence worldwide. We show that the large number of Omicron sublineage spike mutations leads to enhanced angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) binding, reduced fusogenicity, and severe dampening of plasma neutralizing activity elicited by infection or seven clinical vaccines relative to the ancestral virus. Administration of a homologous or heterologous booster based on the Wuhan-Hu-1 spike sequence markedly increased neutralizing antibody titers and breadth against BA.1, BA.2, BA.2.12.1, BA.4, and BA.5 across all vaccines evaluated. Our data suggest that although Omicron sublineages evade polyclonal neutralizing antibody responses elicited by primary vaccine series, vaccine boosters may provide sufficient protection against Omicron-induced severe disease.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
14.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(6): e1010592, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910702

ABSTRACT

Exposure histories to SARS-CoV-2 variants and vaccinations will shape the specificity of antibody responses. To understand the specificity of Delta-elicited antibody immunity, we characterize the polyclonal antibody response elicited by primary or mRNA vaccine-breakthrough Delta infections. Both types of infection elicit a neutralizing antibody response focused heavily on the receptor-binding domain (RBD). We use deep mutational scanning to show that mutations to the RBD's class 1 and class 2 epitopes, including sites 417, 478, and 484-486 often reduce binding of these Delta-elicited antibodies. The anti-Delta antibody response is more similar to that elicited by early 2020 viruses than the Beta variant, with mutations to the class 1 and 2, but not class 3 epitopes, having the largest effects on polyclonal antibody binding. In addition, mutations to the class 1 epitope (e.g., K417N) tend to have larger effects on antibody binding and neutralization in the Delta spike than in the D614G spike, both for vaccine- and Delta-infection-elicited antibodies. These results help elucidate how the antigenic impacts of SARS-CoV-2 mutations depend on exposure history.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , Epitopes , Humans , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
15.
Immunol Rev ; 309(1): 8-11, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1909396

ABSTRACT

Pandemics have devastating effects that can be mitigated with the existence of global infrastructure for pandemic preparedness along with the adaptation of existing research studies and establishment of biorepositories early in an outbreak. Observational cohort studies in place prior to a pandemic, that are rapidly scalable in response to emerging infectious diseases, are essential for both the early pandemic response and evaluation of its long-term effects. The ability to quickly collect and share samples from convalescent individuals is also critical for the development of vaccines and therapeutics. We provide a reflection on key lessons learned from establishing a longitudinal observational cohort study during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in order to provide guidance for future pandemic preparedness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Cohort Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Observational Studies as Topic , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
16.
J Infect Dis ; 226(Supplement_3): S304-S314, 2022 Oct 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908832

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rhinovirus (RV) is a common cause of respiratory illness in all people, including those experiencing homelessness. RV epidemiology in homeless shelters is unknown. METHODS: We analyzed data from a cross-sectional homeless shelter study in King County, Washington, October 2019-May 2021. Shelter residents or guardians aged ≥3 months reporting acute respiratory illness completed questionnaires and submitted nasal swabs. After 1 April 2020, enrollment expanded to residents and staff regardless of symptoms. Samples were tested by multiplex RT-PCR for respiratory viruses. A subset of RV-positive samples was sequenced. RESULTS: There were 1066 RV-positive samples with RV present every month of the study period. RV was the most common virus before and during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic (43% and 77% of virus-positive samples, respectively). Participants from family shelters had the highest prevalence of RV. Among 131 sequenced samples, 33 RV serotypes were identified with each serotype detected for ≤4 months. CONCLUSIONS: RV infections persisted through community mitigation measures and were most prevalent in shelters housing families. Sequencing showed a diversity of circulating RV serotypes, each detected over short periods of time. Community-based surveillance in congregate settings is important to characterize respiratory viral infections during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT04141917.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Enterovirus Infections , Homeless Persons , Viruses , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Enterovirus Infections/epidemiology , Genomics , Humans , Pandemics , Rhinovirus/genetics , Washington/epidemiology
17.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 402, 2022 May 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846810

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pregnant women were excluded from investigational trials of COVID-19 vaccines. Limited data are available to inform pregnant and postpartum women on their decisions to receive a COVID-19 vaccine. METHODS: The goal of this observational, prospective cohort study is to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of various Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) or licensed COVID-19 vaccines administered to pregnant or lactating women and describe the transplacental antibody transfer and kinetics of antibodies in mothers and infants. The study is adaptive, allowing additional groups to be added as new vaccines or vaccine regimens are authorized. Up to 20 clinical research institutions in the United States (U.S.) will be included. Approximately 200 pregnant women and 65 postpartum women will be enrolled per EUA or licensed COVID-19 vaccine formulation in the U.S. This study will include pregnant and postpartum women of all ages with and without chronic medical conditions. Their infants will be enrolled and followed beginning at birth in the pregnant cohort and beginning at the earliest possible time point in the postpartum cohort. Blood samples will be collected for immunogenicity outcomes and pregnancy and birth outcomes assessed among women and infants. Primary analyses will be descriptive and done by vaccine type and/or platform. DISCUSSION: Given the long-standing and legitimate challenges of enrolling pregnant individuals into clinical trials early in the vaccine development pipeline, this study protocol describes our current study and provides a template to inform the collection of data for pregnant individuals receiving COVID-19 or other vaccines. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT05031468 .


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Lactation , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Observational Studies as Topic , Pregnancy , Prospective Studies
18.
PLoS Pathogens ; 18(4), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1842599

ABSTRACT

Macaques are a commonly used model for studying immunity to human viruses, including for studies of SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination. However, it is unknown whether macaque antibody responses resemble the response in humans. To answer this question, we employed a phage-based deep mutational scanning approach (Phage-DMS) to compare which linear epitopes are targeted on the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein in convalescent humans, convalescent (re-infected) rhesus macaques, mRNA-vaccinated humans, and repRNA-vaccinated pigtail macaques. We also used Phage-DMS to determine antibody escape pathways within each epitope, enabling a granular comparison of antibody binding specificities at the locus level. Overall, we identified some common epitope targets in both macaques and humans, including in the fusion peptide (FP) and stem helix-heptad repeat 2 (SH-H) regions. Differences between groups included a response to epitopes in the N-terminal domain (NTD) and C-terminal domain (CTD) in vaccinated humans but not vaccinated macaques, as well as recognition of a CTD epitope and epitopes flanking the FP in convalescent macaques but not convalescent humans. There was also considerable variability in the escape pathways among individuals within each group. Sera from convalescent macaques showed the least variability in escape overall and converged on a common response with vaccinated humans in the SH-H epitope region, suggesting highly similar antibodies were elicited. Collectively, these findings suggest that the antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 in macaques shares many features with humans, but with substantial differences in the recognition of certain epitopes and considerable individual variability in antibody escape profiles, suggesting a diverse repertoire of antibodies that can respond to major epitopes in both humans and macaques. Differences in macaque species and exposure type may also contribute to these findings.

19.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(1): e1180-e1183, 2022 Aug 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1816034

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 symptom definitions rarely include symptom severity. We collected daily nasal swab samples and symptom diaries from contacts of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) case patients. Requiring ≥1 moderate or severe symptom reduced sensitivity to predict SARS-CoV-2 shedding from 60.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 52.9%-66.7%) to 31.5% (95% CI, 25.7%- 38.0%) but increased specificity from 77.5% (95% CI, 75.3%-79.5%) to 93.8% (95% CI, 92.7%-94.8%).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , SARS-CoV-2
20.
J Infect Dis ; 226(5): 788-796, 2022 09 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774394

ABSTRACT

While detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by diagnostic reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is highly sensitive for viral RNA, the nucleic acid amplification of subgenomic RNAs (sgRNAs) that are the product of viral replication may more accurately identify replication. We characterized the diagnostic RNA and sgRNA detection by RT-PCR from nasal swab samples collected daily by participants in postexposure prophylaxis or treatment studies for SARS-CoV-2. Among 1932 RT-PCR-positive swab samples with sgRNA tests, 40% (767) had detectable sgRNA. Above a diagnostic RNA viral load (VL) threshold of 5.1 log10 copies/mL, 96% of samples had detectable sgRNA with VLs that followed a linear trend. The trajectories of diagnostic RNA and sgRNA VLs differed, with 80% peaking on the same day but duration of sgRNA detection being shorter (8 vs 14 days). With a large sample of daily swab samples we provide comparative sgRNA kinetics and a diagnostic RNA threshold that correlates with replicating virus independent of symptoms or duration of illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Kinetics , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Load
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