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2.
J Immigr Minor Health ; 23(6): 1343-1347, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279474

ABSTRACT

Immunomodulating therapies for COVID-19 may carry risks of reactivating latent infections in foreign-born people. We conducted a rapid review of infection-related complications of immunomodulatory therapies for COVID-19. We convened a committee of specialists to formulate a screening and management strategy for latent infections in our setting. Dexamethasone, used in severe COVID-19, is associated with reactivation of latent tuberculosis, hepatitis B, and dissemination/hyperinfection of Strongyloides species and should prompt screening and/ or empiric treatment in appropriate epidemiologic contexts. Other immunomodulators used in COVID-19 may also increase risk, including interleukin-6 receptor antagonist (e.g., tocilizumab) and kinase inhibitors. People with specific risk factors should also be screened for HIV, Chagas disease, and endemic mycoses. Racial and ethnic minorities in North America, including foreign-born persons, who receive immunomodulating agents for COVID-19 may be at risk for reactivation of latent infections. We develop a screening and management pathway for such patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Latent Tuberculosis , Humans , Immunomodulation , Mass Screening , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Ambul Care Manage ; 44(3): 197-206, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238265

ABSTRACT

In response to the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, we developed and launched a student-led telemedicine program in Chelsea. From April to November 2020, over 200 student volunteers contacted over 1000 patients to assess COVID-19 symptoms, provide counseling, and triage patients. Through a retrospective cohort study, we determined that student triage decision was associated with patient outcomes, including hospitalization status, COVID-19 test administration, and COVID-19 test result. These results quantify the outcomes of a student-led telemedicine clinic to combat the ongoing pandemic and may serve as a model for implementation of similar clinics to alleviate mounting health care system burden.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Student Run Clinic , Telemedicine/organization & administration , COVID-19/epidemiology , Counseling , England/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Triage
4.
J Infect Dis ; 223(1): 38-46, 2021 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066343

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We sought to develop an automatable score to predict hospitalization, critical illness, or death for patients at risk for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) presenting for urgent care. METHODS: We developed the COVID-19 Acuity Score (CoVA) based on a single-center study of adult outpatients seen in respiratory illness clinics or the emergency department. Data were extracted from the Partners Enterprise Data Warehouse, and split into development (n = 9381, 7 March-2 May) and prospective (n = 2205, 3-14 May) cohorts. Outcomes were hospitalization, critical illness (intensive care unit or ventilation), or death within 7 days. Calibration was assessed using the expected-to-observed event ratio (E/O). Discrimination was assessed by area under the receiver operating curve (AUC). RESULTS: In the prospective cohort, 26.1%, 6.3%, and 0.5% of patients experienced hospitalization, critical illness, or death, respectively. CoVA showed excellent performance in prospective validation for hospitalization (expected-to-observed ratio [E/O]: 1.01; AUC: 0.76), for critical illness (E/O: 1.03; AUC: 0.79), and for death (E/O: 1.63; AUC: 0.93). Among 30 predictors, the top 5 were age, diastolic blood pressure, blood oxygen saturation, COVID-19 testing status, and respiratory rate. CONCLUSIONS: CoVA is a prospectively validated automatable score for the outpatient setting to predict adverse events related to COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Aged , Critical Illness , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Theoretical , Outpatients , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity
5.
AIDS ; 34(12): 1781-1787, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-772526

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many people living with HIV (PLWH) have comorbidities which are risk factors for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) or have exposures that may lead to acquisition of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus 2. There are few studies, however, on the demographics, comorbidities, clinical presentation, or outcomes of COVID-19 in people with HIV. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate risk factors, clinical manifestations, and outcomes in a large cohort of PLWH with COVID-19. METHODS: We systematically identified all PLWH who were diagnosed with COVID-19 at a large hospital from 3 March to 26 April 2020 during an outbreak in Massachusetts. We analyzed each of the cases to extract information including demographics, medical comorbidities, clinical presentation, and illness course after COVID-19 diagnosis. RESULTS: We describe a cohort of 36 PLWH with confirmed COVID-19 and another 11 patients with probable COVID-19. Almost 85% of PLWH with confirmed COVID-19 had a comorbidity associated with severe disease, including obesity, cardiovascular disease, or hypertension. Approximately 77% of PLWH with COVID-19 were non-Hispanic Black or Latinx whereas only 40% of the PLWH in our clinic were Black or Latinx. Nearly half of PLWH with COVID-19 had exposure to congregate settings. In addition to people with confirmed COVID-19, we identified another 11 individuals with probable COVID-19, almost all of whom had negative PCR testing. CONCLUSION: In the largest cohort to date of PLWH and confirmed COVID-19, almost all had a comorbidity associated with severe disease, highlighting the importance of non-HIV risk factors in this population. The racial disparities and frequent link to congregate settings in PLWH and COVID-19 need to be explored urgently.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/ethnology , Cost of Illness , Female , HIV Infections/ethnology , Humans , Male , Massachusetts/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/ethnology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
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