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1.
J Public Health (Oxf) ; 2022 Jan 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1612641

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite generally high coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination rates in the UK, vaccination hesitancy and lower take-up rates have been reported in certain ethnic minority communities. METHODS: We used vaccination data from the National Immunisation Management System (NIMS) linked to the 2011 Census and individual health records for subjects aged ≥40 years (n = 24 094 186). We estimated age-standardized vaccination rates, stratified by ethnic group and key sociodemographic characteristics, such as religious affiliation, deprivation, educational attainment, geography, living conditions, country of birth, language skills and health status. To understand the association of ethnicity with lower vaccination rates, we conducted a logistic regression model adjusting for differences in geographic, sociodemographic and health characteristics. ResultsAll ethnic groups had lower age-standardized rates of vaccination compared with the white British population, whose vaccination rate of at least one dose was 94% (95% CI: 94%-94%). Black communities had the lowest rates, with 75% (74-75%) of black African and 66% (66-67%) of black Caribbean individuals having received at least one dose. The drivers of these lower rates were partly explained by accounting for sociodemographic differences. However, modelled estimates showed significant differences remained for all minority ethnic groups, compared with white British individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Lower COVID-19 vaccination rates are consistently observed amongst all ethnic minorities.

2.
Heart ; 2021 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583068

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Using a large national database of people hospitalised with COVID-19, we investigated the contribution of cardio-metabolic conditions, multi-morbidity and ethnicity on the risk of in-hospital cardiovascular complications and death. METHODS: A multicentre, prospective cohort study in 302 UK healthcare facilities of adults hospitalised with COVID-19 between 6 February 2020 and 16 March 2021. Logistic models were used to explore associations between baseline patient ethnicity, cardiometabolic conditions and multimorbidity (0, 1, 2, >2 conditions), and in-hospital cardiovascular complications (heart failure, arrhythmia, cardiac ischaemia, cardiac arrest, coagulation complications, stroke), renal injury and death. RESULTS: Of 65 624 patients hospitalised with COVID-19, 44 598 (68.0%) reported at least one cardiometabolic condition on admission. Cardiovascular/renal complications or death occurred in 24 609 (38.0%) patients. Baseline cardiometabolic conditions were independently associated with increased odds of in-hospital complications and this risk increased in the presence of cardiometabolic multimorbidity. For example, compared with having no cardiometabolic conditions, 1, 2 or ≥3 conditions was associated with 1.46 (95% CI 1.39 to 1.54), 2.04 (95% CI 1.93 to 2.15) and 3.10 (95% CI 2.92 to 3.29) times higher odds of any cardiovascular/renal complication, respectively. A similar pattern was observed for all-cause death. Compared with the white group, the South Asian (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.29) and black (OR 1.53 to 95% CI 1.37 to 1.72) ethnic groups had higher risk of any cardiovascular/renal complication. CONCLUSIONS: In hospitalised patients with COVID-19, cardiovascular complications or death impacts just under half of all patients, with the highest risk in those of South Asian or Black ethnicity and in patients with cardiometabolic multimorbidity.

3.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 16(1): 102361, 2021 Dec 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556980

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Vaccine hesitancy is an ongoing major challenge. We aimed to assess the uptake and hesitancy of the COVID-19 vaccination. METHODS: A short online survey was posted between April 12 to July 31, 2021 targeted at health and social care workers (HCWs) across the globe. RESULTS: 275 from 37 countries responded. Most were hospital or primary care physicians or nurses, 59% women, aged 18-60 years, and 21% had chronic conditions with most prevalent being diabetes, hypertension, and asthma. We found that most HCWs (93%) had taken or willing to receive the COVID-19 vaccine. While 7% were vaccine hesitant (mainly women aged 30-39 years), respondents main concerns was the safety or potential side effects. Vaccine willing respondents raised concerns of unequal access to the COVID-19 vaccination in some countries, and highlighted that the only solution to overcoming COVID-19 infections was the vaccine booster doses given annually and free mass vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: This study found that the majority of the frontline HCWs are willing to receive the COVID-19 vaccine. Further promotion of the COVID-19 vaccine would reassure and persuade HCWs to become vaccinated.

4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 908, 2021 Sep 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455937

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pre-existing comorbidities have been linked to SARS-CoV-2 infection but evidence is sparse on the importance and pattern of multimorbidity (2 or more conditions) and severity of infection indicated by hospitalisation or mortality. We aimed to use a multimorbidity index developed specifically for COVID-19 to investigate the association between multimorbidity and risk of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: We used data from the UK Biobank linked to laboratory confirmed test results for SARS-CoV-2 infection and mortality data from Public Health England between March 16 and July 26, 2020. By reviewing the current literature on COVID-19 we derived a multimorbidity index including: (1) angina; (2) asthma; (3) atrial fibrillation; (4) cancer; (5) chronic kidney disease; (6) chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; (7) diabetes mellitus; (8) heart failure; (9) hypertension; (10) myocardial infarction; (11) peripheral vascular disease; (12) stroke. Adjusted logistic regression models were used to assess the association between multimorbidity and risk of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection (hospitalisation/death). Potential effect modifiers of the association were assessed: age, sex, ethnicity, deprivation, smoking status, body mass index, air pollution, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, cardiorespiratory fitness, high sensitivity C-reactive protein. RESULTS: Among 360,283 participants, the median age was 68 [range 48-85] years, most were White (94.5%), and 1706 had severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. The prevalence of multimorbidity was more than double in those with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection (25%) compared to those without (11%), and clusters of several multimorbidities were more common in those with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. The most common clusters with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection were stroke with hypertension (79% of those with stroke had hypertension); diabetes and hypertension (72%); and chronic kidney disease and hypertension (68%). Multimorbidity was independently associated with a greater risk of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection (adjusted odds ratio 1.91 [95% confidence interval 1.70, 2.15] compared to no multimorbidity). The risk remained consistent across potential effect modifiers, except for greater risk among older age. The highest risk of severe infection was strongly evidenced in those with CKD and diabetes (4.93 [95% CI 3.36, 7.22]). CONCLUSION: The multimorbidity index may help identify individuals at higher risk for severe COVID-19 outcomes and provide guidance for tailoring effective treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Hospitalization , Humans , Middle Aged , Multimorbidity , Risk Factors
5.
Wellcome Open Research ; 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-833219

ABSTRACT

The global coronavirus pandemic has precipitated a rapid unprecedented research response, including investigations into risk factors for COVID-19 infection, severity, or death. However, results from this research have produced heterogeneous findings, including articles published in Wellcome Open Research. Here, we use ethnicity, obesity, and smoking as illustrative examples to demonstrate how a research question can produce very different answers depending on how it is framed. For example, these factors can be both strongly associated or have a null association with death due to COVID-19, even when using the same dataset and statistical modelling. Highlighting the reasons underpinning this apparent paradox provides an important framework for reporting and interpreting ongoing COVID-19 research.

7.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 14(5): 965-967, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-611900

ABSTRACT

Routine care for chronic disease is an ongoing major challenge. We aimed to evaluate the global impact of COVID-19 on routine care for chronic diseases. An online survey was posted 31 March to 23 April 2020 targeted at healthcare professionals. 202 from 47 countries responded. Most reported change in routine care to virtual communication. Diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and hypertension were the most impacted conditions due to reduction in access to care. 80% reported the mental health of their patients worsened during COVID-19. It is important routine care continues in spite of the pandemic, to avoid a rise in non-COVID-19-related morbidity and mortality.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Chronic Disease/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Personnel/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
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