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1.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(7)2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917872

ABSTRACT

The durability of a three-dose extended primary series of COVID-9 vaccine in dialysis patients remains unknown. Here, we assessed dynamic changes in SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral and cell-mediated immunity at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months after the extended primary series in 29 hemodialyzed (HD), 28 peritoneal dialyzed (PD) patients, and 14 healthy controls. Participants received two doses of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine followed by a dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine. At 6 months, median anti-RBD IgG titers (IQR) significantly declined from baseline in the HD (1741 (1136-3083) BAU/mL vs. 373 (188-607) BAU/mL) and PD (1093 (617-1911) BAU/mL vs. 180 (126-320) BAU/mL) groups, as did the mean percent inhibition of neutralizing antibodies (HD: 96% vs. 81%; PD: 95% vs. 73%) (all p < 0.01). Age and post-vaccination serological response intensity were predictors of early humoral seroprotection loss. In contrast, cell-mediated immunity remained unchanged. In conclusion, humoral immunity declined substantially in dialysis patients, while cell-mediated immunity remained stable 6 months after the extended heterologous primary series of two inactivated SARS-CoV-2/ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine. A booster dose could be considered in dialysis patients 3 months after this unique regimen, particularly in the elderly or those with a modest initial humoral response.

2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3587, 2022 03 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730318

ABSTRACT

Vaccination with inactivated SARS-CoV-2 virus produces suboptimal immune responses among kidney transplant (KT), peritoneal dialyzed (PD), and hemodialyzed (HD) patients. Participants were vaccinated with two-dose inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (V2) and a third dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine (V3) at 1-2 months after V2. We enrolled 106 participants: 31 KT, 28 PD, and 31 HD patients and 16 controls. Among KT, PD, and HD groups, median (IQR) of anti-receptor binding domain antibody levels were 1.0 (0.4-26.8), 1092.5 (606.9-1927.2), and 1740.9 (1106-3762.3) BAU/mL, and percent neutralization was 0.9 (0-9.9), 98.8 (95.9-99.5), and 99.4 (98.8-99.7), respectively, at two weeks after V3. Both parameters were significantly increased from V2 across all groups (p < 0.05). Seroconversion and neutralization positivity rates in PD, HD, and control groups were 100% but were impaired in KT patients (39% and 16%, respectively). S1-specific T-cell counts were increased in PD and HD groups (p < 0.05) but not in KT patients. The positive S1-specific T-cell responder rate was > 90% in PD, HD, and control groups, which was higher than that in KT recipients (74%, p < 0.05). The heterologous inactivated virus/ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination strategy elicited greater immunogenicity among dialysis patients; however, inadequate responses remained among KT recipients (TCTR20210226002).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Kidney Transplantation , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Humans
3.
Infect Dis Ther ; 11(1): 351-365, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1549589

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) are at risk of severe coronavirus disease and mortality. Immunogenicity of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) inactivated whole-virus vaccine in patients with ESKD has never been explored. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 60 patients with ESKD and 30 healthy controls. All participants received two doses of an inactivated whole-virus SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (Sinovac Biotech Ltd) 4 weeks apart. SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral and cell-mediated immune responses were investigated and referenced with healthy controls. RESULTS: After two doses, an anti-receptor-binding domain immunoglobulin G of 50 AU/ml or greater was present in 53 of 60 patients (88%) in the ESKD group and all participants (100%) in the control group (P = 0.05). The percentage of patients with ESKD and controls with neutralizing antibodies of 35% threshold or greater was 58% and 88%, respectively (P = 0.01). Furthermore, the proportion of patients with ESKD and S1-specific T cell response was comparable with controls (82% vs. 77%, P = 0.45). Old age, high ferritin level, and low absolute lymphocyte count were independently associated with poor humoral immune responses. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with ESKD could develop similar SARS-CoV-2-specific cell-mediated immune responses compared to healthy controls, although suboptimal humoral immune responses were observed following two doses of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Therefore, patients with ESKD and the abovementioned factors are at risk of generating inadequate humoral immune responses, and a vaccine strategy to elicit greater immunogenicity among these relatively immunocompromised patients is warranted. (Thai Clinical Trials Registry, TCTR20210226002).

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