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1.
Clin Imaging ; 90: 71-77, 2022 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906895

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of barotrauma (pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema) in mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients. To describe the chest radiography patterns of barotrauma and understand the development in relation to mechanical ventilation and patient mortality. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of 363 patients with COVID-19 from March 1 to April 8, 2020. Primary outcomes were pneumomediastinum or subcutaneous emphysema with or without pneumothorax, pneumoperitoneum, or pneumoretroperitoneum. The secondary outcomes were length of intubation and death. In patients with pneumomediastinum and/or subcutaneous emphysema, we conducted an imaging review to determine the timeline of barotrauma development. RESULTS: Forty three out of 363 (12%) patients developed barotrauma radiographically. The median time to development of either pneumomediastinum or subcutaneous emphysema was 2 days (IQR 1.0-4.5) after intubation and the median time to pneumothorax was 7 days (IQR 2.0-10.0). The overall incidence of pneumothorax was 28/363 (8%) with an incidence of 17/43 (40%) in the barotrauma cohort and 11/320 (3%) in those without barotrauma (p ≤ 0.001). In total, 257/363 (71%) patients died with an increase in mortality in those with barotrauma 33/43 (77%) vs. 224/320 (70%). When adjusting for covariates, barotrauma was associated with increased odds of death (OR 2.99, 95% CI 1.25-7.17). CONCLUSION: Barotrauma is a frequent complication of mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients. In comparison to intubated COVID-19 patients without barotrauma, there is a higher rate of pneumothorax and an increased risk of death.

2.
Chest ; 162(1): e19-e25, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906854

ABSTRACT

CASE PRESENTATION: A 51-year-old Puerto Rican woman, with a known but inconclusive diagnosis of interstitial lung disease (ILD) since 2002 and recent moderate COVID-19, is now presenting with subacute worsening dyspnea on exertion. The patient had sporadic medical care over the years for her ILD (Table 1). Prior workup included chest CT imaging with a "crazy-paving" pattern of lung disease, as defined by ground-glass opacity with superimposed interlobular septal thickening and visible intralobular lines. Bronchoscopy showed normal airway examination, and BAL revealed clear fluid with foamy macrophages and negative cultures. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery and transbronchial biopsy specimens both showed foamy macrophages. Results of pulmonary function testing (PFT) revealed an isolated gas transfer defect on diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (Dlco). She had lived with mild yet nonprogressive functional impairment and stable exercise intolerance over these years. She was then hospitalized for COVID-19 in August 2020 and for recurrent shortness of breath in September 2020. She now presented 4 months following her September 2020 hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Diseases, Interstitial , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/etiology , Female , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnosis , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/etiology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/pathology , Middle Aged , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
3.
Clin Imaging ; 64: 35-42, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906892

ABSTRACT

As the global pandemic of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) progresses, many physicians in a wide variety of specialties continue to play pivotal roles in diagnosis and management. In radiology, much of the literature to date has focused on chest CT manifestations of COVID-19 (Zhou et al. [1]; Chung et al. [2]). However, due to infection control issues related to patient transport to CT suites, the inefficiencies introduced in CT room decontamination, and lack of CT availability in parts of the world, portable chest radiography (CXR) will likely be the most commonly utilized modality for identification and follow up of lung abnormalities. In fact, the American College of Radiology (ACR) notes that CT decontamination required after scanning COVID-19 patients may disrupt radiological service availability and suggests that portable chest radiography may be considered to minimize the risk of cross-infection (American College of Radiology [3]). Furthermore, in cases of high clinical suspicion for COVID-19, a positive CXR may obviate the need for CT. Additionally, CXR utilization for early disease detection may also play a vital role in areas around the world with limited access to reliable real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) COVID testing. The purpose of this pictorial review article is to describe the most common manifestations and patterns of lung abnormality on CXR in COVID-19 in order to equip the medical community in its efforts to combat this pandemic.


Subject(s)
Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Radiography, Thoracic , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Radiography, Thoracic/instrumentation , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , X-Rays
4.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-330721

ABSTRACT

Importance: Acute COVID19 related myocardial, pulmonary and vascular pathology, and how these relate to each other, remains unclear. No studies have used complementary imaging techniques, including molecular imaging, to elucidate this. Objective: We used multimodality imaging and biochemical sampling in vivo to identify the pathobiology of acute COVID19. Design, Setting and Participants: Consecutive patients presenting with acute COVID19 were recruited during hospital admission in a prospective cross sectional study. Imaging involved computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA - identified coronary disease), cardiac 2deoxy2[fluorine18]fluoroDglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F FDG PET/CT identified vascular, cardiac and pulmonary inflammatory cell infiltration) and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR identified myocardial disease), alongside biomarker sampling. Results: Of 33 patients (median age 51 years, 94% male), 24 (73%) had respiratory symptoms, with the remainder having non-specific viral symptoms. Nine patients (35%, n=9/25) had CMR defined myocarditis. 53% (n=5/8) of these patients had myocardial inflammatory cell infiltration. Two patients (5%) had elevated troponin levels. Cardiac troponin concentrations were not significantly higher in patients with myocarditis (8.4ng/L [IQR 4.0, 55.3] vs 3.5ng/L [2.5, 5.5], p=0.07) or myocardial cell infiltration (4.4ng/L [3.4, 8.3] vs 3.5ng/L [2.8, 7.2], p=0.89). No patients had obstructive coronary artery disease or vasculitis. Pulmonary inflammation and consolidation (percentage of total lung volume) was 17% (IQR 5, 31%) and 11% (7, 18%) respectively. Neither were associated with presence of myocarditis. Conclusions and relevance: Myocarditis was present in a third patients with acute COVID-19, and the majority had inflammatory cell infiltration. Pneumonitis was ubiquitous, but this inflammation was not associated with myocarditis. The mechanism of cardiac pathology is non-ischaemic, and not due to a vasculitic process.

5.
Semin Roentgenol ; 57(1): 40-52, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1735310

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged as the source of a global pandemic in late 2019 and early 2020 and quickly spread throughout the world becoming one of the worst pandemics in recent history. This chapter reviews the most up to date radiological literature and outlines the utility of thoracic imaging in COVID-19, defining both the common and the less typical imaging appearances during the acute and subacute phases of COVID-19. The short term complications and the long term sequela will also be discussed in the context of radiology, including pulmonary emboli, acute respiratory distress syndrome, superimposed infections, barotrauma, cardiac manifestations, pulmonary parenchymal scarring and fibrosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Radiography , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Radiology ; 295(3): 200463, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1723927

ABSTRACT

In this retrospective study, chest CTs of 121 symptomatic patients infected with coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) from four centers in China from January 18, 2020 to February 2, 2020 were reviewed for common CT findings in relationship to the time between symptom onset and the initial CT scan (i.e. early, 0-2 days (36 patients), intermediate 3-5 days (33 patients), late 6-12 days (25 patients)). The hallmarks of COVID-19 infection on imaging were bilateral and peripheral ground-glass and consolidative pulmonary opacities. Notably, 20/36 (56%) of early patients had a normal CT. With a longer time after the onset of symptoms, CT findings were more frequent, including consolidation, bilateral and peripheral disease, greater total lung involvement, linear opacities, "crazy-paving" pattern and the "reverse halo" sign. Bilateral lung involvement was observed in 10/36 early patients (28%), 25/33 intermediate patients (76%), and 22/25 late patients (88%).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Lung Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Lung Diseases/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Lung Diseases/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Young Adult
7.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-305163

ABSTRACT

Background: 8-28% of patients infected with COVID-19 have evidence of cardiac injury, and this is associated with an adverse prognosis. The cardiovascular mechanisms of injury are poorly understood and speculative. We aim to use multimodality cardiac imaging including cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging, computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) and positron emission tomography with 2-deoxy-2-[fluorine-18]fluoro- D-glucose integrated with computed tomography (18F-FDG-PET/CT) to identify the cardiac pathophysiological mechanisms related to COVID-19 infections. Methods: : This is a single-centre exploratory observational study aiming to recruit 50 patients with COVID-19 infection who will undergo cardiac biomarker sampling. Of these, 30 patients will undergo combined CTCA & 18F-FDG-PET/CT, followed by CMR. Prevalence of obstructive and non-obstructive atherosclerotic coronary disease will be assessed using CTCA. CMR will be used to identify and characterise myocardial disease including presence of cardiac dysfunction, myocardial fibrosis, myocardial oedema and myocardial infarction. 18F-FDG-PET/CT will identify vascular and cardiac inflammation. Primary endpoint will be the presence of cardiovascular pathology and the association with troponin levels. Discussion: The results of the study will identify the presence and modality of cardiac injury associated COVID-19 infection, and the utility of multi-modality imaging in diagnosing such injury. This will further inform clinical decision making during the pandemic. TRIAL REGISTRATION : This study has been retrospectively registered at the ISRCTN registry (ID ISRCTN12154994) on 14th August 2020. Accessible at www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN12154994

8.
Radiol Clin North Am ; 60(3): 359-369, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616738

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an easily transmissible coronavirus that emerged in late 2019 and has caused a global pandemic characterized by acute respiratory disease named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Diagnostic imaging can be helpful as a complementary tool in supporting the diagnosis of COVID-19 and identifying alternative pathology. This article presents an overview of acute and postacute imaging findings in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Diagnostic Imaging , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Cleft Palate Craniofac J ; 58(12): 1547-1555, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526569

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cleft lip and cleft palate (CLP) are among the world's most common congenital malformation and has a higher prevalence in developing nations due to environmental and genetic factors. Global efforts have been developed in order to prevent and treat the malformation. Telemedicine has been implemented in various humanitarian global missions with success and is currently the primary means of care due to COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: To assess the benefits and barriers of telehealth in the care of patients with CLP through a global approach. METHODS: Systematic review of the PubMed and Cochrane Review databases with relevant terms related to telemedicine in cleft lip and palate surgery. RESULTS: Eight articles fit the inclusion criteria and suggested benefits with the use of telemedicine in regard to education, preoperative, and postoperative care as well as increased access to underserved populations. Barriers included connectivity and accessibility concerns. CONCLUSION: Telehealth is a beneficial way to evaluate patients with CLP in developing countries with proper care and follow-up to reduce complications and to improve health outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cleft Lip , Cleft Palate , Telemedicine , Cleft Lip/therapy , Cleft Palate/therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Ann Plast Surg ; 88(2): 133-137, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475935

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has brought about immense change in health care. Surgical specialties in particular have had to make major adjustments because of the cancellation of nonemergent surgeries. Aesthetic surgery fellowships are uniquely affected because of the high number of elective cases and the length of the fellowship. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on current and upcoming aesthetic surgery fellows has not been studied. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article was to study the potential impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on both American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgeons-endorsed and nonendorsed aesthetic fellowship programs. METHODS: A 23-question anonymous web-based survey was sent to aesthetic surgery fellowship directors with an active program in the United States. Surveys were collected from April 18, 2020, through May 14, 2020, with Qualtrics and then analyzed with Microsoft Excel. A 7-question follow-up survey was sent to directors, and a 23-question survey was sent to aesthetic surgery fellows. Data for these surveys were collected from June 6, 2020, through August 18, 2020. The surveys asked questions pertaining to adjustments and impact on current fellow training, as well as possible impact on fellows starting in 2020 and 2021. RESULTS: There was a 65.5% (19 of 29) response rate for the initial director survey, a 31% (9 of 29) rate for the director follow up survey, and a 28% (9 of 32) rate for the fellow-specific survey. All directors and fellows reported that the pandemic had some impact on aesthetic fellow training. A total of 5.3% of directors reported that they believe COVID-19 would have a "significant impact" on their fellows becoming well-trained aesthetic surgeons, whereas 66.7% of fellows reported that it will have a "mild impact." Predicted impact on future fellows was not as significant. CONCLUSION: Telemedicine, educational efforts, and standardization of guidelines can be increased to minimize loss of training due to COVID-19. Ongoing evaluation and shared experiences can assist fellowships in customizing programs to provide well-rounded education during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fellowships and Scholarships , Education, Medical, Graduate , Esthetics , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States
11.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; : 1-9, 2022 Apr 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456223

ABSTRACT

Hundreds of imaging-based artificial intelligence (AI) models have been developed in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. AI systems that incorporate imaging have shown promise in primary detection, severity grading, and prognostication of outcomes in COVID-19, and have enabled integration of imaging with a broad range of additional clinical and epidemiologic data. However, systematic reviews of AI models applied to COVID-19 medical imaging have highlighted problems in the field, including methodologic issues and problems in real-world deployment. Clinical use of such models should be informed by both the promise and potential pitfalls of implementation. How does a practicing radiologist make sense of this complex topic, and what factors should be considered in the implementation of AI tools for imaging of COVID-19? This critical review aims to help the radiologist understand the nuances that impact the clinical deployment of AI for imaging of COVID-19. We review imaging use cases for AI models in COVID-19 (e.g., diagnosis, severity assessment, and prognostication) and explore considerations for AI model development and testing, deployment infrastructure, clinical user interfaces, quality control, and institutional review board and regulatory approvals, with a practical focus on what a radiologist should consider when implementing an AI tool for COVID-19.

12.
J Surg Oncol ; 125(2): 101-106, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1437060

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: This article reports on the effects of an early outbreak during the COVID-19 pandemic on visit volume and telehealth use by various specialists at a comprehensive cancer center. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The number of on-site and telehealth visits (THV) for medical and surgical specialties were obtained from scheduling software. RESULTS: Total visits were most drastically limited in April 2020 to a low point of 3139; THV made up 28% of all visits. For head and neck surgery, THV made up 54% and 30% of visits in April and May, respectively. Other specialties, such as psychiatry and palliative care, had higher levels of THV. For most specialties, the rebound in June through September did not make up for visits lost during the outbreak, and fiscal year  (FY) 2020 had a 9% loss from FY 2019 with 5786 fewer total annual visits across all specialties. CONCLUSIONS: While telemedicine was a helpful part of this cancer center's response to the initial COVID-19 surge, it was not able to replace the in-person services offered at the same center. The main strategy of physicians at this cancer center was to defer care, with telemedicine being an auxiliary response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine/trends , Head and Neck Neoplasms/surgery , Humans , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data
13.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 17(11): 3913-3915, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1360307

ABSTRACT

The evidence that BCG (bacille Calmette-Guerin) vaccine may increase the ability of the immune system to fight off pathogens other than tuberculosis has been studied in the past. This nonspecific immunity gained our interest, especially after initial reports of less cases in countries with universal BCG vaccination. In hopes of possible protective immunity, all staff of the Emirates International Hospital (United Arab Emirates) were offered a booster BCG vaccine in early March 2020. All the hospital staff were then tested for Covid-19 infection by the end of June 2020. We divided the subjects into two groups: booster vaccinated versus unvaccinated. The rate of Covid-19 infection was compared between the groups. Criteria included all staff who were offered the vaccine. Seventy-one subjects received the booster vaccination. This group had zero cases of positive COVID 19 infection. Two hundred nine subjects did not receive the vaccination, with 18 positive PCR confirmed COVID 19 cases. The infection rate in the unvaccinated group was 8.6% versus zero in the booster vaccinated group (Fisher's exact test p-value = .004). Our findings demonstrated the potential effectiveness of the booster BCG vaccine, specifically the booster in preventing Covid-19 infections in an elevated-risk healthcare population.


Subject(s)
BCG Vaccine , COVID-19 , Humans , Immunity, Innate , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
14.
J Thorac Imaging ; 35(6): 354-360, 2020 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219555

ABSTRACT

The diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The utility of chest radiography (CXR) remains an evolving topic of discussion. Current reports of CXR findings related to COVID-19 contain varied terminology as well as various assessments of its sensitivity and specificity. This can lead to a misunderstanding of CXR reports and makes comparison between examinations and research studies challenging. With this need for consistency, we propose language for standardized CXR reporting and severity assessment of persons under investigation for having COVID-19, patients with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19, and patients who may have radiographic findings typical or suggestive of COVID-19 when the diagnosis is not suspected clinically. We recommend contacting the referring providers to discuss the likelihood of viral infection when typical or indeterminate features of COVID-19 pneumonia on CXR are present as an incidental finding. In addition, we summarize the currently available literature related to the use of CXR for COVID-19 and discuss the evolving techniques of obtaining CXR in COVID-19-positive patients. The recently published expert consensus statement on reporting chest computed tomography findings related to COVID-19, endorsed by the Radiological Society of North American (RSNA), the Society of Thoracic Radiology (STR), and American College of Radiology (ACR), serves as the framework for our proposal.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
15.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 21(1): 234, 2021 05 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218885

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: 8-28% of patients infected with COVID-19 have evidence of cardiac injury, and this is associated with an adverse prognosis. The cardiovascular mechanisms of injury are poorly understood and speculative. We aim to use multimodality cardiac imaging including cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging, computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) and positron emission tomography with 2-deoxy-2-[fluorine-18]fluoro-D-glucose integrated with computed tomography (18F-FDG-PET/CT) to identify the cardiac pathophysiological mechanisms related to COVID-19 infections. METHODS: This is a single-centre exploratory observational study aiming to recruit 50 patients with COVID-19 infection who will undergo cardiac biomarker sampling. Of these, 30 patients will undergo combined CTCA and 18F-FDG-PET/CT, followed by CMR. Prevalence of obstructive and non-obstructive atherosclerotic coronary disease will be assessed using CTCA. CMR will be used to identify and characterise myocardial disease including presence of cardiac dysfunction, myocardial fibrosis, myocardial oedema and myocardial infarction. 18F-FDG-PET/CT will identify vascular and cardiac inflammation. Primary endpoint will be the presence of cardiovascular pathology and the association with troponin levels. DISCUSSION: The results of the study will identify the presence and modality of cardiac injury associated COVID-19 infection, and the utility of multi-modality imaging in diagnosing such injury. This will further inform clinical decision making during the pandemic. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study has been retrospectively registered at the ISRCTN registry (ID ISRCTN12154994) on 14th August 2020. Accessible at https://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN12154994.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cardiomyopathies/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Disease/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cardiomyopathies/physiopathology , Cardiomyopathies/virology , Computed Tomography Angiography , Coronary Disease/physiopathology , Coronary Disease/virology , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Multimodal Imaging , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Prospective Studies , Radiopharmaceuticals
16.
Radiol Cardiothorac Imaging ; 2(3): e200210, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1155987

ABSTRACT

In this article we will review the imaging features of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) across multiple modalities, including radiography, CT, MRI, PET/CT, and US. Given that COVID-19 primarily affects the lung parenchyma by causing pneumonia, our directive is to focus on thoracic findings associated with COVID-19. We aim to enhance radiologists' understanding of this disease to help guide diagnosis and management. Supplemental material is available for this article. © RSNA, 2020.

17.
Radiol Cardiothorac Imaging ; 2(2): e200152, 2020 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1155981

ABSTRACT

Routine screening CT for the identification of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pneumonia is currently not recommended by most radiology societies. However, the number of CT examinations performed in persons under investigation for COVID-19 has increased. We also anticipate that some patients will have incidentally detected findings that could be attributable to COVID-19 pneumonia, requiring radiologists to decide whether or not to mention COVID-19 specifically as a differential diagnostic possibility. We aim to provide guidance to radiologists in reporting CT findings potentially attributable to COVID-19 pneumonia, including standardized language to reduce reporting variability when addressing the possibility of COVID-19. When typical or indeterminate features of COVID-19 pneumonia are present in endemic areas as an incidental finding, we recommend contacting the referring providers to discuss the likelihood of viral infection. These incidental findings do not necessarily need to be reported as COVID-19 pneumonia. In this setting, using the term viral pneumonia can be a reasonable and inclusive alternative. However, if one opts to use the term COVID-19 in the incidental setting, consider the provided standardized reporting language. In addition, practice patterns may vary, and this document is meant to serve as a guide. Consultation with clinical colleagues at each institution is suggested to establish a consensus reporting approach. The goal of this expert consensus is to help radiologists recognize findings of COVID-19 pneumonia and aid their communication with other health care providers, assisting management of patients during this pandemic. Published under a CC BY 4.0 license.

18.
Chest ; 160(1): 238-248, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1149107

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chest radiography (CXR) often is performed in the acute setting to help understand the extent of respiratory disease in patients with COVID-19, but a clearly defined role for negative chest radiograph results in assessing patients has not been described. RESEARCH QUESTION: Is portable CXR an effective exclusionary test for future adverse clinical outcomes in patients suspected of having COVID-19? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Charts of consecutive patients suspected of having COVID-19 at five EDs in New York City between March 19, 2020, and April 23, 2020, were reviewed. Patients were categorized based on absence of findings on initial CXR. The primary outcomes were hospital admission, mechanical ventilation, ARDS, and mortality. RESULTS: Three thousand two hundred forty-five adult patients, 474 (14.6%) with negative initial CXR results, were reviewed. Among all patients, negative initial CXR results were associated with a low probability of future adverse clinical outcomes, with negative likelihood ratios of 0.27 (95% CI, 0.23-0.31) for hospital admission, 0.24 (95% CI, 0.16-0.37) for mechanical ventilation, 0.19 (95% CI, 0.09-0.40) for ARDS, and 0.38 (95% CI, 0.29-0.51) for mortality. Among the subset of 955 patients younger than 65 years and with a duration of symptoms of at least 5 days, no patients with negative CXR results died, and the negative likelihood ratios were 0.17 (95% CI, 0.12-0.25) for hospital admission, 0.09 (95% CI, 0.02-0.36) for mechanical ventilation, and 0.09 (95% CI, 0.01-0.64) for ARDS. INTERPRETATION: Initial CXR in adult patients suspected of having COVID-19 is a strong exclusionary test for hospital admission, mechanical ventilation, ARDS, and mortality. The value of CXR as an exclusionary test for adverse clinical outcomes is highest among young adults, patients with few comorbidities, and those with a prolonged duration of symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Radiography, Thoracic , Respiration Disorders , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Predictive Value of Tests , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , Radiography, Thoracic/standards , Radiography, Thoracic/statistics & numerical data , Respiration Disorders/diagnosis , Respiration Disorders/etiology , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Clin Imaging ; 77: 1-8, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1077836

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated a complex interplay between comorbid cardiovascular disease, COVID-19 pathophysiology, and poor clinical outcomes. Coronary artery calcification (CAC) may therefore aid in risk stratification of COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Non-contrast chest CT studies on 180 COVID-19 patients ≥ age 21 admitted from March 1, 2020 to April 27, 2020 were retrospectively reviewed by two radiologists to determine CAC scores. Following feature selection, multivariable logistic regression was utilized to evaluate the relationship between CAC scores and patient outcomes. RESULTS: The presence of any identified CAC was associated with intubation (AOR: 3.6, CI: 1.4-9.6) and mortality (AOR: 3.2, CI: 1.4-7.9). Severe CAC was independently associated with intubation (AOR: 4.0, CI: 1.3-13) and mortality (AOR: 5.1, CI: 1.9-15). A greater CAC score (UOR: 1.2, CI: 1.02-1.3) and number of vessels with calcium (UOR: 1.3, CI: 1.02-1.6) was associated with mortality. Visualized coronary stent or coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) had no statistically significant association with intubation (AOR: 1.9, CI: 0.4-7.7) or death (AOR: 3.4, CI: 1.0-12). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 patients with any CAC were more likely to require intubation and die than those without CAC. Increasing CAC and number of affected arteries was associated with mortality. Severe CAC was associated with higher intubation risk. Prior CABG or stenting had no association with elevated intubation or death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronary Artery Disease , Vascular Calcification , Adult , Biomarkers , Coronary Angiography , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Vessels/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Vascular Calcification/diagnostic imaging , Vascular Calcification/epidemiology , Young Adult
20.
Radiology ; 299(3): E262-E279, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1072808

ABSTRACT

Infection with SARS-CoV-2 ranges from an asymptomatic condition to a severe and sometimes fatal disease, with mortality most frequently being the result of acute lung injury. The role of imaging has evolved during the pandemic, with CT initially being an alternative and possibly superior testing method compared with reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing and evolving to having a more limited role based on specific indications. Several classification and reporting schemes were developed for chest imaging early during the pandemic for patients suspected of having COVID-19 to aid in triage when the availability of RT-PCR testing was limited and its level of performance was unclear. Interobserver agreement for categories with findings typical of COVID-19 and those suggesting an alternative diagnosis is high across multiple studies. Furthermore, some studies looking at the extent of lung involvement on chest radiographs and CT images showed correlations with critical illness and a need for mechanical ventilation. In addition to pulmonary manifestations, cardiovascular complications such as thromboembolism and myocarditis have been ascribed to COVID-19, sometimes contributing to neurologic and abdominal manifestations. Finally, artificial intelligence has shown promise for use in determining both the diagnosis and prognosis of COVID-19 pneumonia with respect to both radiography and CT.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
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