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1.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e053938, 2022 04 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784813

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Social distancing is one of the main non-pharmaceutical interventions used in the control of the COVID-19 pandemic. This scoping review aims to synthesise research findings on the effectiveness of different types and levels of social distancing measures in the earlier stage of COVID-19 pandemic without the confounding effect of mass vaccination. DESIGN: Scoping review. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, Embase, Global Health and four other databases were searched for eligible studies on social distancing for COVID-19 published from inception of the databases to 30 September 2020. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: Effectiveness studies on social distancing between individuals, school closures, workplace/business closures, public transport restrictions and partial/full lockdown were included. Non-English articles, studies in healthcare settings or not based on empirical data were excluded. RESULTS: After screening 1638 abstracts and 8 additional articles from other sources, 41 studies were included for synthesis of findings. The review found that the outcomes of social distancing measures were mainly indicated by changes in Rt , incidence and mortality, along with indirect indicators such as daily contact frequency and travel distance. There was adequate empirical evidence for the effect of social distancing at the individual level, and for partial or full lockdown at the community level. However, at the level of social settings, the evidence was moderate for school closure, and was limited for workplace/business closures as single targeted interventions. There was no evidence for a separate effect of public transport restriction. CONCLUSIONS: In the community setting, there was stronger evidence for the combined effect of different social distancing interventions than for a single intervention. As fatigue of preventive behaviours is an issue in public health agenda, future studies should analyse the risks in specific settings such as eateries and entertainment to implement and evaluate measures which are proportionate to the risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Physical Distancing , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2
2.
European Journal of Integrative Medicine ; 48:101977-101977, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1728277
3.
Front Public Health ; 9: 793533, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599113

ABSTRACT

Background: Along with individual-level factors, vaccination-related characteristics are important in understanding COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. This study aimed to determine the influence of these characteristics on vaccine acceptance to formulate promotion strategies after considering differences among respondents with different characteristics. Methods: An online discrete choice experiment was conducted among people aged 18-64 years in Hong Kong, China, from 26 to 28 February 2021. Respondents were asked to make choices regarding hypothetical vaccination programmes described by vaccination-related characteristics-the attributes derived from a prior individual interview. Subgroup analysis was performed to identify the differences in vaccination-related characteristics among respondents with different personal characteristics. Results: A total of 1,773 respondents provided valid responses. The vaccine efficacy and brand were the most important factors affecting acceptance, followed by the exemption of quarantine for vaccinated travelers, safety, venue for vaccination, vaccine uptake of people in their lives, and recommendations by general physicians or government. Frequent exposure to vaccination information on social media has been associated with increasing vaccine refusal. Substantial preference heterogeneity for the attributes was found among people of different ages, incomes, chronic conditions, and previous acceptance of influenza vaccines. Conclusion: The findings provided evidence to formulate interventions to promote vaccine uptake, including the provision of vaccination at housing estate or workplaces, involvement of general physicians and interpersonal communication in vaccine promotion and information dissemination, and exemption of quarantine for vaccinated people. Moreover, social media is a significant information channel that cannot be neglected in the dissemination of official information.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hong Kong , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
4.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0253890, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1290906

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During COVID-19, the public actively sought non-pharmacological and self-management approaches to prevent infection. Little is known on the use of traditional, complementary and integrative medicine (TCIM) by the public as preventive measures. This study investigated the prevalence and patterns of TCIM use during the pandemic, and identified factors associated with its use among the general population in Hong Kong. METHODS: An online cross-sectional survey was conducted from November to December 2020. The survey solicited information on the respondents' sociodemographic characteristics, risk perception of the pandemic, and use of TCIM before and during the pandemic. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine predictors of TCIM use. RESULTS: In total, 632 responses (completion rate = 88.1%) were analyzed. TCIM was used by 44.0% of respondents during the pandemic. The most popular forms of TCIM were vitamins or other dietary supplements (n = 160, 25.3%) and Chinese herbal medicine (n = 122, 19.3%) during the pandemic. The most frequently reported indication was strengthening the immune system, especially for vitamins or other dietary supplements (n = 142/160, 88.8%). Respondents who reported using TCIM were more likely to be female (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.82, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.29-2.59), had higher education attainment (aOR = 2.21, 95% CI = 1.39-3.59), and older-aged (age >55 years: aOR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.04-3.02). Respondents who resided in districts with moderate to high number of confirmed COVID-19 cases (aOR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.07-2.42) and had a higher level of risk perception (aOR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.01-1.07) were also more likely to use TCIM. CONCLUSION: TCIM was used commonly in Hong Kong during the COVID-19 pandemic. While vaccination and social distancing remain the mainstay of controlling the pandemic, professional bodies should proactively consider public preferences and provide information regarding the effectiveness and safety of TCIM for COVID-19 prevention and treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Complementary Therapies , Integrative Medicine , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dietary Supplements , Female , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Young Adult
5.
Sleep Med ; 74: 18-24, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-653706

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic is a large-scale public health emergency that likely precipitated sleep disturbances in the community. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and correlates of sleep disturbances during the early phase of COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This web-based cross-sectional study recruited 1138 Hong Kong adults using convenience sampling over a two-week period from 6th April 2020. The survey collected data on sleep disturbances, mood, stress, stock of infection control supplies, perceived risk of being infected by COVID-19, and sources for acquiring COVID-19 information. The participants were asked to compare their recent sleep and sleep before the outbreak. The Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) was used to assess their current insomnia severity. Prevalence was weighted according to 2016 population census. RESULTS: The weighted prevalence of worsened sleep quality, difficulty in sleep initiation, and shortened sleep duration since the outbreak were 38.3%, 29.8%, and 29.1%, respectively. The prevalence of current insomnia (ISI score of ≥10) was 29.9%. Insufficient stock of masks was significantly associated with worsened sleep quality, impaired sleep initiation, shortened sleep duration, and current insomnia in multivariate logistic regression (adjusted OR = 1.57, 1.72, 1.99, and 1.96 respectively, all p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: A high proportion of people in Hong Kong felt that their sleep had worsened since the COVID-19 outbreak. Insufficient stock of masks was one of the risk factors that were associated with sleep disturbances. Adequate and stable supply of masks may play an important role to maintain the sleep health in the Hong Kong general population during a pandemic outbreak.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Urban Population , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Wake Disorders/diagnosis , Sleep Wake Disorders/therapy , Urban Population/trends , Young Adult
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