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1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322939

ABSTRACT

Background: One of the most challenging aspects related to Covid-19 is to establish which are the characteristics that may explain clinical variability among patients. To achieve this objective, we compared serum metabolomic profiles of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 carriers to patients affected by mild and severe symptoms. Methods: : All subjects underwent quantitative assays for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody detection. Serum samples for metabolomic analysis were obtained from 109 healthy controls;15 seroconverted, asymptomatic subjects (AS);16 Covid-19 patients with mild symptomatology (MI) and 12 patients with severe symptomatology (SE). Metabolites were identified using Mass Spectrometry coupled to Gas Chromatography. Uni- and multivariate approaches were used to select the most relevant metabolites. Results: : Anti SARS-CoV-2 IgG showed an increasing trend from controls to asymptomatic and mild severity patients. Tyrosine, phenylalanine, acetoacetate and fumarate showed a decreased concentration in MI compared to both CTRL and AS subjects;on the contrary, mandelic acid showed an increased concertation. The shortest route among these metabolites resulted the Tyrosine metabolism. Aspartic acid, alanine, isoleucine, valine and proline were decreased in MI patients, while methionine and oxo-leucine resulted increased. An increased concertation of fatty acids lauric and myristic acid, phospholipids (phosphatidyl myo-inositol and lyso-phosphatidyl inositol) and histamine were recorded in MI and SE. Conclusion: The reported metabolite levels could be explained by an increase production of L-DOPA, resulting in a following increased production of noradrenaline and adrenaline that could, at least partially, explain the different clinical presentation of the infection.

2.
Clin Exp Gastroenterol ; 14: 451-456, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523534

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Celiac disease (CeD) diagnosis has worldwide shared protocols. Conversely, follow-up of patients is still an object of study. Gluten immunogenic peptide detection in the urine (GIP) appears to be a new and efficient method for dietary gluten control of patients. The present study aims to assess the clinical usefulness of the GIP point-of-care urine test in the follow-up of symptomatic and asymptomatic patients with CeD before and during the COVID-19 lockdown in Italy. METHODS: Thirty adult CeD patients on a gluten-free diet (GFD) were enrolled before and during the COVID-19 lockdown through follow-up visits or remote consultation. Patients underwent anthropometrical evaluation, dietetic interview, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Then, two groups were formed: symptomatic and worried about gluten contamination. Each patient received 5 GIP point-of-care tests to perform a maximum of 5 times in the following 5 weeks in case of symptoms or anxiety state due to hypothesized gluten contamination. RESULTS: Sixteen symptomatic patients and 14 patients with concerns related to gluten contamination were included. There were no differences in age, BMI, compliance to GFD and GIP positive tests between the two groups. Worried group showed a borderline higher level of anxiety than symptomatic group (p = 0.06), with a significant minor percentage of patients reporting "no or low anxiety" (14.3% vs 50% p = 0.03). The symptomatic patients showed a higher rate of diarrhea than worried group (25% vs 0%, p = 0.04). Gluten in urine samples was globally found in 8 out of 30 cases (26.6%). CONCLUSION: The GIP test is a tool that can be used as a point of care test to assess adequate compliance with GFD and reassure symptomatic CeD patients from the feeling of anxiety for gluten contamination, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic.

3.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 May 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256617

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) causes not only severe illness but also detrimental effects associated with the lockdown measures. The present study aimed to evaluate reported lifestyle changes in a cohort of adults in Italy, including physical exercise, food choices, and psychological wellbeing, after two months of lockdown. METHODS: A web survey on social media (Facebook and LinkedIn) of 32 multiple-choice questions aiming to evaluate the impact of the national COVID-19 lockdown in a sample of Italian adults. RESULTS: We received 1378 complete responses (women 68.3%, mean age 39.5 ± 12.5 years). The percentage of participants reporting regular exercise decreased during lockdown (52 vs. 56.5%). The vast majority of people continued to consume the three traditional meals per day, but the consumption of meat, fish, and eggs significantly decreased. Women reported more frequent anxiety, sadness, fear, and feelings of insecurity than men. The factors predicting the worst outcome during the lockdown were being a woman, low education and income, gastrointestinal diseases. CONCLUSION: The lockdown has had a limited impact on food choices and physical exercise in Italian adults of our series, since most of them made an effort to improve their lifestyle. However, women with gastrointestinal diseases reported more frequent negative feelings and poor adaptation to the lockdown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Exercise/psychology , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Adaptation, Psychological , Adult , Emotions , Female , Humans , Italy , Life Style , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Social Isolation/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(12): 1213-1225, 2021 Mar 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172998

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We recently demonstrated that the odds of contracting coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients with celiac disease (CeD) is similar to that of the general population. However, how patients with CeD perceive their COVID-19 risk may differ from their actual risk. AIM: To investigate risk perceptions of contracting COVID-19 in patients with CeD and determine the factors that may influence their perception. METHODS: We distributed a survey throughout 10 countries between March and June 2020 and collected data on demographics, diet, COVID-19 testing, and risk perceptions of COVID-19 in patients with CeD. Participants were recruited through various celiac associations, clinic visits, and social media. Risk perception was assessed by asking individuals whether they believe patients with CeD are at an increased risk of contracting COVID-19 when compared to the general population. Logistic regression was used to determine the influencing factors associated with COVID-19 risk perception, such as age, sex, adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD), and comorbidities such as cardiac conditions, respiratory conditions, and diabetes. Data was presented as adjusted odds ratios (aORs). RESULTS: A total of 10737 participants with CeD completed the survey. From them, 6019 (56.1%) patients with CeD perceived they were at a higher risk or were unsure if they were at a higher risk of contracting COVID-19 compared to the non-CeD population. A greater proportion of patients with CeD perceived an increased risk of contracting COVID-19 when compared to infections in general due to their CeD (56.1% vs 26.7%, P < 0.0001). Consequently, 34.8% reported taking extra COVID-19 precautions as a result of their CeD. Members of celiac associations were less likely to perceive an increased risk of COVID-19 when compared to non-members (49.5% vs 57.4%, P < 0.0001). Older age (aOR: 0.99; 95%CI: 0.99 to 0.99, P < 0.001), male sex (aOR: 0.84; 95%CI: 0.76 to 0.93, P = 0.001), and strict adherence to a GFD (aOR: 0.89; 95%CI: 0.82 to 0.96, P = 0.007) were associated with a lower perception of COVID-19 risk and the presence of comorbidities was associated with a higher perception of COVID-19 risk (aOR: 1.38; 95%CI: 1.22 to 1.54, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Overall, high levels of risk perceptions, such as those found in patients with CeD, may increase an individual's pandemic-related stress and contribute to negative mental health consequences. Therefore, it is encouraged that public health officials maintain consistent communication with the public and healthcare providers with the celiac community. Future studies specifically evaluating mental health in CeD could help determine the consequences of increased risk perceptions in this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Celiac Disease , Aged , COVID-19 Testing , Celiac Disease/diagnosis , Humans , Male , Perception , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Eur J Dent ; 15(3): 469-474, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1096363

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to investigate the dentists' knowledge of the risks from the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, and how it will impact their practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An ad hoc self-administered anonymous questionnaire was submitted to Italian dentists. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Differences in rates were calculated using the chi-square test. The level of significance was set at p < 0.05. RESULTS: A total of 849 dentists fully completed the survey. Eighty-eight per cent of Italian dentists are worried about the health of their families, with no difference in high-risk (red zone) and low-risk (orange zone) regions. About 86% of professionals report some income loss and 94% fear a drop in patients after the quarantine phase, with the dentists working the red zone claiming a greater economic loss and fearing a reduced practice after the end of the lockdown. DISCUSSION: A large majority of the Italian dentists appears to be aware of the need for changes in their dental practices by planning specific sterilization processes between appointments, testing patients for SARS-CoV-2 serology, asking patients not to be accompanied, and reducing the number of visits per day. CONCLUSION: The survey expresses the serious concern of the dentists for the pandemic's effects on their profession.

7.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(11): e19574, 2020 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-902245

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: After the COVID-19 outbreak, the Italian Government stopped most regular health care activity. As a result, patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) had limited access to outpatient clinics and hospitals. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to analyze the perception of the COVID-19 emergency among patients with IBD during the early weeks of the lockdown. METHODS: We invited adult patients with IBD from the University of Salerno (Campania, South Italy) and the University of Padua (Veneto, North Italy) by email to answer an ad hoc anonymous survey about COVID-19. We also collected data on demographic and disease characteristics. RESULTS: In total, 167 patients with IBD from Padua and 83 patients from Salerno answered the survey (age: mean 39.7 years, SD 13.9 years; female: n=116, 46.4%). We found that patients with IBD were particularly worried about the COVID-19 pandemic (enough: 77/250, 30.8%; much/very much: 140/250, 56.0%), as they felt more vulnerable to COVID-19 due to their condition (enough: 70/250, 28.0%; much/very much: 109/250, 43.6%). Patients with IBD from the red zone of Veneto were more worried than patients from Campania (P=.001), and men felt more susceptible to the virus than women (P=.05). Additionally, remote medicine was appreciated more by younger patients than older patients (P=.04). CONCLUSIONS: The results of our survey demonstrate that the lockdown had a significant impact on the psychological aspects of patients with IBD and suggest the need for increasing communication with patients with IBD (eg, through telemedicine) to ensure patients receive adequate health care, correct information, and proper psychological support.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/psychology , Outpatients/psychology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telemedicine , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/epidemiology , Italy/epidemiology , Male
8.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 19(2): 391-393, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-846899

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization declared coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) a global pandemic in March 2020. Since then, there are more than 34 million cases of COVID-19 leading to more than 1 million deaths worldwide. Numerous studies suggest that celiac disease (CeD), a chronic immune-mediated gastrointestinal condition triggered by gluten, is associated with an increased risk of respiratory infections.1-3 However, how it relates to the risk of COVID-19 is unknown. To address this gap, we conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate whether patients with self-reported CeD are at an increased risk of contracting COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Celiac Disease/epidemiology , Adult , Case-Control Studies , Celiac Disease/diet therapy , Celiac Disease/physiopathology , Diet, Gluten-Free , Female , Humans , Male , Odds Ratio , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
J Clin Med ; 9(6)2020 Jun 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-622469

ABSTRACT

Eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases (EGIDs) are chronic gastrointestinal conditions requiring corticosteroid and immunosuppressive therapy for disease control. Patients with EGIDs usually report impaired quality of life. We aimed to report the clinical and psychological impact of COVID-19 infection in EGID patients. In this prospective web-based study we invited all consecutive EGID patients attending the University Hospital of Salerno (Campania) and Padua (Veneto) to fill an ad hoc COVID-19 survey. Moreover, a telemedicine service for direct consultation was organized. Data regarding the occurrence and perception of COVID-19 infection as well as clinical information were recorded. The study population included 102 EGID patients (mean age 36.6 years, 34 females), of whom 89 had eosinophilic esophagitis, nine had gastroenteritis, and four had colitis. No patient was diagnosed with COVID-19 or had recurrence of his/her primary disease. All of them were adherent to therapy and preventive measures adoption. Most patients were worried because of COVID-19 and social preventing measures but did not consider themselves at major risk or susceptible to COVID-19 or other infections due to their chronic condition or therapy. Female gender and low education level were associated to a higher psychological perception of COVID-19 compared to lockdown status or other demographic and clinical factors (p < 0.05). Overall, COVID-19 had a limited clinical impact on patients with EGIDs. The degree of education and sex, but not the fact of living in a lockdown area, influenced the perception of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

10.
Dig Liver Dis ; 52(10): 1071-1075, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-607975

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) causes severe complications and deaths all over the world. COVID-19 also has indirect effects from the lockdown and the possible lack of food. We aimed to evaluate the perception of this in Celiac Disease (CeD) patients who require a lifelong gluten-free diet as a therapy. Methods: We invited by e-mail CeD adult patients from the University of Salerno (Campania, South Italy) and the University of Padua (Veneto, North Italy) to answer an ad hoc COVID-19 survey. Results: We sent the web survey to 651 email addresses and we received 276 answers (42,4%). CeD patients did not feel more vulnerable because they had CeD (not at all 56.6%) and they did not worry much about the possible shortness of gluten-free food during the epidemic (not at all 48.5%). The most worried were the elderly patients, patients with other comorbidities and females. Finally, CeD patients were happy with remote consultations and explicitly asked to have them. Discussion: The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted a proportion of patients with CeD; in particular, women, elderly patients, patients with other comorbidities. COVID-19, although a challenging experience from the medical and the psychological point of view, has offered an opportunity to practice, on a large-scale, a remote consultation approach for CeD healthcare.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , Attitude to Health , Celiac Disease/diet therapy , Diet, Gluten-Free , Food Supply , Patient Preference , Telemedicine , Adult , Age Factors , Betacoronavirus , Boron Compounds , COVID-19 , Celiac Disease/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Dyslipidemias/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Methacrylates , Methylmethacrylates , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Perception , Pneumonia, Viral , Quality of Life , Risk , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires
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