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1.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther ; 2022 Jul 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1923100

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic continues to be a global challenge due to resulting morbidity and mortality. Cardiovascular (CV) involvement is a crucial complication in COVID-19, and no strategies are available to prevent or specifically address CV events in COVID patients. The identification of molecular partners contributing to CV manifestations in COVID-19 patients is crucial for providing early biomarkers, prognostic predictors and new therapeutic targets. The current report will focus on the role of miRNAs in CV complications associated with COVID-19. Indeed, miRNAs have been proposed as valuable biomarkers and predictors of both cardiac and vascular damage occurring in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Significance Statement It is essential to identify the molecular mediators of COVID-19 cardiovascular (CV) complications. This report focused on the role of miRNAs in CV complications associated with COVID-19, discussing their potential use as biomarkers, prognostic predictors, and therapeutic targets.

2.
Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1837206

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 infection evokes various systemic alterations that push patients not only towards severe acute respiratory syndrome but causes an important metabolic dysregulation with following multi-organ alteration and potentially poor outcome. To discover novel potential biomarkers able to predict disease’s severity and patient’s outcome, in this study we applied untargeted lipidomics, by a reversed phase ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-trapped ion mobility mass spectrometry platform (RP-UHPLC-TIMS-MS), on blood samples collected at hospital admission in an Italian cohort of COVID-19 patients (45 mild, 54 severe, 21 controls). In a subset of patients, we also collected a second blood sample in correspondence of clinical phenotype modification (longitudinal population). Plasma lipid profiles revealed several lipids significantly modified in COVID-19 patients with respect to controls and able to discern between mild and severe clinical phenotype. Severe patients were characterized by a progressive decrease in the levels of LPCs, LPC-Os, PC-Os, and, on the contrary, an increase in overall TGs, PEs, and Ceramides. A machine learning model was built by using both the entire dataset and with a restricted lipid panel dataset, delivering comparable results in predicting severity (AUC= 0.777, CI: 0.639-0.904) and outcome (AUC= 0.789, CI: 0.658-0.910). Finally, re-building the with 25 longitudinal (t1) samples, this resulted in 21 patients correctly classified. In conclusion, this study highlights specific lipid profiles that could be used monitor the possible trajectory of COVID-19 patients at hospital admission, which could be used in targeted approaches.

3.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(5)2022 May 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820449

ABSTRACT

Anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are safe and effective, also in individuals with allergic and immune-mediated diseases (IMDs). There are reports suggesting that vaccines may be able to trigger de-novo or exacerbate pre-existing IMDs in predisposed individuals. Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) is a small-vessel vasculitis characterized by asthma, eosinophilia, and eosinophil-rich granulomatous inflammation in various tissues. We describe the case of a 63-year-old man who experienced cardiac, pulmonary, and neurological involvement one day after the administration of the booster dose of anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (mRNA-1273). A diagnosis of EGPA was made and the patient was treated with high-dose steroids and cyclophosphamide, with a good clinical response. Interestingly, our patient had experienced a significant worsening of his pre-existing asthma six months earlier, just after the first two vaccine shots with the ChAdOx1 anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. It is impossible to know whether our patient would have had developed EGPA following natural SARS-CoV-2 infection or at some point in his life regardless of infectious stimuli. Nevertheless, our report may suggest that caution should be paid during the administration of additional vaccine doses in individuals who experienced an increase in IMD severity that persisted over time following previous vaccine shots.

4.
J Clin Med ; 11(3)2022 Jan 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650323

ABSTRACT

Though the acute effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection have been extensively reported, the long-term effects are less well described. Specifically, while clinicians endure to battle COVID-19, we also need to develop broad strategies to manage post-COVID-19 symptoms and encourage those affected to seek suitable care. This review addresses the possible involvement of the lung, heart and brain in post-viral syndromes and describes suggested management of post-COVID-19 syndrome. Post-COVID-19 respiratory manifestations comprise coughing and shortness of breath. Furthermore, arrhythmias, palpitations, hypotension, increased heart rate, venous thromboembolic diseases, myocarditis and acute heart failure are usual cardiovascular events. Among neurological manifestations, headache, peripheral neuropathy symptoms, memory issues, lack of concentration and sleep disorders are most commonly observed with varying frequencies. Finally, mental health issues affecting mental abilities and mood fluctuations, namely anxiety and depression, are frequently seen. Finally, long COVID is a complex syndrome with protracted heterogeneous symptoms, and patients who experience post-COVID-19 sequelae require personalized treatment as well as ongoing support.

5.
J Clin Med ; 10(24)2021 Dec 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572529

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic carries a high burden of morbidity and mortality worldwide. We aimed to identify possible predictors of in-hospital major cardiovascular (CV) events in COVID-19. METHODS: We retrospectively included patients hospitalized for COVID-19 from 10 centers. Clinical, biochemical, electrocardiographic, and imaging data at admission and medications were collected. Primary endpoint was a composite of in-hospital CV death, acute heart failure (AHF), acute myocarditis, arrhythmias, acute coronary syndromes (ACS), cardiocirculatory arrest, and pulmonary embolism (PE). RESULTS: Of the 748 patients included, 141(19%) reached the set endpoint: 49 (7%) CV death, 15 (2%) acute myocarditis, 32 (4%) sustained-supraventricular or ventricular arrhythmias, 14 (2%) cardiocirculatory arrest, 8 (1%) ACS, 41 (5%) AHF, and 39 (5%) PE. Patients with CV events had higher age, body temperature, creatinine, high-sensitivity troponin, white blood cells, and platelet counts at admission and were more likely to have systemic hypertension, renal failure (creatinine ≥ 1.25 mg/dL), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, atrial fibrillation, and cardiomyopathy. On univariate and multivariate analysis, troponin and renal failure were associated with the composite endpoint. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a clear divergence of in-hospital composite event-free survival stratified according to median troponin value and the presence of renal failure (Log rank p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings, derived from a multicenter data collection study, suggest the routine use of biomarkers, such as cardiac troponin and serum creatinine, for in-hospital prediction of CV events in patients with COVID-19.

6.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 48(10): 3187-3197, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1396993

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The present study hypothesised that whole-body [18F]FDG-PET/CT might provide insight into the pathophysiology of long COVID. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 13 adult long COVID patients who complained for at least one persistent symptom for >30 days after infection recovery. A group of 26 melanoma patients with negative PET/CT matched for sex/age was used as controls (2:1 control to case ratio). Qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis of whole-body images was performed. Fisher exact and Mann-Whitney tests were applied to test differences between the two groups. Voxel-based analysis was performed to compare brain metabolism in cases and controls. Cases were further grouped according to prevalent symptoms and analysed accordingly. RESULTS: In 4/13 long COVID patients, CT images showed lung abnormalities presenting mild [18F]FDG uptake. Many healthy organs/parenchyma SUVs and SUV ratios significantly differed between the two groups (p ≤ 0.05). Long COVID patients exhibited brain hypometabolism in the right parahippocampal gyrus and thalamus (uncorrected p < 0.001 at voxel level). Specific area(s) of hypometabolism characterised patients with persistent anosmia/ageusia, fatigue, and vascular uptake (uncorrected p < 0.005 at voxel level). CONCLUSION: [18F]FDG PET/CT acknowledged the multi-organ nature of long COVID, supporting the hypothesis of underlying systemic inflammation. Whole-body images showed increased [18F]FDG uptake in several "target" and "non-target" tissues. We found a typical pattern of brain hypometabolism associated with persistent complaints at the PET time, suggesting a different temporal sequence for brain and whole-body inflammatory changes. This evidence underlined the potential value of whole-body [18F]FDG PET in disclosing the pathophysiology of long COVID.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Radiopharmaceuticals , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Front Immunol ; 12: 695242, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282388

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has reached direct and indirect medical and social consequences with a subset of patients who rapidly worsen and die from severe-critical manifestations. As a result, there is still an urgent need to identify prognostic biomarkers and effective therapeutic approaches. Severe-critical manifestations of COVID-19 are caused by a dysregulated immune response. Immune checkpoint molecules such as Programmed death-1 (PD-1) and its ligand programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) play an important role in regulating the host immune response and several lines of evidence underly the role of PD-1 modulation in COVID-19. Here, by analyzing blood sample collection from both hospitalized COVID-19 patients and healthy donors, as well as levels of PD-L1 RNA expression in a variety of model systems of SARS-CoV-2, including in vitro tissue cultures, ex-vivo infections of primary epithelial cells and biological samples obtained from tissue biopsies and blood sample collection of COVID-19 and healthy individuals, we demonstrate that serum levels of PD-L1 have a prognostic role in COVID-19 patients and that PD-L1 dysregulation is associated to COVID-19 pathogenesis. Specifically, PD-L1 upregulation is induced by SARS-CoV-2 in infected epithelial cells and is dysregulated in several types of immune cells of COVID-19 patients including monocytes, neutrophils, gamma delta T cells and CD4+ T cells. These results have clinical significance since highlighted the potential role of PD-1/PD-L1 axis in COVID-19, suggest a prognostic role of PD-L1 and provide a further rationale to implement novel clinical studies in COVID-19 patients with PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors.


Subject(s)
B7-H1 Antigen/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/pathology , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Female , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Up-Regulation
9.
Ann Intensive Care ; 11(1): 91, 2021 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255967

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Survivors of severe COVID-19 are at risk of impaired health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and persistent physical and psychological disability after ICU and hospital discharge. The subsequent social burden is a major concern. We aimed to assess the short-term HRQoL, physical function and prevalence of post-traumatic stress symptoms of invasively mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients treated in our ICU. METHODS: Prospective, observational cohort study in a follow-up clinic. Patients completed a 6-min walking test (6MWT) to assess their cardio-pulmonary function around 2 months (early follow-up) from hospital discharge, the EQ-5D-5L questionnaire for quality of life assessment around 2 months and at 6 months from hospital discharge and an anonymous web-based Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) questionnaire for Post-Traumatic Stress symptoms at 2 months. RESULTS: 47 patients attended our follow-up program, mean age 59 ± 10 years, median pre-morbid Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) 2 [2-3]. The median distance walked in 6 min was 470 [406-516] m, 83 [67-99]% of the predicted value. Overall 1 out 3 patients and 4/18 (22%) among those with a good functional baseline prior to COVID-19 (CFS of 1 or 2) had lower (84%) than predicted 6MWT. EQ-5D-5L quality of life VAS was 80 [70-90] out of 100 at early follow-up with a slight improvement to 85 [77.5-90] at 6 months. Mobility, self-care and usual activities improved between the two timepoints, while pain/discomfort and depression/anxiety did not improve or got worse. The IES-R total score was greater than the threshold for concern of 1.6 in 27/41(66%) respondents. CONCLUSIONS: Patients recovering from severe COVID-19 requiring invasive mechanical ventilation surviving hospital discharge present with early mild to moderate functional impairment, mildly reduced quality of life from hospital discharge with an overall improvement of mobility, self-care and the ability of performing usual activities, while a worsening of pain and depression/anxiety symptoms at 6 months and a large proportion of symptoms of post-traumatic distress soon after hospital discharge.

10.
Br J Cancer ; 125(3): 358-365, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225503

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impact of active cancer in COVID-19 patients is poorly defined; however, most studies showed a poorer outcome in cancer patients compared to the general population. METHODS: We analysed clinical data from 557 consecutive COVID-19 patients. Uni-multivariable analysis was performed to identify prognostic factors of COVID-19 survival; propensity score matching was used to estimate the impact of cancer. RESULTS: Of 557 consecutive COVID-19 patients, 46 had active cancer (8%). Comorbidities included diabetes (n = 137, 25%), hypertension (n = 284, 51%), coronary artery disease (n = 114, 20%) and dyslipidaemia (n = 122, 22%). Oncologic patients were older (mean age 71 vs 65, p = 0.012), more often smokers (20% vs 8%, p = 0.009), with higher neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (13.3 vs 8.2, p = 0.046). Fatality rate was 50% (CI 95%: 34.9;65.1) in cancer patients and 20.2% (CI 95%: 16.8;23.9) in the non-oncologic population. Multivariable analysis showed active cancer (HRactive: 2.26, p = 0.001), age (HRage>65years: 1.08, p < 0.001), as well as lactate dehydrogenase (HRLDH>248mU/mL: 2.42, p = 0.007), PaO2/FiO2 (HRcontinuous: 1.00, p < 0.001), procalcitonin (HRPCT>0.5ng/mL: 2.21, p < 0.001), coronary artery disease (HRyes: 1.67, p = 0.010), cigarette smoking (HRyes: 1.65, p = 0.041) to be independent statistically significant predictors of outcome. Propensity score matching showed a 1.92× risk of death in active cancer patients compared to non-oncologic patients (p = 0.013), adjusted for ICU-related bias. We observed a median OS of 14 days for cancer patients vs 35 days for other patients. CONCLUSION: A near-doubled death rate between cancer and non-cancer COVID-19 patients was reported. Active cancer has a negative impact on clinical outcome regardless of pre-existing clinical comorbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Neoplasms/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Propensity Score , Retrospective Studies
11.
J Clin Monit Comput ; 2021 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1220507

ABSTRACT

The Lombardy SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in February 2020 represented the beginning of COVID-19 epidemic in Italy. Hospitals were flooded by thousands of patients with bilateral pneumonia and severe respiratory, and vital sign derangements compared to the standard hospital population. We propose a new visual analysis technique using heat maps to describe the impact of COVID-19 epidemic on vital sign anomalies in hospitalized patients. We conducted an electronic health record study, including all confirmed COVID-19 patients hospitalized from February 21st, 2020 to April 21st, 2020 as cases, and all non-COVID-19 patients hospitalized in the same wards from January 1st, 2018 to December 31st, 2018. All data on temperature, peripheral oxygen saturation, respiratory rate, arterial blood pressure, and heart rate were retrieved. Derangement of vital signs was defined according to predefined thresholds. 470 COVID-19 patients and 9241 controls were included. Cases were older than controls, with a median age of 79 vs 76 years in non survivors (p = < 0.002). Gender was not associated with mortality. Overall mortality in COVID-19 hospitalized patients was 18%, ranging from 1.4% in patients below 65 years to about 30% in patients over 65 years. Heat maps analysis demonstrated that COVID-19 patients had an increased frequency in episodes of compromised respiratory rate, acute desaturation, and fever. COVID-19 epidemic profoundly affected the incidence of severe derangements in vital signs in a large academic hospital. We validated heat maps as a method to analyze the clinical stability of hospitalized patients. This method may help to improve resource allocation according to patient characteristics.

12.
Respir Care ; 66(6): 928-935, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1183971

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, a critical care outreach team was implemented in our hospital to guarantee multidisciplinary patient assessment at admission and prompt ICU support in medical wards. In this paper, we report the activity plan results and describe the baseline characteristics of the referred subjects. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated data from 125 subjects referred to the critical care outreach team from March 22 to April 22, 2020. We considered subjects with a ceiling of care decision, with those deemed eligible assigned to level 3 care (ward subgroup), and those deemed ineligible admitted to the ICU (ICU subgroup). Quality indicators of the outreach team plan delivery included number of cardiac arrest calls, number of intubations in level 2 areas, and ineffective palliative support. RESULTS: We enrolled 125 consecutive adult subjects with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19. We did not report any emergency endotracheal intubations in the clinical ward. In the care ceiling subgroup, we had 2 (3.3%) emergency calls for cardiac arrest, whereas signs of ineffective palliative support were reported in 5 subjects (12.5%). Noninvasive forms of respiratory assistance were delivered to 40.0% of subjects in the ward subgroup (median 3 d [interquartile range (IQR) 2-5]), to 45.9% of subjects in the care ceiling subgroup (median 5 d [IQR 3-7]), and to 64.7% of subjects in the ICU subgroup (median 2.5 d [IQR 1-3]). Thirty of the 31 ward subjects (96.7%), 26 of the 34 ICU subjects, (76.4%), and 19 of the 61 ceiling of care subjects (31.1%) were discharged. CONCLUSIONS: In the context of a hospital and ICU surge, a multidisciplinary daily plan supported by a dedicated critical care outreach team was associated with a low rate of cardiac arrest calls, no emergency intubations in the ward, and appropriate palliative care support for subjects with a ceiling of care decision.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Critical Care , Hospitals , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Intern Emerg Med ; 16(7): 1857-1864, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1152108

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 diagnosis relies on molecular testing for SARS-CoV-2 via nasopharyngeal swab in the presence of suggestive clinical, radiological and laboratory findings. Since bronchoalveolar lavage liquid (BAL) collected during fibrobronchoscopy may increase test sensitivity compared to nasopharyngeal swabs, it was performed during the 2020 pandemic in clinically or radiologically suspected cases. Our aim was to determine whether clinical features, chest computed tomography (CT) findings or laboratory tests may predict patients testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 at BAL after a negative nasopharyngeal swab. We performed a retrospective cross-sectional study with multivariable analysis of suspected patients who were tested for SARS-CoV-2 at BAL after at least one negative nasopharyngeal swab. Univariable logistic regression for odds ratio and multivariate models was calculated to determine clinical, radiological and laboratory predictors. 32/198 (16%) patients had BAL positive for SARS-CoV-2, while 65/198 tested positive for other pathogens at BAL. Of the 32 patients positive for COVID, 4 had a coinfection at BAL, being thus positive both for COVID as well as for another pathogen while the remaining 105 patients were negative for COVID and other pathogens at BAL. COVID-19 patients had more often highly suggestive CT findings, higher number of involved lobes, more often ground glass opacity of more than 50% of lung parenchyma, and less frequently other radiologically suspected infections. At multivariate model, temperature also predicted BAL positivity. The procedure was well tolerated-with only one desaturation episode-while no healthcare worker was infected. In conclusion, when nasopharyngeal swabs are negative but there is clinical or imaging suspicion of COVID-19, BAL represents a complementary diagnostic tool, particularly in conjunction with suggestive/more extensive lung involvement at CT scan. The procedure did not carry increased risks for patients nor for operators, while allowing to free hospital resources, avoiding unnecessary isolations.


Subject(s)
Bronchoalveolar Lavage/methods , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Nasopharynx/virology , Adult , Asymptomatic Diseases , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
14.
Life (Basel) ; 11(3)2021 Mar 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1143529

ABSTRACT

Recent scientific literature has investigated the cardiovascular implications of COVID-19. The mechanisms of cardiovascular damage seem to involve the protein angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), to which severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus-2 (CoV-2) binds to penetrate cells and other mechanisms, most of which are still under study. Cardiovascular sequelae of COVID-19 include heart failure, cardiomyopathy, acute coronary syndrome, arrhythmias, and venous thromboembolism. This article aims to collect scientific evidence by exploiting PubMed, Scopus, and Pedro databases to highlight the cardiovascular complications of COVID-19 and to define the physiotherapy treatment recommended for these patients. Exercise training (ET), an important part of cardiac rehabilitation, is a powerful tool in physiotherapy, capable of inducing significant changes in the cardiovascular system and functional in the recovery of endothelial dysfunction and for the containment of thromboembolic complications. In conclusion, due to the wide variety of possible exercise programs that can be obtained by combining intensity, duration, and speed in various ways, and by adjusting the program based on continuous patient monitoring, exercise training is well suited to the treatment of post-COVID patients with an impaired cardiovascular system of various degrees.

15.
Curr Med Res Opin ; 37(6): 917-927, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1137872

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To develop a sensitive and clinically applicable risk assessment tool identifying coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with a high risk of mortality at hospital admission. This model would assist frontline clinicians in optimizing medical treatment with limited resources. METHODS: 6415 patients from seven hospitals in Wuhan city were assigned to the training and testing cohorts. A total of 6351 patients from another three hospitals in Wuhan, 2169 patients from outside of Wuhan, and 553 patients from Milan, Italy were assigned to three independent validation cohorts. A total of 64 candidate clinical variables at hospital admission were analyzed by random forest and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) analyses. RESULTS: Eight factors, namely, Oxygen saturation, blood Urea nitrogen, Respiratory rate, admission before the date the national Maximum number of daily new cases was reached, Age, Procalcitonin, C-reactive protein (CRP), and absolute Neutrophil counts, were identified as having significant associations with mortality in COVID-19 patients. A composite score based on these eight risk factors, termed the OURMAPCN-score, predicted the risk of mortality among the COVID-19 patients, with a C-statistic of 0.92 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.90-0.93). The hazard ratio for all-cause mortality between patients with OURMAPCN-score >11 compared with those with scores ≤ 11 was 18.18 (95% CI 13.93-23.71; p < .0001). The predictive performance, specificity, and sensitivity of the score were validated in three independent cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: The OURMAPCN score is a risk assessment tool to determine the mortality rate in COVID-19 patients based on a limited number of baseline parameters. This tool can assist physicians in optimizing the clinical management of COVID-19 patients with limited hospital resources.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Risk Assessment/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , China , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Italy , Risk Factors
16.
Nat Immunol ; 22(1): 19-24, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065905

ABSTRACT

Long pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is an essential component of humoral innate immunity, involved in resistance to selected pathogens and in the regulation of inflammation1-3. The present study was designed to assess the presence and significance of PTX3 in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)4-7. RNA-sequencing analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, single-cell bioinformatics analysis and immunohistochemistry of lung autopsy samples revealed that myelomonocytic cells and endothelial cells express high levels of PTX3 in patients with COVID-19. Increased plasma concentrations of PTX3 were detected in 96 patients with COVID-19. PTX3 emerged as a strong independent predictor of 28-d mortality in multivariable analysis, better than conventional markers of inflammation, in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. The prognostic significance of PTX3 abundance for mortality was confirmed in a second independent cohort (54 patients). Thus, circulating and lung myelomonocytic cells and endothelial cells are a major source of PTX3, and PTX3 plasma concentration can serve as an independent strong prognostic indicator of short-term mortality in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
C-Reactive Protein/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Macrophages/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Serum Amyloid P-Component/genetics , A549 Cells , Adult , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cells, Cultured , Cohort Studies , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Epidemics , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/metabolism , Neutrophils/metabolism , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Serum Amyloid P-Component/metabolism
17.
Int J Cardiol ; 324: 249-254, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065147

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a great deal of debate about the role of cardiovascular comorbidities and the chronic use of antihypertensive agents (such as ACE-I and ARBs) on mortality on COVID-19 patients. Of note, ACE2 is responsible for the host cell entry of the virus. METHODS: We extracted data on 575 consecutive patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection admitted to the Emergency Department (ED) of Humanitas Center, between February 21 and April 14, 2020. The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of chronic treatment with ACE-I or ARBs and other clinical predictors on in-hospital mortality in a cohort of COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: Multivariate analysis showed that a chronic intake of ACE-I was associated with a trend in reduction of mortality (OR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.27-1.03; p = 0.06), differently from a chronic intake of ARB (OR: 1.1; 95% CI: 0.5-2.8; p=0.8). Increased age (ORs ranging from 3.4 to 25.2 and to 39.5 for 60-70, 70-80 and >80 years vs <60) and cardiovascular comorbidities (OR: 1.90; 95% CI: 1.1-3.3; p = 0.02) were confirmed as important risk factors for COVID-19 mortality. Timely treatment with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) in ED was found to be protective (OR: 0.36; 95% CI: 0.21-0.62; p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: This study can contribute to understand the reasons behind the high mortality rate of patients in Lombardy, a region which accounts for >50% of total Italian deaths. Based on our findings, we support that daily intake of antihypertensive medications in the setting of COVID-19 should not be discontinued and that a timely LMWH administration in ED has shown to decrease in-hospital mortality.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Antihypertensive Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/administration & dosage , Hospital Mortality/trends , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality/trends , Retrospective Studies , Time-to-Treatment/trends , Treatment Outcome
18.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 21(1): 23, 2021 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059712

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors including age, male sex, hypertension, diabetes, and tobacco use, has been reported in patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who experienced adverse outcome. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and in-hospital mortality in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: MEDLINE, Cochrane, Web of Sciences, and SCOPUS were searched for retrospective or prospective observational studies reporting data on cardiovascular risk factors and in-hospital mortality in patients with COVID-19. Univariable and multivariable age-adjusted analyses were conducted to evaluate the association between cardiovascular risk factors and the occurrence of in-hospital death. RESULTS: The analysis included 45 studies enrolling 18,300 patients. The pooled estimate of in-hospital mortality was 12% (95% CI 9-15%). The univariable meta-regression analysis showed a significant association between age (coefficient: 1.06; 95% CI 1.04-1.09; p < 0.001), diabetes (coefficient: 1.04; 95% CI 1.02-1.07; p < 0.001) and hypertension (coefficient: 1.01; 95% CI 1.01-1.03; p = 0.013) with in-hospital death. Male sex and smoking did not significantly affect mortality. At multivariable age-adjusted meta-regression analysis, diabetes was significantly associated with in-hospital mortality (coefficient: 1.02; 95% CI 1.01-1.05; p = 0.043); conversely, hypertension was no longer significant after adjustment for age (coefficient: 1.00; 95% CI 0.99-1.01; p = 0.820). A significant association between age and in-hospital mortality was confirmed in all multivariable models. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis suggests that older age and diabetes are associated with higher risk of in-hospital mortality in patients infected by SARS-CoV-2. Conversely, male sex, hypertension, and smoking did not independently correlate with fatal outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Hospital Mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Age Factors , Analysis of Variance , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Female , Humans , Hypertension/mortality , Male , Observational Studies as Topic , Publication Bias , Regression Analysis , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Smoking/mortality
19.
Med (N Y) ; 2(4): 435-447.e4, 2021 04 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1057073

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To develop a sensitive risk score predicting the risk of mortality in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) using complete blood count (CBC). METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study from a total of 13,138 inpatients with COVID-19 in Hubei, China, and Milan, Italy. Among them, 9,810 patients with ≥2 CBC records from Hubei were assigned to the training cohort. CBC parameters were analyzed as potential predictors for all-cause mortality and were selected by the generalized linear mixed model (GLMM). FINDINGS: Five risk factors were derived to construct a composite score (PAWNN score) using the Cox regression model, including platelet counts, age, white blood cell counts, neutrophil counts, and neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio. The PAWNN score showed good accuracy for predicting mortality in 10-fold cross-validation (AUROCs 0.92-0.93) and subsets with different quartile intervals of follow-up and preexisting diseases. The performance of the score was further validated in 2,949 patients with only 1 CBC record from the Hubei cohort (AUROC 0.97) and 227 patients from the Italian cohort (AUROC 0.80). The latent Markov model (LMM) demonstrated that the PAWNN score has good prediction power for transition probabilities between different latent conditions. CONCLUSIONS: The PAWNN score is a simple and accurate risk assessment tool that can predict the mortality for COVID-19 patients during their entire hospitalization. This tool can assist clinicians in prioritizing medical treatment of COVID-19 patients. FUNDING: This work was supported by National Key R&D Program of China (2016YFF0101504, 2016YFF0101505, 2020YFC2004702, 2020YFC0845500), the Key R&D Program of Guangdong Province (2020B1111330003), and the medical flight plan of Wuhan University (TFJH2018006).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Blood Cell Count , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
20.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 21(1): 23, 2021 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1015836

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors including age, male sex, hypertension, diabetes, and tobacco use, has been reported in patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who experienced adverse outcome. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and in-hospital mortality in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: MEDLINE, Cochrane, Web of Sciences, and SCOPUS were searched for retrospective or prospective observational studies reporting data on cardiovascular risk factors and in-hospital mortality in patients with COVID-19. Univariable and multivariable age-adjusted analyses were conducted to evaluate the association between cardiovascular risk factors and the occurrence of in-hospital death. RESULTS: The analysis included 45 studies enrolling 18,300 patients. The pooled estimate of in-hospital mortality was 12% (95% CI 9-15%). The univariable meta-regression analysis showed a significant association between age (coefficient: 1.06; 95% CI 1.04-1.09; p < 0.001), diabetes (coefficient: 1.04; 95% CI 1.02-1.07; p < 0.001) and hypertension (coefficient: 1.01; 95% CI 1.01-1.03; p = 0.013) with in-hospital death. Male sex and smoking did not significantly affect mortality. At multivariable age-adjusted meta-regression analysis, diabetes was significantly associated with in-hospital mortality (coefficient: 1.02; 95% CI 1.01-1.05; p = 0.043); conversely, hypertension was no longer significant after adjustment for age (coefficient: 1.00; 95% CI 0.99-1.01; p = 0.820). A significant association between age and in-hospital mortality was confirmed in all multivariable models. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis suggests that older age and diabetes are associated with higher risk of in-hospital mortality in patients infected by SARS-CoV-2. Conversely, male sex, hypertension, and smoking did not independently correlate with fatal outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Hospital Mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Age Factors , Analysis of Variance , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Female , Humans , Hypertension/mortality , Male , Observational Studies as Topic , Publication Bias , Regression Analysis , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Smoking/mortality
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