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1.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 781410, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198943

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the prevalence of respiratory sequelae of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) survivors at 6 months after hospital discharge and develop a model to identify at-risk patients. Patients and Methods: In this prospective cohort study, hospitalized, non-critical COVID-19 patients evaluated at 6-month follow-up between 26 August, 2020 and 16 December, 2020 were included. Primary outcome was respiratory dysfunction at 6 months, defined as at least one among tachypnea at rest, percent predicted 6-min walking distance at 6-min walking test (6MWT) ≤ 70%, pre-post 6MWT difference in Borg score ≥ 1 or a difference between pre- and post-6MWT oxygen saturation ≥ 5%. A nomogram-based multivariable logistic regression model was built to predict primary outcome. Validation relied on 2000-resample bootstrap. The model was compared to one based uniquely on degree of hypoxemia at admission. Results: Overall, 316 patients were included, of whom 118 (37.3%) showed respiratory dysfunction at 6 months. The nomogram relied on sex, obesity, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, degree of hypoxemia at admission, and non-invasive ventilation. It was 73.0% (95% confidence interval 67.3-78.4%) accurate in predicting primary outcome and exhibited minimal departure from ideal prediction. Compared to the model including only hypoxemia at admission, the nomogram showed higher accuracy (73.0 vs 59.1%, P < 0.001) and greater net-benefit in decision curve analyses. When the model included also respiratory data at 1 month, it yielded better accuracy (78.2 vs. 73.2%) and more favorable net-benefit than the original model. Conclusion: The newly developed nomograms accurately identify patients at risk of persistent respiratory dysfunction and may help inform clinical priorities.

4.
Andrology ; 2022 Oct 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2136643

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Male patients with COVID-19 have been found with reduced serum total testosterone (tT) levels and with more severe clinical outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To assess total testosterone (tT) levels and the probability of recovering eugonadal tT levels during a minimum 12-month timespan in a cohort of men who have been followed over time after the recovery from laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Demographic, clinical and hormonal values were collected for the overall cohort. Hypogonadism was defined as tT ≤9.2 nmol/l. The Charlson Comorbidity Index was used to score health-significant comorbidities. Descriptive statistics was used to compare hormonal levels at baseline versus 7-month (FU1) versus 12-month (FU2) follow-up, respectively. Multivariate cox proportional hazards regression model was used to identify the potential predictors of eugonadism recovery over time among patients with hypogonadism at the time of infection. RESULTS: Of the original cohort of 286 patients, follow-up data were available for 121 (42.3%) at FU1 and 63 (22%) patients at FU2, respectively. Higher median interquartile range (IQR) tT levels were detected at FU2 (13.8 (12.3-15.3) nmol/L) versus FU1 (10.2 [9.3-10.9] nmol/L) and versus baseline (3.6 [3.02-4.02] nmol/L) (all p < 0.0001), whilst both LH and E2 levels significantly decreased over the same time frame (all p ≤ 0.01). Circulating IL-6 levels further decreased at FU2 compared to FU1 levels (19.3 vs. 72.8 pg/ml) (p = 0.02). At multivariable cox regression analyses, baseline tT level (HR 1.19; p = 0.03 [1.02-1.4]) was independently associated with the probability of tT level normalization over time, after adjusting for potential confounders. CONCLUSIONS: Circulating tT levels keep increasing over time in men after COVID-19. Still, almost 30% of men who recovered from COVID-19 had low circulating T levels suggestive for a condition of hypogonadism at a minimum 12-month follow-up.

5.
Front Oncol ; 12: 1002168, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099201

ABSTRACT

Importance: Despite people with impaired immune competence due to an underlying disease or ongoing therapy, hereinafter frail patients, are (likely to be) the first to be vaccinated, they were usually excluded from clinical trials. Objective: To report adverse reactions of frail patients after receipt of the third dose (booster) administered after completion of a two-dose mRNA vaccination and to compare with those reported after the receipt of the first two doses. Design: A multicenter, observational, prospective study aimed at evaluating both the safety profile and the immune response of Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna vaccines in frail patients. Setting: National Project on Vaccines, COVID-19 and Frail Patients (VAX4FRAIL). Participants: People consenting and included in the VAX4FRAIL trial. Exposure: A series of three doses of COVID-19 mRNA vaccination from the same manufacturer. Main outcomes and measures: Evaluation of a self-assessment questionnaire addressing a predefined list of eight symptoms on a five-item Likert scale. Symptoms were classified as severe if the patient rated them as severe or overwhelming. Results: Among 320 VAX4FRAIL participants diagnosed/treated for hematological malignancies (N=105; 32.8%), solid tumors (N=48; 15.0%), immune-rheumatological diseases (N=60; 18.8%), neurological diseases (N=107; 33.4%), and receiving the booster dose, 70.3% reported at least one loco-regional or systemic reactions. Adverse events were mostly mild or moderate, none being life-threatening. Only six of the 320 (1.9%) patients had their treatment postponed due to the vaccine. The safety profile of the booster compared to previously administered two doses showed a stable prevalence of patients with one or more adverse events (73.5%, 79.7% and 73.9% respectively), and a slightly increment of patients with one or more severe adverse events (13.4%, 13.9% and 19.2% respectively). Conclusions and relevance: The booster of the mRNA COVID-19 vaccine was safely administered in the largest prospective cohort of frail patients reported so far. VAX4FRAIL will continue to monitor the safety of additional vaccine doses, especially systemic adverse events that can be easily prevented to avoid interruption of continuity of care. Clinical trial registration: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04848493, identifier NCT04848493.

6.
Andrology ; 2022 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097693

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The identification of biomarkers correlated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes is a relevant need for clinical management. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is characterized by elevated interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, HLA-G, and impaired testosterone production. OBJECTIVES: We aimed at defining the combined impact of sex hormones, interleukin-10, and HLA-G on COVID-19 pathophysiology and their relationship in male patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay, electrochemiluminescent assays, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay circulating total testosterone, 17ß-estradiol (E2 ), IL-10, and -HLAG5 as well as SARS-CoV-2 S1/S2 Immunoglobulin G from 292 healthy controls and 111 COVID-19 patients with different disease severity at hospital admission, and in 53 COVID-19 patients at 7-month follow-up. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: We found significantly higher levels of IL-10, HLA-G, and E2 in COVID-19 patients compared to healthy controls and an inverse correlation between IL-10 and testosterone, with IL-10, progressively increasing and testosterone progressively decreasing with disease severity. This correlation was lost at the 7-month follow-up. The risk of death in COVID-19 patients with low testosterone increased in the presence of high IL-10. A negative correlation between SARS-CoV-2 Immunoglobulin G and HLA-G or IL-10 at hospitalization was observed. At the 7-month follow-up, IL-10 and testosterone normalized, and  HLA-G decreased. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that combined evaluation of IL-10 and testosterone predicts the risk of death in men with COVID-19 and support the hypothesis that IL-10 fails to suppress excessive inflammation by promoting viral spreading.

7.
Drug design, development and therapy ; 16:3645-3654, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2073818

ABSTRACT

Background Evidence regarding the impact of remdesivir (RDV) on SARS-CoV-2 viral clearance (VC) is scarce. The aim of this study was to compare VC timing in hospitalized COVID-19 patients who did or did not receive RDV. Methods This was a matched-cohort study of patients hospitalized with pneumonia, a SARS-CoV-2-positive nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) at admission, and at least one NPS during follow-up. Patients who received RDV (cases) and those who did not (controls) were matched in a 1:2 ratio by age, sex, and PaO2/FiO2 (P/F) values at admission. NPSs were analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Time to VC (within 30 days after hospital discharge) was estimated using the Kaplan–Meier curve. A multivariable Cox proportional hazard model was fitted to determine factors associated with VC. Results There were 648 patients enrolled in the study (216 cases and 432 controls). VC was observed in 490 patients (75.6%), with a median time of 25 (IQR 16–34) days. Overall, time to VC was similar between cases and controls (p = 0.519). However, time to VC was different when considering both RDV treatment status and age (p = 0.007). A significant finding was also observed when considering both RDV treatment status and P/F values at admission (p = 0.007). A multivariate analysis showed that VC was associated with a younger age (aHR = 0.990, 95% CI 0.983–0.998 per every 10-year increase in age;p = 0.009) and a higher baseline P/F ratio (aHR=1.275, 95% CI 1.029–1.579;p=0.026), but not with RDV treatment status. Conclusion Time to VC was similar in cases and controls. However, there was a benefit associated with using RDV in regard to time to VC in younger patients and in those with a P/F ratio ≤200 mmHg at hospital admission.

8.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(9): ofac454, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051512

ABSTRACT

Background: This study's primary aim was to evaluate the impact of thrombotic complications on the development of secondary infections. The secondary aim was to compare the etiology of secondary infections in patients with and without thrombotic complications. Methods: This was a cohort study (NCT04318366) of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients hospitalized at IRCCS San Raffaele Hospital between February 25 and June 30, 2020. Incidence rates (IRs) were calculated by univariable Poisson regression as the number of cases per 1000 person-days of follow-up (PDFU) with 95% confidence intervals. The cumulative incidence functions of secondary infections according to thrombotic complications were compared with Gray's method accounting for competing risk of death. A multivariable Fine-Gray model was applied to assess factors associated with risk of secondary infections. Results: Overall, 109/904 patients had 176 secondary infections (IR, 10.0; 95% CI, 8.8-11.5; per 1000-PDFU). The IRs of secondary infections among patients with or without thrombotic complications were 15.0 (95% CI, 10.7-21.0) and 9.3 (95% CI, 7.9-11.0) per 1000-PDFU, respectively (P = .017). At multivariable analysis, thrombotic complications were associated with the development of secondary infections (subdistribution hazard ratio, 1.788; 95% CI, 1.018-3.140; P = .043). The etiology of secondary infections was similar in patients with and without thrombotic complications. Conclusions: In patients with COVID-19, thrombotic complications were associated with a high risk of secondary infections.

10.
Hematol Oncol ; 2022 Aug 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1976711

ABSTRACT

A multicenter retrospective study was designed to assess clinical outcome of COVID-19 in patients with hematological malignancies (HM) following treatment with anti-SARS-CoV-2 convalescent plasma (CP) or standard of care therapy. To this aim, a propensity score matching was used to assess the role of non-randomized administration of CP in this high-risk cohort of patients from the Italian Hematology Alliance on COVID-19 (ITA-HEMA-COV) project, now including 2049 untreated control patients. We investigated 30- and 90-day mortality, rate of admission to intensive care unit, proportion of patients requiring mechanical ventilatory support, hospitalization time, and SARS-CoV-2 clearance in 79 CP recipients and compared results with 158 propensity score-matched controls. Results indicated a lack of efficacy of CP in the study group compared with the untreated group, thus confirming the negative results obtained from randomized studies in immunocompetent individuals with COVID-19. In conclusion, this retrospective analysis did not meet the primary and secondary end points in any category of immunocompromized patients affected by HM.

11.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 May 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860837

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with solid or hematological tumors, neurological and immune-inflammatory disorders are potentially fragile subjects at increased risk of experiencing severe COVID-19 and an inadequate response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. METHODS: We designed a prospective Italian multicentrer study to assess humoral and T-cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in patients (n = 378) with solid tumors (ST), hematological malignancies (HM), neurological disorders (ND) and immunorheumatological diseases (ID). A group of healthy controls was also included. We analyzed the immunogenicity of the primary vaccination schedule and booster dose. RESULTS: The overall seroconversion rate in patients after 2 doses was 62.1%. Significantly lower rates were observed in HM (52.4%) and ID (51.9%) than in ST (95.6%) and ND (70.7%); a lower median antibody level was detected in HM and ID versus ST and ND (P < 0.0001). Similar rates of patients with a positive SARS-CoV-2 T-cell response were found in all disease groups, with a higher level observed in ND. The booster dose improved the humoral response in all disease groups, although to a lesser extent in HM patients, while the T-cell response increased similarly in all groups. In the multivariable logistic model, independent predictors of seroconversion were disease subgroup, treatment type and age. Ongoing treatment known to affect the immune system was associated with the worst humoral response to vaccination (P < 0.0001) but had no effect on T-cell responses. CONCLUSIONS: Immunosuppressive treatment more than disease type per se is a risk factor for a low humoral response after vaccination. The booster dose can improve both humoral and T-cell responses.

12.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7606, 2022 05 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1830101

ABSTRACT

Infectious and inflammatory stimuli elicit the generation of chitinase-3-like protein-1 (CHI3L1), involved in tissue damage, repair and remodeling. We evaluated whether plasma CHI3L1 at disease onset predicts clinical outcome of patients with Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) disease. Blood from 191 prospectively followed COVID-19 patients were collected at hospital admission between March 18th and May 5th, 2020. Plasma from 80 survivors was collected one month post-discharge. Forty age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers served as controls. Primary outcome was transfer to intensive care unit (ICU) or death. CHI3L1 was higher in COVID-19 patients than controls (p < 0.0001). Patients with unfavorable outcome (41 patients admitted to ICU, 47 died) had significantly higher CHI3L1 levels than non-ICU survivors (p < 0.0001). CHI3L1 levels abated in survivors one month post-discharge, regardless of initial disease severity (p < 0.0001), although remaining higher than controls (p < 0.05). Cox regression analysis revealed that CHI3L1 levels predict primary outcome independently of age, sex, comorbidities, degree of respiratory insufficiency and systemic inflammation or time from symptom onset to sampling (p < 0.0001). Kaplan-Meier curve analysis confirmed that patients with CHI3L1 levels above the median (361 ng/mL) had a poorer prognosis (log rank test, p < 0.0001). Plasma CHI3L1 is increased in COVID-19 patients and predicts adverse outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chitinases , Aftercare , Chitinase-3-Like Protein 1 , Hospitals , Humans , Patient Discharge , Prospective Studies
13.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0267235, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1808573

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chromogranin A (CgA) and its fragment vasostatin I (VS-I) are secreted in the blood by endocrine/neuroendocrine cells and regulate stress responses. Their involvement in Coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19) has not been investigated. METHODS: CgA and VS-I plasma concentrations were measured at hospital admission from March to May 2020 in 190 patients. 40 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers served as controls. CgA and VS-I levels relationship with demographics, comorbidities and disease severity was assessed through Mann Whitney U test or Spearman correlation test. Cox regression analysis and Kaplan Meier survival curves were performed to investigate the impact of the CgA and VS-I levels on in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: Median CgA and VS-I levels were higher in patients than in healthy controls (CgA: 0.558 nM [interquartile range, IQR 0.358-1.046] vs 0.368 nM [IQR 0.288-0.490] respectively, p = 0.0017; VS-I: 0.357 nM [IQR 0.196-0.465] vs 0.144 nM [0.144-0.156] respectively, p<0.0001). Concentration of CgA, but not of VS-I, significantly increased in patients who died (n = 47) than in survivors (n = 143) (median 0.948 nM [IQR 0.514-1.754] vs 0.507 nM [IQR 0.343-0.785], p = 0.00026). Levels of CgA were independent predictors of in-hospital mortality (hazard ratio 1.28 [95% confidence interval 1.077-1.522], p = 0.005) when adjusted for age, number of comorbidities, respiratory insufficiency degree, C-reactive protein levels and time from symptom onset to sampling. Kaplan Meier curves revealed a significantly increased mortality rate in patients with CgA levels above 0.558 nM (median value, log rank test, p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Plasma CgA levels increase in COVID-19 patients and represent an early independent predictor of mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chromogranin A , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models
14.
J Affect Disord ; 308: 554-561, 2022 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1796591

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is associated with depressive psychopathology in survivors. Negative thinking styles are a core feature of major depression, fostering the experience of negative emotions and affects and hampering recovery. This cognitive vulnerability has been observed in medical conditions associated with depression, but never explored in post-COVID depression. METHODS: We studied 729 participants: 362 COVID-19 survivors, 73 inpatients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), and 294 healthy participants (HC). Severity of depression was self-rated on the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (ZSDS). Neuropsychological bias toward negative emotional stimuli and the negative outlook on the self were tested in a self-description task, yielding latencies and frequencies of attribution of morally tuned elements. Dimensions of negative thinking and depressive cognitive style in evaluation of hypothetical events were measured on the Cognition Questionnaire (CQ). RESULTS: 22.4% COVID survivors self-rated depression above the clinical threshold. Frequencies and latencies of attribution of morally negative elements, and CQ scores, correlated between themselves and predicted ZSDS scores, with post-COVID depressed patients showing intermediate scores between the more severe MDD patients, and non-depressed post-COVID participants and HC. LIMITATIONS: Recruitment was in a single center, thus raising the possibility of population stratification. CONCLUSIONS: The breadth of self-reproach and depressive cognitive style in evaluating events showed the same association with severity of depression in MDD and in post-COVID depressed patients, distributing along a gradient of severity, thus suggesting that individual features of negative thinking styles are shared in these conditions, and should be addressed as treatment targets in depressed COVID-19 survivors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Pessimism , Cognition , Depressive Disorder, Major/psychology , Humans , Survivors
15.
Front Oncol ; 12: 855723, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775732

ABSTRACT

Background: Frail patients are considered at relevant risk of complications due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection and, for this reason, are prioritized candidates for vaccination. As these patients were originally not included in the registration trials, fear related to vaccine adverse events and disease worsening was one of the reasons for vaccine hesitancy. Herein, we report the safety profile of the prospective, multicenter, national VAX4FRAIL study (NCT04848493) to evaluate vaccines in a large trans-disease cohort of patients with solid or hematological malignancies and neurological and rheumatological diseases. Methods: Between March 3 and September 2, 2021, 566 patients were evaluable for safety endpoint: 105 received the mRNA-1273 vaccine and 461 the BNT162b2 vaccine. Frail patients were defined per protocol as patients under treatment with hematological malignancies (n = 131), solid tumors (n = 191), immune-rheumatological diseases (n = 86), and neurological diseases (n = 158), including multiple sclerosis and generalized myasthenia. The impact of the vaccination on the health status of patients was assessed through a questionnaire focused on the first week after each vaccine dose. Results: The most frequently reported moderate-severe adverse events were pain at the injection site (60.3% after the first dose, 55.4% after the second), fatigue (30.1%-41.7%), bone pain (27.4%-27.2%), and headache (11.8%-18.9%). Risk factors associated with the occurrence of severe symptoms after vaccine administration were identified through a multivariate logistic regression analysis: age was associated with severe fever presentation (younger patients vs. middle-aged vs. older ones), female individuals presented a higher probability of severe pain at the injection site, fatigue, headache, and bone pain; and the mRNA-1237 vaccine was associated with a higher probability of severe pain at the injection site and fever. After the first dose, patients presenting a severe symptom were at a relevant risk of recurrence of the same severe symptom after the second one. Overall, 11 patients (1.9%) after the first dose and 7 (1.2%) after the second one required postponement or suspension of the disease-specific treatment. Finally, two fatal events occurred among our 566 patients. These two events were considered unrelated to the vaccine. Conclusions: Our study reports that mRNA-COVID-19 vaccination is safe also in frail patients; as expected, side effects were manageable and had a minimum impact on patient care path.

16.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 88(6): 472-478, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1754132

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Platelet activation at the early stage of COVID-19 is poorly described. The need for antiplatelet therapy in patients with COVID-19 remains controversial. We characterized the platelet activation profile in hospitalized patients at the early stage of COVID-19 using the modified prothrombinase Platelet Activation State (PAS) Assay. METHODS: Sixteen patients admitted to the emergency department of the IRCCS San Raffaele Hospital (Milan, Italy) between February 8 and April 2021 were enrolled. All patients presented with respiratory symptoms and tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Platelet activation was measured via the PAS Assay within 24 hours from patients' hospital admission. Data were compared with those measured in N.=24 healthy subjects (controls). RESULTS: Platelet activation was significantly higher in COVID-19 patients with respect to controls (PAS=0.63 [0.58-0.98%] vs. 0.46 [0.40-0.65%], respectively; P=0.03). Of note, highest PAS values were measured in the two patients with the worst clinical outcome, i.e., death because of respiratory failure (PAS=2.09% and 1.20%, respectively). No differences in standard coagulation parameters were noted between these two patients and those who were later discharged home. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence of significant platelet activation state at the early stage of COVID-19 and suggests that the patient-specific platelet activation profile is a reliable clinical marker to stratify COVID-19 patients at high risk of poor clinical outcome who might potentially benefit from antiplatelet therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospitalization , Humans , Platelet Activation , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Frontiers in medicine ; 9, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1733109

ABSTRACT

Objective To assess the prevalence of respiratory sequelae of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) survivors at 6 months after hospital discharge and develop a model to identify at-risk patients. Patients and Methods In this prospective cohort study, hospitalized, non-critical COVID-19 patients evaluated at 6-month follow-up between 26 August, 2020 and 16 December, 2020 were included. Primary outcome was respiratory dysfunction at 6 months, defined as at least one among tachypnea at rest, percent predicted 6-min walking distance at 6-min walking test (6MWT) ≤ 70%, pre-post 6MWT difference in Borg score ≥ 1 or a difference between pre- and post-6MWT oxygen saturation ≥ 5%. A nomogram-based multivariable logistic regression model was built to predict primary outcome. Validation relied on 2000-resample bootstrap. The model was compared to one based uniquely on degree of hypoxemia at admission. Results Overall, 316 patients were included, of whom 118 (37.3%) showed respiratory dysfunction at 6 months. The nomogram relied on sex, obesity, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, degree of hypoxemia at admission, and non-invasive ventilation. It was 73.0% (95% confidence interval 67.3–78.4%) accurate in predicting primary outcome and exhibited minimal departure from ideal prediction. Compared to the model including only hypoxemia at admission, the nomogram showed higher accuracy (73.0 vs 59.1%, P < 0.001) and greater net-benefit in decision curve analyses. When the model included also respiratory data at 1 month, it yielded better accuracy (78.2 vs. 73.2%) and more favorable net-benefit than the original model. Conclusion The newly developed nomograms accurately identify patients at risk of persistent respiratory dysfunction and may help inform clinical priorities.

18.
J Clin Med ; 11(4)2022 Feb 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715434

ABSTRACT

Correlation between risk of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) and CD3+ counts within the peripheral blood stem cell graft has recently been reported in the setting of post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PT-Cy). We aimed to investigate the benefit of the addition of a single dose of anti-T lymphocyte globulin (ATLG 5 mg/kg) to PT-Cy in this setting. Starting in 2019, all patients receiving PBSC transplant containing CD3+ counts above 300 × 106/kg (study group) received a post-transplant dose of ATLG in addition to standard PT-Cy. The study was designed as a real-life analysis and included all consecutive Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) recipients according to the above-mentioned inclusion criterion (n = 21), excluding cord blood and bone marrow donors. Using a 1:2 matched-pair analysis, we compared the outcomes with a historical population who received PT-Cy only (control group). We found a delayed platelet engraftment (29% vs. 45% at 30 days, p = 0.03) and a non-significant trend toward higher risk of poor graft function (29% vs. 19%, p = 0.52). The addition of ATLG impacted long-term immune reconstitution on the CD4+ subsets, but this did not translate into higher rate of relapse or viral infection. Acute GvHD was not significantly impacted, but 1-year cumulative incidence of chronic GvHD was significantly lower in the study group (15% vs. 41%, p = 0.04). Survival outcomes were comparable. In conclusion PT-Cy and ATLG was overall safe and translated into a low rate of chronic GvHD incidence.

19.
Minerva Med ; 2022 Feb 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703350

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hypercoagulability is often seen in Covid-19 patients and thromboembolic events appear frequent; antithrombotic treatment has been proposed therefore as part of standard treatment for Covid-19. Under these premises, prior-to-infection antithrombotic treatment may have a protective effect with respect to Covid-19 related thromboembolic events. Aim of the present work was to evaluate the impact of prior-to-infection anticoagulant or antiplatelet treatment on Covid-19 outcomes. METHODS: Beneficiaries of the Regional Health Service of the Lombardy region of Italy aged ≥40 years with a Covid-19 diagnosis made between February 21st and July 18th, 2020 were included in the present study. The impact on Covid-19 mortality of pre-existing and chronic therapy with anticoagulant drugs (vitamin-K antagonist or New Oral Anticoagulants) was evaluated. Analyses were repeated with antiplatelets drugs. RESULTS: Among 79,934 Sars-cov-2 patients beneficiaries of the Regional Healthcare System of the Lombardy Region who received a diagnosis between February 21st and July 18th, 2020, chronic preexisting anticoagulant assumption was present in 6.0% and antiplatelets in 12.7%. The overall unadjusted mortality rate was 20.6%, with male sex, age category and comorbidity burden being significantly associated to increased mortality risk. Anticoagulant chronic treatment was not associated with a reduction in mortality. Similar results were observed when repeating the analyses for pre-existing oral anti-platelet treatment. CONCLUSIONS: In a large population-based study evaluating more than 79,000 Covid-19 patients, pre-existing antithrombotic therapy was not associated to a benefit in terms of mortality. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role of antithrombotic therapy as standard treatment among Covid-19 patients.

20.
Panminerva Med ; 2022 Feb 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1675514

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lung damage leading to gas-exchange deficit and sepsis leading to systemic hypoperfusion are well-known features of severe pneumonia. Although frequently described in COVID-19, their prognostic impact in COVID-19-related pneumonia vs COVID-19-urelated pneumonia has never been compared. This study assesses fundamental gas-exchange and hemodynamic parameters and explores their prognostic impact in COVID-19 pneumonia and non-COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated arterial pO2/FiO2, alveolar to arterial O2 gradient, shock index, and serum lactate in 126 COVID-19 pneumonia patients, aged 18- 65, presenting to the emergency department with acute, non-hypercapnic respiratory failure. As a control group we identified 1:1 age-, sex-, and pO2/FiO2-matched COVID-19-urelated pneumonia patients. Univariate and multivariable predictors of 30-day survival were identified in both groups. RESULTS: COVID-19 patients showed lower arterial serum lactate concentration (p<0.001) and shock index (p<0.001) values as compared to non-COVID-19 patients. While we did not observe differences in lactate concentration or in shock index values in deceased vs surviving COVID-19 patients (respectively, p=0.7 and p=0.6), non-COVID-19 deceased patients showed significantly higher lactate and shock index than non-COVID-19 survivors (p<0.001 and p=0.03). The pO2/FiO2 was the most powerful determinant of survival by Cox regression multivariate analysis in COVID-19 patients (p=0.006), while it was lactate in non-COVID-19 patients (p=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: As compared to COVID19-unrelated pneumonia, COVID-19 pneumonia outcome seems more strictly correlated to the extent of lung damage, rather than to the systemic circulatory and metabolic derangements typical of sepsis.

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