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1.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 2022 Aug 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35982507

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The most common respiratory complication of prematurity is bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), leading to structural lung changes and impaired respiratory outcomes. However, also preterm children without BPD may show similar adverse respiratory outcomes. There is a need for a safe imaging modality for preterm children with and without BPD for disease severity assessment and risk stratification. Our objective was to develop a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol in preterm children with and without BPD at school age. METHODS: Nine healthy volunteers (median age 11.6 [range: 8.8-12.8] years), 11 preterm children with BPD (11.0 [7.2-15.6] years), and 9 without BPD (11.1 [10.7-12.6] years) underwent MRI. Images were scored on hypo- and hyperintense abnormalities, bronchopathy, and architectural distortion. MRI data were correlated to spirometry. Ventilation and perfusion defects were analyzed using Fourier Decomposition (FD) MRI. RESULTS: On MRI, children with BPD had higher %diseased lung (9.1 (interquartile range [IQR] 5.9-11.6)%) compared to preterm children without BPD (3.4 (IQR 2.5-5.4)%, p < 0.001) and healthy volunteers (0.4 (IQR 0.1-0.8)%, p < 0.001). %Diseased lung correlated negatively with %predicted FEV1 (r = -0.40, p = 0.04), FEV1 /FVC (r = -0.49, p = 0.009) and FEF75 (r = -0.63, p < 0.001). Ventilation and perfusion defects on FD sequence corresponded to hypointense regions on expiratory MRI. CONCLUSION: Chest MRI can identify structural and functional lung damage at school age in preterm children with and without BPD, showing a good correlation with spirometry. We propose MRI as a sensitive and safe imaging method (without ionizing radiation, contrast agents, or the use of anesthesia) for the long-term follow-up of preterm children.

2.
Eur Radiol ; 2022 Jul 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35829785

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate changes in diaphragmatic function in Pompe disease using MRI over time, both during natural disease course and during treatment with enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). METHODS: In this prospective study, 30 adult Pompe patients and 10 healthy controls underwent pulmonary function tests and spirometry-controlled MRI twice, with an interval of 1 year. In the sagittal view of 3D gradient echo breath-hold acquisitions, diaphragmatic motion (cranial-caudal ratio between end-inspiration and end-expiration) and curvature (diaphragm height and area ratio) were calculated using a machine learning algorithm based on convolutional neural networks. Changes in outcomes after 1 year were compared between Pompe patients and healthy controls using the Mann-Whitney test. RESULTS: Pulmonary function outcomes and cranial-caudal ratio in Pompe patients did not change significantly over time compared to healthy controls. Diaphragm height ratio increased by 0.04 (-0.38 to 1.79) in Pompe patients compared to -0.02 (-0.18 to 0.25) in healthy controls (p = 0.02). An increased diaphragmatic curvature over time was observed in particular in untreated Pompe patients (p = 0.03), in those receiving ERT already for over 3 years (p = 0.03), and when severe diaphragmatic weakness was found on the initial MRI (p = 0.01); no progression was observed in Pompe patients who started ERT less than 3 years ago and in Pompe patients with mild diaphragmatic weakness on their initial MRI. CONCLUSIONS: MRI enables to detect small changes in diaphragmatic curvature over 1-year time in Pompe patients. It also showed that once severe diaphragmatic weakness has occurred, improvement of diaphragmatic muscle function seems unlikely. KEY POINTS: • Changes in diaphragmatic curvature in Pompe patients over time assessed with 3D MRI may serve as an outcome measure to evaluate the effect of treatment on diaphragmatic function. • Diaphragmatic curvature showed a significant deterioration after 1 year in Pompe patients compared to healthy controls, but the curvature seems to remain stable over this period in patients who were treated with enzyme replacement therapy for less than 3 years, possibly indicating a positive effect of ERT. • Improvement of diaphragmatic curvature over time is rarely seen in Pompe patients once diaphragmatic motion shows severe impairment (cranial-caudal inspiratory/expiratory ratio < 1.4).

3.
Pediatr Radiol ; 2022 Jun 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35731260

ABSTRACT

A new task force dedicated to artificial intelligence (AI) with respect to paediatric radiology was created in 2021 at the International Paediatric Radiology (IPR) meeting in Rome, Italy (a joint society meeting by the European Society of Pediatric Radiology [ESPR] and the Society for Pediatric Radiology [SPR]). The concept of a separate task force dedicated to AI was borne from an ESPR-led international survey of health care professionals' opinions, expectations and concerns regarding AI integration within children's imaging departments. In this survey, the majority (> 80%) of ESPR respondents supported the creation of a task force and helped define our key objectives. These include providing educational content about AI relevant for paediatric radiologists, brainstorming ideas for future projects and collaborating on AI-related studies with respect to collating data sets, de-identifying images and engaging in multi-case, multi-reader studies. This manuscript outlines the starting point of the ESPR AI task force and where we wish to go.

4.
Pediatr Radiol ; 52(10): 1814-1825, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35570212

ABSTRACT

Disorders of the respiratory system are common in children and imaging plays an important role for initial diagnosis and follow-up evaluation. Radiographs are typically the first-line imaging test for respiratory symptoms in children and, when advanced imaging is required, CT has been the most frequently used imaging modality. However, because of increasing concern about potentially harmful effects of ionizing radiation on children, there has been a shift toward MRI in pediatric imaging. Although MRI of chest in children presents many technical challenges, recent advances in MRI technology are overcoming many of these issues, and MRI is now being used for evaluating the lung and large airway in children at centers with expertise in pediatric chest MRI. In this article we review the state of pediatric lung and large airway imaging, with an emphasis on cross-sectional modalities and the roles of MRI versus CT.


Subject(s)
Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Thorax , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
5.
Pediatr Radiol ; 52(10): 1826-1838, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35536417

ABSTRACT

Infants and children often present with respiratory symptoms referable to the airway. For these pediatric patients, airway imaging is frequently performed to evaluate for underlying disorders of the large airway. Various imaging modalities have been used to evaluate the pediatric large airway, and pediatric airway imaging techniques have continued to evolve. Therefore, clear understanding of the status and new advances in pediatric large airway imaging is essential for practicing radiologists to make timely and accurate diagnoses, which can lead to optimal pediatric patient management.


Subject(s)
Trachea , Child , Humans , Infant
6.
Pulm Circ ; 12(2): e12054, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35514781

ABSTRACT

For sensitive diagnosis and monitoring of pulmonary disease, ionizing radiation-free imaging methods are of great importance. A noncontrast and free-breathing proton magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique for assessment of pulmonary perfusion is phase-resolved functional lung (PREFUL) MRI. Since there is no validation of PREFUL MRI across different centers and scanners, the purpose of this study was to compare perfusion-weighted PREFUL MRI with the well-established dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI across two centers on scanners from two different vendors. Sixteen patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) (Center 1: 10 patients; Center 2: 6 patients) underwent PREFUL and DCE MRI at 1.5T in the same imaging session. Normalized perfusion-weighted values and perfusion defect percentage (QDP) values were calculated for the whole lung and three central slices (dorsal, central, ventral of the carina). Obtained parameters were compared using Pearson correlation, Spearman correlation, Bland-Altman analysis, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, and Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Moderate-to-strong correlations between normalized perfusion-weighted PREFUL and DCE values were found (posterior slice: r = 0.69, p < 0.01). Spatial overlap of PREFUL and DCE QDP maps showed an agreement of 79.4% for the whole lung. Further, spatial overlap values of Center 1 were not significantly different to those of Center 2 for the three central slices (p > 0.07). The feasibility of PREFUL MRI across two different centers and two different vendors was shown in patients with CF and obtained results were in agreement with DCE MRI.

7.
J Thorac Imaging ; 2022 Feb 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35482025

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To test respiratory-triggered ultrashort echo-time (UTE) Spiral VIBE-MRI sequence in systemic sclerosis-interstitial lung disease assessment compared with computed tomography (CT). Material and Methods: Fifty four SSc patients underwent chest CT and UTE (1.5 T). Two radiologists, independently and in consensus, verified ILD presence/absence and performed a semiquantitative analysis (sQA) of ILD, ground-glass opacities (GGO), reticulations and honeycombing (HC) extents on both scans. A CT software quantitative texture analysis (QA) was also performed. For ILD detection, intra-/inter-reader agreements were computed with Cohen K coefficient. UTE sensitivity and specificity were assessed. For extent assessments, intra-/inter-reader agreements and UTE performance against CT were computed by Lin's concordance coefficient (CCC). Results: Three UTE were discarded for low quality, 51 subjects were included in the study. Of them, 42 QA segmentations were accepted. ILD was diagnosed in 39/51 CT. UTE intra-/inter-reader K in ILD diagnosis were 0.56 and 0.26. UTE showed 92.8% sensitivity and 75.0% specificity. ILD, GGO, and reticulation extents were 14.8%, 7.7%, and 7.1% on CT sQA and 13.0%, 11.2%, and 1.6% on CT QA. HC was <1% and not further considered. UTE intra-/inter-reader CCC were 0.92 and 0.89 for ILD extent and 0.84 and 0.79 for GGO extent. UTE RET extent intra-/inter-reader CCC were 0.22 and 0.18. UTE ILD and GGO extents CCC against CT sQA and QA were >=0.93 and >=0.88, respectively. RET extent CCC were 0.35 and 0.22 against sQA and QA, respectively. Conclusion: UTE Spiral VIBE-MRI sequence is reliable in assessing ILD and GGO extents in systemic sclerosis-interstitial lung disease patients.

8.
Eur Respir Rev ; 31(163)2022 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35321929

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Imaging represents an important noninvasive means to assess cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease, which remains the main cause of morbidity and mortality in CF patients. While the development of new imaging techniques has revolutionised clinical practice, advances have posed diagnostic and monitoring challenges. The authors aim to summarise these challenges and make evidence-based recommendations regarding imaging assessment for both clinicians and radiologists. STUDY DESIGN: A committee of 21 experts in CF from the 10 largest specialist centres in Italy was convened, including a radiologist and a pulmonologist from each centre, with the overall aim of developing clear and actionable recommendations for lung imaging in CF. An a priori threshold of at least 80% of the votes was required for acceptance of each statement of recommendation. RESULTS: After a systematic review of the relevant literature, the committee convened to evaluate 167 articles. Following five RAND conferences, consensus statements were developed by an executive subcommittee. The entire consensus committee voted and approved 28 main statements. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need for international guidelines regarding the appropriate timing and selection of imaging modality for patients with CF lung disease; timing and selection depends upon the clinical scenario, the patient's age, lung function and type of treatment. Despite its ubiquity, the use of the chest radiograph remains controversial. Both computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging should be routinely used to monitor CF lung disease. Future studies should focus on imaging protocol harmonisation both for computed tomography and for magnetic resonance imaging. The introduction of artificial intelligence imaging analysis may further revolutionise clinical practice by providing fast and reliable quantitative outcomes to assess disease status. To date, there is no evidence supporting the use of lung ultrasound to monitor CF lung disease.


Subject(s)
Cystic Fibrosis , Artificial Intelligence , Consensus Development Conferences as Topic , Cystic Fibrosis/diagnostic imaging , Cystic Fibrosis/therapy , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Pulmonologists , Radiologists , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
9.
Neuromuscul Disord ; 32(1): 15-24, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34973872

ABSTRACT

The aim of this exploratory study was to evaluate diaphragmatic function across various neuromuscular diseases using spirometry-controlled MRI. We measured motion of the diaphragm relative to that of the thoracic wall (cranial-caudal ratio vs. anterior posterior ratio; CC-AP ratio), and changes in the diaphragmatic curvature (diaphragm height and area ratio) during inspiration in 12 adults with a neuromuscular disease having signs of respiratory muscle weakness, 18 healthy controls, and 35 adult Pompe patients - a group with prominent diaphragmatic weakness. CC-AP ratio was lower in patients with myopathies (n=7, 1.25±0.30) and motor neuron diseases (n=5, 1.30±0.10) than in healthy controls (1.37±0.14; p=0.001 and p=0.008), but not as abnormal as in Pompe patients (1.12±0.18; p=0.011 and p=0.024). The mean diaphragm height ratio was 1.17±0.33 in patients with myopathies, pointing at an insufficient diaphragmatic contraction. This was also seen in patients with Pompe disease (1.28±0.36), but not in healthy controls (0.82±0.33) or patients with motor neuron disease (0.82±0.24). We conclude that spirometry-controlled MRI enables us to investigate respiratory dysfunction across neuromuscular diseases, suggesting that the diaphragm is affected in a different way in myopathies and motor neuron diseases. Whether MRI can also be used to evaluate progression of diaphragmatic dysfunction requires additional studies.


Subject(s)
Diaphragm/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Neuromuscular Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Adult , Aged , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Glycogen Storage Disease Type II/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnostic imaging , Spirometry
10.
J Pediatr Surg ; 57(8): 1567-1572, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34809963

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Risk for infection and potential malignant degeneration are the most common arguments for resecting asymptomatic Congenital Pulmonary Airway Malformations (CPAM). We aimed to investigate if CT- imaging characteristics can be used to predict histopathological features, by using an objective quantitative CT scoring method. METHODS: Archival CPAM tissue samples were histologically re-assessed and patients who had a pre-operative volumetric CT-scan were included. Lung disease was quantified using the newly-developed congenital lung abnormality quantification(CLAQ) scoring method and obtained percentages were used to predict histopathological signs of inflammation and presence of mucinous proliferation (MP). Because MP is presumed a precursor for mucinous adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) this method was also used to compare CT-scans of patients with AIS to those with only CPAM. RESULTS: Thirty-three CPAM patients were included of which 13(39%) had histological signs of inflammation and 8(24%) had a MP. Patients with inflammation had a significantly smaller lesion (14% vs 38%) while those with MP had more extensive disease (54%vs17%). Patients with AIS had a significantly smaller lesion compared to CPAM patients (5%vs29%). Significant predictors for inflammation were smaller lesion size and percentage hypodensity within lesions while a larger lesion size and percentage parenchymal hyperdensity (solid lung tissue components) were predictors for MP as well as AIS. CONCLUSIONS: Smaller CPAM lesions may be more susceptible to inflammation while larger lesions may be associated with the presence of MP. Parenchymal hyperdensity is found as a predictor for MP as well as AIS and should therefore elicit more extensive gross sampling. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III.


Subject(s)
Cystic Adenomatoid Malformation of Lung, Congenital , Respiratory System Abnormalities , Cystic Adenomatoid Malformation of Lung, Congenital/surgery , Humans , Inflammation , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory System Abnormalities/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
11.
Eur Respir Rev ; 30(162)2021 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34789463

ABSTRACT

In people with cystic fibrosis (PwCF), viscous sputum and dysfunction of the mucociliary escalator leads to early and chronic infections. The prevalence of Aspergillus fumigatus in sputum is high in PwCF and the contribution of A. fumigatus to the progression of structural lung disease has been reported. However, overall, relatively little is known about the contribution of A. fumigatus to CF lung disease. More knowledge is needed to aid clinical decisions on whether to start antifungal treatment. In this review, we give an overview of A. fumigatus colonisation and infection in PwCF and the different types of pulmonary disease caused by it. Furthermore, we discuss the current evidence for structural lung damage associated with A. fumigatus in PwCF on chest computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. We conclude that radiological outcomes to identify disease caused by A. fumigatus can be important for clinical studies and management.


Subject(s)
Cystic Fibrosis , Aspergillus fumigatus , Cystic Fibrosis/diagnosis , Cystic Fibrosis/diagnostic imaging , Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator , Humans , Prevalence , Sputum
12.
Acta Radiol ; : 2841851211055163, 2021 Nov 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34779269

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chest radiography (CR) patterns for the diagnosis of COVID-19 have been established. However, they were not ideated comparing CR features with those of other pulmonary diseases. PURPOSE: To create the most accurate COVID-19 pneumonia pattern comparing CR findings of COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 pulmonary diseases and to test the model against the British Society of Thoracic Imaging (BSTI) criteria. MATERIAL AND METHODS: CR of COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 pulmonary diseases, admitted to the emergency department, were evaluated. Assessed features were interstitial opacities, ground glass opacities, and/or consolidations and the predominant lung alteration. We also assessed uni-/bilaterality, location (upper/middle/lower), and distribution (peripheral/perihilar), as well as pleural effusion and perihilar vessels blurring. A binary logistic regression was adopted to obtain the most accurate CR COVID-19 pattern, and sensitivity and specificity were computed. The newly defined pattern was compared to BSTI criteria. RESULTS: CR of 274 patients were evaluated (146 COVID-19, 128 non-COVID-19). The most accurate COVID-19 pneumonia pattern consisted of four features: bilateral alterations (Expß=2.8, P=0.002), peripheral distribution of the predominant (Expß=2.3, P=0.013), no pleural effusion (Expß=0.4, P=0.009), and perihilar vessels' contour not blurred (Expß=0.3, P=0.002). The pattern showed 49% sensitivity, 81% specificity, and 64% accuracy, while BSTI criteria showed 51%, 77%, and 63%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Bilaterality, peripheral distribution of the predominant lung alteration, no pleural effusion, and perihilar vessels contour not blurred determine the most accurate COVID-19 pneumonia pattern. Lower field involvement, proposed by BSTI criteria, was not a distinctive finding. The BSTI criteria has lower specificity.

13.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 19(4): 551-561, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582728

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Data on longitudinal recovery after hospitalization for coronavirus disease (COVID-19) currently remain scarce, just as outcomes beyond 3 months of follow-up do. Objectives: To evaluate the sequelae up to 6 months after hospitalization for COVID-19 by considering 1) recovery as it relates to pulmonary function, radiological abnormalities, physical and mental health status, and health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) and 2) the predictors of the most clinically relevant sequelae. Methods: Patients were evaluated at 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after hospitalization by using pulmonary function testing, radiological evaluation, and online questionnaires on the physical and mental health status and HR-QoL. Outcomes were analyzed using repeated-measurement analyses. Results: Ninety-two patients were included (mean age, 58.2 ± 12.3 yr; 58 [63.0%] men). The estimated percentage of patients with impaired forced vital capacity improved from 25% at 6 weeks to 11% at 6 months; for impaired diffusion capacity, this percentage improved from 63% to 46%. Radiologically, ground-glass opacity decreased but fibrosis persisted. The majority of patients (89.1%) still reported one or more symptoms 6 months after discharge. Fatigue decreased significantly over time (P = 0.006). Nonetheless, fatigue remained in 51% of the patients at 6 months. HR-QoL (nearly) normalized in most domains at 6 months, except for physical role functioning, with persistent fatigue and the length of hospitalization being the most important predictors. Conclusions: During the first 6 months after hospitalization for COVID-19, most patients demonstrated continuing recovery across all health domains, but persistent sequelae were frequent. Fatigue was the most frequent residual and persistent symptom up to 6 months after hospitalization, importantly impacting HR-QoL.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quality of Life , Aged , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Curr Opin Pulm Med ; 27(6): 575-585, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482339

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Radiological imaging has a crucial role in pulmonary evaluation in cystic fibrosis (CF), having been shown to be more sensitive than pulmonary function testing at detecting structural lung changes. The present review summarizes the latest published information on established and evolving pulmonary imaging techniques for assessing people with this potentially life-limiting disorder. RECENT FINDINGS: Chest computed tomography (CT) has taken over the predominant role of chest radiography in many centres for the initial assessment and surveillance of CF lung disease. However, several emerging techniques offer a promising means of pulmonary imaging using less ionizing radiation. This is of particular importance given these patients tend to require repeated imaging throughout their lives from a young age. Such techniques include ultra-low-dose CT, tomosynthesis, dynamic radiography and magnetic resonance imaging. In addition, deep-learning algorithms are anticipated to improve diagnostic accuracy. SUMMARY: The recent introduction of triple-combination CF transmembrane regulator therapy has put further emphasis on the need for sensitive methods of monitoring treatment response to allow for early adaptation of treatment regimens in order to limit irreversible lung damage. Further research is needed to establish how emerging imaging techniques can contribute to this safely and effectively.


Subject(s)
Cystic Fibrosis , Cystic Fibrosis/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Radiography , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
15.
Insights Imaging ; 12(1): 115, 2021 Aug 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34374885

ABSTRACT

Cystic pancreatic lesions (CPLs) are frequently casual findings in radiological examinations performed for other reasons in patients with unrelated symptoms. As they require different management according to their histological nature, differential diagnosis is essential. Radiologist plays a key role in the diagnosis and management of these lesions as imaging is able to correctly characterize most of them and thus address to a correct management. The first step for a correct characterization is to look for a communication between the CPLs and the main pancreatic duct, and then, it is essential to evaluate the morphology of the lesions. Age, sex and a history of previous pancreatic pathologies are important information to be used in the differential diagnosis. As some CPLs with different pathologic backgrounds can show the same morphological findings, differential diagnosis can be difficult, and thus, the final diagnosis can require other techniques, such as endoscopic ultrasound, endoscopic ultrasound-fine needle aspiration and endoscopic ultrasound-through the needle biopsy, and multidisciplinary management is important for a correct management.

16.
Pediatr Radiol ; 52(2): 295-311, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34037828

ABSTRACT

Imaging speed, spatial resolution and availability have made CT the favored cross-sectional imaging modality for evaluating various respiratory diseases of children - but only for the price of a radiation exposure. MRI is increasingly being appreciated as an alternative to CT, not only for offering three-dimensional (3-D) imaging without radiation exposure at only slightly inferior spatial resolution, but also for its superior soft-tissue contrast and exclusive morpho-functional imaging capacities beyond the scope of CT. Continuing technical improvements and experience with this so far under-utilized modality contribute to a growing acceptance of MRI for an increasing number of indications, in particular for pediatric patients. This review article provides the reader with practical easy-to-use protocols for common clinical indications in children. This is intended to encourage pediatric radiologists to appreciate the new horizons for applications of this rapidly evolving technique in the field of pediatric respiratory diseases.


Subject(s)
Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Thorax , Child , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging
17.
J Cardiovasc Echogr ; 30(Suppl 2): S25-S30, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33489733

ABSTRACT

Lung imaging is widely involved in facing the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. In fact, the COVID-19 infection may lead to a rapidly evolving and potentially fatal pneumonia. Moreover, computed tomography (CT) can be more sensitive than the COVID-19 reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction test, especially at the beginning of the disease. Only patients with mild features consistent with COVID-19 infection, negative COVID-19 test, or positive COVID-19 test but at low risk for disease progression should avoid imaging. However, imaging becomes mandatory if respiratory symptoms worsen. A CT pattern classification has been designed to help both radiologists and clinicians. The typical pattern of COVID-19 is depicted by multifocal, bilateral, and peripheral ground-glass opacities (with or without consolidations or crazy paving) or findings of organizing pneumonia. Moreover, CT has demonstrated a prognostic role in patients with a diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia. Lung ultrasounds (LUS) are an emergent tool in the diagnosis of the disease. The adoption of LUS combined to chest X-rays in COVID-19 in pneumonia diagnosis is an interesting prospect that needs to be confirmed.

18.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 216(3): 781-790, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33474982

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this article is to review currently available and emerging techniques for pediatric lung MRI for general radiologists. CONCLUSION. MRI is a radiation-free alternative to CT, and clearly understanding the strengths and limitations of established and emerging techniques of pediatric lung MRI can allow practitioners to select and combine the optimal techniques, apply them in clinical practice, and potentially improve early diagnostic accuracy and patient management.


Subject(s)
Lung Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Adolescent , Artifacts , Breath Holding , Child , Child, Preschool , Cystic Fibrosis/diagnostic imaging , Female , Fourier Analysis , Humans , Infant , Lung Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Lung Neoplasms/secondary , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/trends , Male , Pulmonary Atelectasis/prevention & control , Rhabdomyosarcoma/diagnostic imaging , Rhabdomyosarcoma/secondary
19.
Laryngoscope ; 131(7): E2402-E2408, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33459361

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Dysphonia is a common problem at long-term follow-up after airway surgery for laryngotracheal stenosis (LTS) with major impact on quality of life. Dysphonia after LTS can be caused by scar tissue from initial stenosis along with anatomical alterations after surgery. There is need for a modality to noninvasively image structure and function of the reconstructed upper airways including the vocal cords to assess voice outcome and possible treatment after LTS. Our objective was to correlate vocal cord structure and function of patients after airway reconstruction for LTS on static and dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to voice outcome. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: Voice outcome was assessed by voice questionnaires ((pediatric) Voice Handicap Index (p)VHI)) and the Dysphonia Severity Index (DSI). Postsurgical anatomy, airway lumen, and vocal cord thickness and movement on multiplanar static high-resolution MRI and dynamic acquisitions during phonation was correlated to voice outcome. RESULTS: Forty-eight patients (age 14.4 (range 7.5-30.7) years) and 11 healthy volunteers (15.9 (8.2-28.8) years) were included. Static MRI demonstrated vocal cord thickening in 80.9% of patients, correlated to a decrease in DSI (expected odds 0.75 [C.I. 0.58-0.96] P = .02). Dynamic MRI showed impaired vocal cord adduction during phonation in 61.7% of patients, associated with a lower DSI score (0.65 [C.I. 0.48-0.88] P = .006). CONCLUSIONS: In LTS patients, after airway reconstruction MRI can safely provide excellent structural and functional detail of the vocal cords correlating to DSI, with further usefulness expected from technical refinements. We therefore suggest MRI as a tool for extensive imaging during LTS follow-up. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3 Laryngoscope, 131:E2402-E2408, 2021.


Subject(s)
Aftercare/methods , Dysphonia/diagnosis , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Vocal Cords/diagnostic imaging , Adolescent , Adult , Case-Control Studies , Child , Dysphonia/etiology , Dysphonia/physiopathology , Feasibility Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Laryngostenosis/surgery , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Phonation/physiology , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Postoperative Complications/physiopathology , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Severity of Illness Index , Vocal Cords/physiopathology , Voice Quality , Young Adult
20.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 16(1): 21, 2021 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413525

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In Pompe disease, an inherited metabolic muscle disorder, severe diaphragmatic weakness often occurs. Enzyme replacement treatment is relatively ineffective for respiratory function, possibly because of irreversible damage to the diaphragm early in the disease course. Mildly impaired diaphragmatic function may not be recognized by spirometry, which is commonly used to study respiratory function. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to identify early signs of diaphragmatic weakness in Pompe patients using chest MRI. METHODS: Pompe patients covering the spectrum of disease severity, and sex and age matched healthy controls were prospectively included and studied using spirometry-controlled sagittal MR images of both mid-hemidiaphragms during forced inspiration. The motions of the diaphragm and thoracic wall were evaluated by measuring thoracic cranial-caudal and anterior-posterior distance ratios between inspiration and expiration. The diaphragm shape was evaluated by measuring the height of the diaphragm curvature. We used multiple linear regression analysis to compare different groups. RESULTS: We included 22 Pompe patients with decreased spirometry results (forced vital capacity in supine position < 80% predicted); 13 Pompe patients with normal spirometry results (forced vital capacity in supine position ≥ 80% predicted) and 18 healthy controls. The mean cranial-caudal ratio was only 1.32 in patients with decreased spirometry results, 1.60 in patients with normal spirometry results and 1.72 in healthy controls (p < 0.001). Anterior-posterior ratios showed no significant differences. The mean height ratios of the diaphragm curvature were 1.41 in patients with decreased spirometry results, 1.08 in patients with normal spirometry results and 0.82 in healthy controls (p = 0.001), indicating an increased curvature of the diaphragm during inspiration in Pompe patients. CONCLUSIONS: Even in early-stage Pompe disease, when spirometry results are still within normal range, the motion of the diaphragm is already reduced and the shape is more curved during inspiration. MRI can be used to detect early signs of diaphragmatic weakness in patients with Pompe disease, which might help to select patients for early intervention to prevent possible irreversible damage to the diaphragm.


Subject(s)
Glycogen Storage Disease Type II , Cross-Sectional Studies , Glycogen Storage Disease Type II/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Spirometry , Vital Capacity
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