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2.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences ; 23(3):1049, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1625123

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 uses the human cell surface protein angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as the receptor by which it gains access into lung and other tissue. Early in the pandemic, there was speculation that a number of commonly used medications—including ibuprofen and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)—have the potential to upregulate ACE2, thereby possibly facilitating viral entry and increasing the severity of COVID-19. We investigated the influence of the NSAIDS with a range of cyclooxygenase (COX)1 and COX2 selectivity (ibuprofen, flurbiprofen, etoricoxib) and paracetamol on the level of ACE2 mRNA/protein expression and activity as well as their influence on SARS-CoV-2 infection levels in a Caco-2 cell model. We also analysed the ACE2 mRNA/protein levels and activity in lung, heart and aorta in ibuprofen treated mice. The drugs had no effect on ACE2 mRNA/protein expression and activity in the Caco-2 cell model. There was no up-regulation of ACE2 mRNA/protein expression and activity in lung, heart and aorta tissue in ibuprofen-treated mice in comparison to untreated mice. Viral load was significantly reduced by both flurbiprofen and ibuprofen at high concentrations. Ibuprofen, flurbiprofen, etoricoxib and paracetamol demonstrated no effects on ACE2 expression or activity in vitro or in vivo. Higher concentrations of ibuprofen and flurbiprofen reduced SARS-CoV-2 replication in vitro.

3.
Nat Neurosci ; 24(11): 1522-1533, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500484

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can damage cerebral small vessels and cause neurological symptoms. Here we describe structural changes in cerebral small vessels of patients with COVID-19 and elucidate potential mechanisms underlying the vascular pathology. In brains of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-infected individuals and animal models, we found an increased number of empty basement membrane tubes, so-called string vessels representing remnants of lost capillaries. We obtained evidence that brain endothelial cells are infected and that the main protease of SARS-CoV-2 (Mpro) cleaves NEMO, the essential modulator of nuclear factor-κB. By ablating NEMO, Mpro induces the death of human brain endothelial cells and the occurrence of string vessels in mice. Deletion of receptor-interacting protein kinase (RIPK) 3, a mediator of regulated cell death, blocks the vessel rarefaction and disruption of the blood-brain barrier due to NEMO ablation. Importantly, a pharmacological inhibitor of RIPK signaling prevented the Mpro-induced microvascular pathology. Our data suggest RIPK as a potential therapeutic target to treat the neuropathology of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Blood-Brain Barrier/metabolism , Brain/metabolism , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/metabolism , Microvessels/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Animals , Blood-Brain Barrier/pathology , Brain/pathology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/genetics , Cricetinae , Female , Humans , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/genetics , Male , Mesocricetus , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Mice, Transgenic , Microvessels/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vero Cells
4.
Chemistry ; 2021 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487453

ABSTRACT

The global spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has called for an urgent need for dedicated antiviral therapeutics. Metal complexes are commonly underrepresented in compound libraries that are used for screening in drug discovery campaigns, however, there is growing evidence for their role in medicinal chemistry. Based on previous results, we have selected more than 100 structurally diverse metal complexes for profiling as inhibitors of two relevant SARS-CoV-2 replication mechanisms, namely the interaction of the spike (S) protein with the ACE2 receptor and the papain-like protease PLpro . In addition to many well-established types of mononuclear experimental metallodrugs, the pool of compounds tested was extended to approved metal-based therapeutics such as silver sulfadiazine and thiomersal, as well as polyoxometalates (POMs). Among the mononuclear metal complexes, only a small number of active inhibitors of the S/ACE2 interaction was identified, with titanocene dichloride as the only strong inhibitor. However, among the gold and silver containing complexes many turned out to be very potent inhibitors of PLpro activity. Highly promising activity against both targets was noted for many POMs. Selected complexes were evaluated in antiviral SARS-CoV-2 assays confirming activity for gold complexes with N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) or dithiocarbamato ligands, a silver NHC complex, titanocene dichloride as well as a POM compound. These studies might provide starting points for the design of metal-based SARS-CoV-2 antiviral agents.

5.
Nat Neurosci ; 24(11): 1522-1533, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483143

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can damage cerebral small vessels and cause neurological symptoms. Here we describe structural changes in cerebral small vessels of patients with COVID-19 and elucidate potential mechanisms underlying the vascular pathology. In brains of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-infected individuals and animal models, we found an increased number of empty basement membrane tubes, so-called string vessels representing remnants of lost capillaries. We obtained evidence that brain endothelial cells are infected and that the main protease of SARS-CoV-2 (Mpro) cleaves NEMO, the essential modulator of nuclear factor-κB. By ablating NEMO, Mpro induces the death of human brain endothelial cells and the occurrence of string vessels in mice. Deletion of receptor-interacting protein kinase (RIPK) 3, a mediator of regulated cell death, blocks the vessel rarefaction and disruption of the blood-brain barrier due to NEMO ablation. Importantly, a pharmacological inhibitor of RIPK signaling prevented the Mpro-induced microvascular pathology. Our data suggest RIPK as a potential therapeutic target to treat the neuropathology of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Blood-Brain Barrier/metabolism , Brain/metabolism , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/metabolism , Microvessels/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Animals , Blood-Brain Barrier/pathology , Brain/pathology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/genetics , Cricetinae , Female , Humans , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/genetics , Male , Mesocricetus , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Mice, Transgenic , Microvessels/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vero Cells
6.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258684, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480452

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Patients with cardiovascular comorbidities have a significantly increased risk for a critical course of COVID-19. As the SARS-CoV2 virus enters cells via the angiotensin-converting enzyme receptor II (ACE2), drugs which interact with the renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) were suspected to influence disease severity. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed 1946 consecutive patients with cardiovascular comorbidities or hypertension enrolled in one of the largest European COVID-19 registries, the Lean European Open Survey on SARS-CoV-2 (LEOSS) registry. Here, we show that angiotensin II receptor blocker intake is associated with decreased mortality in patients with COVID-19 [OR 0.75 (95% CI 0,59-0.96; p = 0.013)]. This effect was mainly driven by patients, who presented in an early phase of COVID-19 at baseline [OR 0,64 (95% CI 0,43-0,96; p = 0.029)]. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a significantly lower incidence of death in patients on an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) (n = 33/318;10,4%) compared to patients using an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) (n = 60/348;17,2%) or patients who received neither an ACE-inhibitor nor an ARB at baseline in the uncomplicated phase (n = 90/466; 19,3%; p<0.034). Patients taking an ARB were significantly less frequently reaching the mortality predicting threshold for leukocytes (p<0.001), neutrophils (p = 0.002) and the inflammatory markers CRP (p = 0.021), procalcitonin (p = 0.001) and IL-6 (p = 0.049). ACE2 expression levels in human lung samples were not altered in patients taking RAAS modulators. CONCLUSION: These data suggest a beneficial effect of ARBs on disease severity in patients with cardiovascular comorbidities and COVID-19, which is linked to dampened systemic inflammatory activity.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Hypertension , Registries , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Humans , Hypertension/blood , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/mortality , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/drug therapy , Inflammation/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Rate
7.
Metabolites ; 11(10)2021 Oct 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470929

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is causing the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, for which effective pharmacological therapies are needed. SARS-CoV-2 induces a shift of the host cell metabolism towards glycolysis, and the glycolysis inhibitor 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2DG), which interferes with SARS-CoV-2 infection, is under development for the treatment of COVID-19 patients. The glycolytic pathway generates intermediates that supply the non-oxidative branch of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). In this study, the analysis of proteomics data indicated increased transketolase (TKT) levels in SARS-CoV-2-infected cells, suggesting that a role is played by the non-oxidative PPP. In agreement, the TKT inhibitor benfooxythiamine (BOT) inhibited SARS-CoV-2 replication and increased the anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity of 2DG. In conclusion, SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with changes in the regulation of the PPP. The TKT inhibitor BOT inhibited SARS-CoV-2 replication and increased the activity of the glycolysis inhibitor 2DG. Notably, metabolic drugs like BOT and 2DG may also interfere with COVID-19-associated immunopathology by modifying the metabolism of immune cells in addition to inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 replication. Hence, they may improve COVID-19 therapy outcomes by exerting antiviral and immunomodulatory effects.

8.
Curr Issues Mol Biol ; 43(3): 1212-1225, 2021 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438531

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is the cause of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Most SARS-CoV-2 infections are mild or even asymptomatic. However, a small fraction of infected individuals develops severe, life-threatening disease, which is caused by an uncontrolled immune response resulting in hyperinflammation. However, the factors predisposing individuals to severe disease remain poorly understood. Here, we show that levels of CD47, which is known to mediate immune escape in cancer and virus-infected cells, are elevated in SARS-CoV-2-infected Caco-2 cells, Calu-3 cells, and air-liquid interface cultures of primary human bronchial epithelial cells. Moreover, SARS-CoV-2 infection increases SIRPalpha levels, the binding partner of CD47, on primary human monocytes. Systematic literature searches further indicated that known risk factors such as older age and diabetes are associated with increased CD47 levels. High CD47 levels contribute to vascular disease, vasoconstriction, and hypertension, conditions that may predispose SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals to COVID-19-related complications such as pulmonary hypertension, lung fibrosis, myocardial injury, stroke, and acute kidney injury. Hence, age-related and virus-induced CD47 expression is a candidate mechanism potentially contributing to severe COVID-19, as well as a therapeutic target, which may be addressed by antibodies and small molecules. Further research will be needed to investigate the potential involvement of CD47 and SIRPalpha in COVID-19 pathology. Our data should encourage other research groups to consider the potential relevance of the CD47/ SIRPalpha axis in their COVID-19 research.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Differentiation/metabolism , CD47 Antigen/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , Pandemics , Receptors, Immunologic/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index , Signal Transduction/immunology , Blood Donors , Blotting, Western/methods , Bronchi/cytology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Caco-2 Cells , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/virology , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Monocytes/metabolism , Monocytes/virology , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
9.
Biomedicines ; 9(9)2021 Sep 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430775

ABSTRACT

Pandemic SARS-CoV-2 causes a mild to severe respiratory disease called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). While control of the SARS-CoV-2 spread partly depends on vaccine-induced or naturally acquired protective herd immunity, antiviral strategies are still needed to manage COVID-19. Enisamium is an inhibitor of influenza A and B viruses in cell culture and clinically approved in countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States. In vitro, enisamium acts through metabolite VR17-04 and inhibits the activity of the influenza A virus RNA polymerase. Here we show that enisamium can inhibit coronavirus infections in NHBE and Caco-2 cells, and the activity of the SARS-CoV-2 RNA polymerase in vitro. Docking and molecular dynamics simulations provide insight into the mechanism of action and indicate that enisamium metabolite VR17-04 prevents GTP and UTP incorporation. Overall, these results suggest that enisamium is an inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 RNA synthesis in vitro.

10.
Life (Basel) ; 11(8)2021 Aug 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1399330

ABSTRACT

Blood-pressure-lowering drugs are proposed to foster SARS-CoV-2 infection by pharmacological upregulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the binding partner of the virus spike (S) protein, located on the surface of the host cells. Conversely, it is postulated that angiotensin-renin system antagonists may prevent lung damage caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection, by reducing angiotensin II levels, which can induce permeability of lung endothelial barrier via its interaction with the AT1 receptor (AT1R). METHODS: We have investigated the influence of the ACE inhibitors (lisinopril, captopril) and the AT1 antagonists (telmisartan, olmesartan) on the level of ACE2 mRNA and protein expression as well as their influence on the cytopathic effect of SARS-CoV-2 and on the cell barrier integrity in a Caco-2 cell model. RESULTS: The drugs revealed no effect on ACE2 mRNA and protein expression. ACE inhibitors and AT1R antagonist olmesartan did not influence the infection rate of SARS-CoV-2 and were unable to prevent the SARS-CoV-2-induced cell barrier disturbance. A concentration of 25 µg/mL telmisartan significantly reduced the virus replication rate. CONCLUSION: ACE inhibitors and AT1R antagonist showed neither beneficial nor detrimental effects on SARS-CoV-2-infection and cell barrier integrity in vitro at pharmacologically relevant concentrations.

12.
Life (Basel) ; 11(8)2021 Aug 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348665

ABSTRACT

Blood-pressure-lowering drugs are proposed to foster SARS-CoV-2 infection by pharmacological upregulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the binding partner of the virus spike (S) protein, located on the surface of the host cells. Conversely, it is postulated that angiotensin-renin system antagonists may prevent lung damage caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection, by reducing angiotensin II levels, which can induce permeability of lung endothelial barrier via its interaction with the AT1 receptor (AT1R). METHODS: We have investigated the influence of the ACE inhibitors (lisinopril, captopril) and the AT1 antagonists (telmisartan, olmesartan) on the level of ACE2 mRNA and protein expression as well as their influence on the cytopathic effect of SARS-CoV-2 and on the cell barrier integrity in a Caco-2 cell model. RESULTS: The drugs revealed no effect on ACE2 mRNA and protein expression. ACE inhibitors and AT1R antagonist olmesartan did not influence the infection rate of SARS-CoV-2 and were unable to prevent the SARS-CoV-2-induced cell barrier disturbance. A concentration of 25 µg/mL telmisartan significantly reduced the virus replication rate. CONCLUSION: ACE inhibitors and AT1R antagonist showed neither beneficial nor detrimental effects on SARS-CoV-2-infection and cell barrier integrity in vitro at pharmacologically relevant concentrations.

13.
J Biol Chem ; 297(2): 100925, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1336599

ABSTRACT

Apart from prevention using vaccinations, the management options for COVID-19 remain limited. In retrospective cohort studies, use of famotidine, a specific oral H2 receptor antagonist (antihistamine), has been associated with reduced risk of intubation and death in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. In a case series, nonhospitalized patients with COVID-19 experienced rapid symptom resolution after taking famotidine, but the molecular basis of these observations remains elusive. Here we show using biochemical, cellular, and functional assays that famotidine has no effect on viral replication or viral protease activity. However, famotidine can affect histamine-induced signaling processes in infected Caco2 cells. Specifically, famotidine treatment inhibits histamine-induced expression of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) in SARS-CoV-2 infected cells and can reduce TLR3-dependent signaling processes that culminate in activation of IRF3 and the NF-κB pathway, subsequently controlling antiviral and inflammatory responses. SARS-CoV-2-infected cells treated with famotidine demonstrate reduced expression levels of the inflammatory mediators CCL-2 and IL6, drivers of the cytokine release syndrome that precipitates poor outcome for patients with COVID-19. Given that pharmacokinetic studies indicate that famotidine can reach concentrations in blood that suffice to antagonize histamine H2 receptors expressed in mast cells, neutrophils, and eosinophils, these observations explain how famotidine may contribute to the reduced histamine-induced inflammation and cytokine release, thereby improving the outcome for patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Famotidine/pharmacology , Histamine Antagonists/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Toll-Like Receptor 3/metabolism , A549 Cells , Binding Sites , Caco-2 Cells , Chemokine CCL2/metabolism , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , HeLa Cells , Humans , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Molecular Docking Simulation , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Signal Transduction , Toll-Like Receptor 3/chemistry , Virus Replication
14.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0253364, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315884

ABSTRACT

Of the 16 non-structural proteins (Nsps) encoded by SARS CoV-2, Nsp3 is the largest and plays important roles in the viral life cycle. Being a large, multidomain, transmembrane protein, Nsp3 has been the most challenging Nsp to characterize. Encoded within Nsp3 is the papain-like protease domain (PLpro) that cleaves not only the viral polypeptide but also K48-linked polyubiquitin and the ubiquitin-like modifier, ISG15, from host cell proteins. We here compare the interactors of PLpro and Nsp3 and find a largely overlapping interactome. Intriguingly, we find that near full length Nsp3 is a more active protease compared to the minimal catalytic domain of PLpro. Using a MALDI-TOF based assay, we screen 1971 approved clinical compounds and identify five compounds that inhibit PLpro with IC50s in the low micromolar range but showed cross reactivity with other human deubiquitinases and had no significant antiviral activity in cellular SARS-CoV-2 infection assays. We therefore looked for alternative methods to block PLpro activity and engineered competitive nanobodies that bind to PLpro at the substrate binding site with nanomolar affinity thus inhibiting the enzyme. Our work highlights the importance of studying Nsp3 and provides tools and valuable insights to investigate Nsp3 biology during the viral infection cycle.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/antagonists & inhibitors , Single-Chain Antibodies/pharmacology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , A549 Cells , Antigen-Antibody Complex , Humans , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/immunology , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , Single-Chain Antibodies/immunology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/immunology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism
15.
Basic Res Cardiol ; 116(1): 42, 2021 07 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293364

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) spawned a global health crisis in late 2019 and is caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. SARS-CoV-2 infection can lead to elevated markers of endothelial dysfunction associated with higher risk of mortality. It is unclear whether endothelial dysfunction is caused by direct infection of endothelial cells or is mainly secondary to inflammation. Here, we investigate whether different types of endothelial cells are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2. Human endothelial cells from different vascular beds including umbilical vein endothelial cells, coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC), cardiac and lung microvascular endothelial cells, or pulmonary arterial cells were inoculated in vitro with SARS-CoV-2. Viral spike protein was only detected in HCAECs after SARS-CoV-2 infection but not in the other endothelial cells tested. Consistently, only HCAEC expressed the SARS-CoV-2 receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), required for virus infection. Infection with the SARS-CoV-2 variants B.1.1.7, B.1.351, and P.2 resulted in significantly higher levels of viral spike protein. Despite this, no intracellular double-stranded viral RNA was detected and the supernatant did not contain infectious virus. Analysis of the cellular distribution of the spike protein revealed that it co-localized with endosomal calnexin. SARS-CoV-2 infection did induce the ER stress gene EDEM1, which is responsible for clearance of misfolded proteins from the ER. Whereas the wild type of SARS-CoV-2 did not induce cytotoxic or pro-inflammatory effects, the variant B.1.1.7 reduced the HCAEC cell number. Of the different tested endothelial cells, HCAECs showed highest viral uptake but did not promote virus replication. Effects on cell number were only observed after infection with the variant B.1.1.7, suggesting that endothelial protection may be particularly important in patients infected with this variant.


Subject(s)
Endoplasmic Reticulum/virology , Endothelial Cells/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Calnexin/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Endoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
16.
Med Microbiol Immunol ; 210(4): 235-244, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1292088

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is the causative agent of the acute respiratory disease COVID-19, which has become a global concern due to its rapid spread. Laboratory work with SARS-CoV-2 in a laboratory setting was rated to biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) biocontainment level. However, certain research applications in particular in molecular biology require incomplete denaturation of the proteins, which might cause safety issues handling contaminated samples. In this study, we evaluated lysis buffers that are commonly used in molecular biological laboratories for their ability to inactivate SARS-CoV-2. In addition, viral stability in cell culture media at 4 °C and on display glass and plastic surfaces used in laboratory environment was analyzed. Furthermore, we evaluated chemical and non-chemical inactivation methods including heat inactivation, UV-C light, addition of ethanol, acetone-methanol, and PFA, which might be used as a subsequent inactivation step in the case of insufficient inactivation. We infected susceptible Caco-2 and Vero cells with pre-treated SARS-CoV-2 and determined the tissue culture infection dose 50 (TCID50) using crystal violet staining and microscopy. In addition, lysates of infected cells and virus containing supernatant were subjected to RT-qPCR analysis. We have found that guanidine thiocyanate and most of the tested detergent containing lysis buffers were effective in inactivation of SARS-CoV-2, however, the M-PER lysis buffer containing a proprietary detergent failed to inactivate the virus. In conclusion, careful evaluation of the used inactivation methods is required especially for non-denaturing buffers. Additional inactivation steps might be necessary before removal of lysed viral samples from BSL-3.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Guanidines/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Thiocyanates/pharmacology , Virus Inactivation , Animals , Caco-2 Cells , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Containment of Biohazards , Humans , RNA, Viral , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Specimen Handling/methods , Time Factors , Vero Cells
17.
J Med Virol ; 93(7): 4454-4460, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263094

ABSTRACT

Although vaccination campaigns are currently being rolled out to prevent coronavirus disease (COVID-19), antivirals will remain an important adjunct to vaccination. Antivirals against coronaviruses do not exist, hence global drug repurposing efforts have been carried out to identify agents that may provide clinical benefit to patients with COVID-19. Itraconazole, an antifungal agent, has been reported to have activity against animal coronaviruses. Using cell-based phenotypic assays, the in vitro antiviral activity of itraconazole and 17-OH itraconazole was assessed against clinical isolates from a German and Belgian patient infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Itraconazole demonstrated antiviral activity in human Caco-2 cells (EC50 = 2.3 µM; 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay). Similarly, its primary metabolite, 17-OH itraconazole, showed inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 activity (EC50 = 3.6 µM). Remdesivir inhibited viral replication with an EC50 = 0.4 µM. Itraconazole and 17-OH itraconazole resulted in a viral yield reduction in vitro of approximately 2-log10 and approximately 1-log10 , as measured in both Caco-2 cells and VeroE6-eGFP cells, respectively. The viral yield reduction brought about by remdesivir or GS-441524 (parent nucleoside of the antiviral prodrug remdesivir; positive control) was more pronounced, with an approximately 3-log10 drop and >4-log10 drop in Caco-2 cells and VeroE6-eGFP cells, respectively. Itraconazole and 17-OH itraconazole exert in vitro low micromolar activity against SARS-CoV-2. Despite the in vitro antiviral activity, itraconazole did not result in a beneficial effect in hospitalized COVID-19 patients in a clinical study (EudraCT Number: 2020-001243-15).


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Furans/pharmacology , Itraconazole/pharmacology , Pyrroles/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Triazines/pharmacology , Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/pharmacology , Animals , Caco-2 Cells , Cell Line, Tumor , Chlorocebus aethiops , Drug Repositioning , Humans , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects
18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11049, 2021 05 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1246386

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has challenged researchers at a global scale. The scientific community's massive response has resulted in a flood of experiments, analyses, hypotheses, and publications, especially in the field of drug repurposing. However, many of the proposed therapeutic compounds obtained from SARS-CoV-2 specific assays are not in agreement and thus demonstrate the need for a singular source of COVID-19 related information from which a rational selection of drug repurposing candidates can be made. In this paper, we present the COVID-19 PHARMACOME, a comprehensive drug-target-mechanism graph generated from a compilation of 10 separate disease maps and sources of experimental data focused on SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 pathophysiology. By applying our systematic approach, we were able to predict the synergistic effect of specific drug pairs, such as Remdesivir and Thioguanosine or Nelfinavir and Raloxifene, on SARS-CoV-2 infection. Experimental validation of our results demonstrate that our graph can be used to not only explore the involved mechanistic pathways, but also to identify novel combinations of drug repurposing candidates.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning/methods , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Combined Modality Therapy , Computational Biology , Drug Synergism , Drug Therapy, Combination , GTP Phosphohydrolases/therapeutic use , Humans , Knowledge Bases , Nelfinavir/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Raloxifene Hydrochloride/therapeutic use
19.
J Med Virol ; 93(7): 4454-4460, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1118165

ABSTRACT

Although vaccination campaigns are currently being rolled out to prevent coronavirus disease (COVID-19), antivirals will remain an important adjunct to vaccination. Antivirals against coronaviruses do not exist, hence global drug repurposing efforts have been carried out to identify agents that may provide clinical benefit to patients with COVID-19. Itraconazole, an antifungal agent, has been reported to have activity against animal coronaviruses. Using cell-based phenotypic assays, the in vitro antiviral activity of itraconazole and 17-OH itraconazole was assessed against clinical isolates from a German and Belgian patient infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Itraconazole demonstrated antiviral activity in human Caco-2 cells (EC50 = 2.3 µM; 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay). Similarly, its primary metabolite, 17-OH itraconazole, showed inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 activity (EC50 = 3.6 µM). Remdesivir inhibited viral replication with an EC50 = 0.4 µM. Itraconazole and 17-OH itraconazole resulted in a viral yield reduction in vitro of approximately 2-log10 and approximately 1-log10 , as measured in both Caco-2 cells and VeroE6-eGFP cells, respectively. The viral yield reduction brought about by remdesivir or GS-441524 (parent nucleoside of the antiviral prodrug remdesivir; positive control) was more pronounced, with an approximately 3-log10 drop and >4-log10 drop in Caco-2 cells and VeroE6-eGFP cells, respectively. Itraconazole and 17-OH itraconazole exert in vitro low micromolar activity against SARS-CoV-2. Despite the in vitro antiviral activity, itraconazole did not result in a beneficial effect in hospitalized COVID-19 patients in a clinical study (EudraCT Number: 2020-001243-15).


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Furans/pharmacology , Itraconazole/pharmacology , Pyrroles/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Triazines/pharmacology , Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/pharmacology , Animals , Caco-2 Cells , Cell Line, Tumor , Chlorocebus aethiops , Drug Repositioning , Humans , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects
20.
Sci Data ; 8(1): 70, 2021 02 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1104525

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is a novel coronavirus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic, in which acute respiratory infections are associated with high socio-economic burden. We applied high-content screening to a well-defined collection of 5632 compounds including 3488 that have undergone previous clinical investigations across 600 indications. The compounds were screened by microscopy for their ability to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 cytopathicity in the human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line, Caco-2. The primary screen identified 258 hits that inhibited cytopathicity by more than 75%, most of which were not previously known to be active against SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. These compounds were tested in an eight-point dose response screen using the same image-based cytopathicity readout. For the 67 most active molecules, cytotoxicity data were generated to confirm activity against SARS-CoV-2. We verified the ability of known inhibitors camostat, nafamostat, lopinavir, mefloquine, papaverine and cetylpyridinium to reduce the cytopathic effects of SARS-CoV-2, providing confidence in the validity of the assay. The high-content screening data are suitable for reanalysis across numerous drug classes and indications and may yield additional insights into SARS-CoV-2 mechanisms and potential therapeutic strategies.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Drug Repositioning , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Benzamidines , COVID-19 , Caco-2 Cells , Cetylpyridinium , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Esters , Guanidines , Humans , Lopinavir , Mefloquine , Papaverine
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