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1.
Prehosp Disaster Med ; : 1-5, 2022 Mar 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758068

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region has been, like many parts of the world, a hotbed for terrorist activities. Terrorist attacks can affect both demand for and provision of health care services and often places a unique burden on first responders, hospitals, and health systems. This study aims to provide an epidemiological description of all terrorism-related attacks in the Middle East sustained from 1970-2019. METHODS: Data collection was performed using a retrospective database search through the Global Terrorism Database (GTD). The GTD was searched using the internal database search functions for all events which occurred in Iraq, Yemen, Turkey, Egypt, Syria, West Bank and Gaza Strip, Israel, Lebanon, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Jordan, Kuwait, United Arab Emirates, North Yemen, Qatar, and South Yemen from January 1, 1970 - December 31, 2019. Primary weapon type, primary target type, country where the incident occurred, and number of deaths and injuries were collated and the results analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 41,837 attacks occurred in the Middle East from 1970-2019 accounting for 24.9% of all terrorist attacks around the world. A total of 100,446 deaths were recorded with 187,447 non-fatal injuries. Fifty-six percent of all attacks in the region occurred in Iraq (23,426), 9.4% in Yemen (3,929), and 8.2% in Turkey (3,428). "Private Citizens and Properties" were targeted in 37.6% (15,735) of attacks, 15.4% (6,423) targeted "Police," 9.6% targeted "Businesses" (4,012), and 9.6% targeted "Governments" (4,001). Explosives were used in 68.4% of attacks (28,607), followed by firearms in 20.4% of attacks (8,525). CONCLUSION: Despite a decline in terrorist attacks from a peak in 2014, terrorist events remain an important cause of death and injuries around the world, particularly in the Middle East where 24.9% of historic attacks took place. While MENA countries are often clustered together by economic and academic organizations based on geographical, political, and cultural similarities, there are significant differences in terrorist events between countries within the region. This is likely a reflection of the complexities of the intricate interplay between politics, culture, security, and intelligence services unique to each country.

2.
Am J Emerg Med ; 48: 370-371, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1734127
3.
Am J Emerg Med ; 54: 117-121, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1664597

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Covid19 pandemic has reignited debates and discussions around healthcare systems' biosecurity vulnerabilities and cast a spotlight on the potential weaponization of biological agents. Terrorist and violent extremist groups have already attempted to incite the intentional spread of Covid19 and to use it as an improvised form of a biological weapon. This study aims to provide an epidemiological description of all terrorism-related attacks using biological agents sustained between 1970 and 2019. METHODS: Data collection was performed using a retrospective database search through the Global Terrorism Database (GTD). The GTD was searched using the internal database search functions for all events using biological weapons between January 1, 1970 - December 31, 2019. RESULTS: 33 terrorist attacks involving biological agents were recorded between 1970 and 2019, registering 9 deaths and 806 injuries. 21 events occurred in the United States, 3 in Kenya, 2 each in both the United Kingdom and Pakistan and a single event in Japan, Columbia, Israel, Russia and Tunisia. CONCLUSION: The reported use of biological agents as a terrorist weapon is extremely rare and accounts for 0.02% of all historic terrorist attacks. Despite its apparent rarity, however, bioterrorism has the ability to inflict mass injuries unmatched by conventional weapons. Anthrax has been the most commonly used in previous bioterrorism events with the vast majority of reported attacks occurring in the United States by a single suspected perpetrator. Counter-Terrorism Medicine (CTM) and Disaster Medicine (DM) specialists need to be proactive in delivering ongoing educational sessions on biological events to first responder communities, and anticipate emerging novel biotechnology threats.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disaster Planning , Terrorism , Biological Factors , Bioterrorism , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Retrospective Studies , United States
4.
Prehosp Disaster Med ; 36(6): 661-663, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526023

ABSTRACT

While the opioid epidemic engulfing the United States and the globe is well-documented, the potential use of powerful fentanyl derivatives as a weapon of terror is increasingly a concern. Carfentanyl, a powerful and deadly fentanyl derivative, is seeing a surge in popularity as an illegal street drug, and there is increasing congressional interest surrounding the classification of opioid derivatives under the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) given their potential to cause harm. The combination of the potency of opioid derivatives along with the ease of accessibility poses a potential risk of the use of these deadly agents as chemical weapons, particularly by terrorist organizations. Disaster Medicine specialists in recent years have established a sub-specialty in Counter-Terrorism Medicine (CTM) to address and research the unique terrorism-related issues relating to mitigation, preparedness, and response measures to asymmetric, multi-modality terrorist attacks.


Subject(s)
Disaster Planning , Terrorism , Analgesics, Opioid/adverse effects , Humans , United States
5.
Acad Med ; 97(4): 577-585, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475858

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Telemedical applications have only recently begun to coalesce into the field of telemedicine due to varying definitions of telemedicine and issues around reimbursement. This process has been accelerated by the COVID-19 pandemic and the ensuing expansion of telemedicine delivery. This article demonstrates the development of a set of proposed competencies for a telemedicine curriculum in graduate medical education. METHOD: A modified Delphi process was used to create a panel of competencies. This included a systematic review of the telemedicine literature through November 2019 to create an initial set of competencies, which were analyzed and edited by a focus group of experts in January 2020. Initial competencies were distributed in a series of 3 rounds of surveys to a group of 23 experts for comments and rating from April to August 2020. Competencies that obtained a score of 4.0 or greater on a 5-point Likert scale in at least 2 rounds were recommended. RESULTS: Fifty-five competencies were developed based on the systematic review. A further 32 were added by the expert group for a total of 87. After 3 rounds of surveys, 34 competencies reached the recommendation threshold. These were 10 systems-based practice competencies, 7 professionalism, 6 patient care, 4 practice-based learning and improvement, 4 interpersonal and communication skills, and 3 medical knowledge competencies. CONCLUSIONS: Half (17/34) of the competencies approved by the focus group and surveyed expert panel pertained to either systems-based practice or professionalism. Both categories exhibit more variation between telemedicine and in-person practice than other categories. The authors offer a set of proposed educational competencies that can be used in the development of curricula for a wide range of providers and are based on the best evidence and expert opinion available.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , COVID-19/epidemiology , Clinical Competence , Curriculum , Delphi Technique , Education, Medical, Graduate , Humans , Pandemics
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(19)2021 09 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463629

ABSTRACT

Potential risks for public health incidents, outbreaks, and casualties are inferred at association football events, especially if event organizers have not taken appropriate preventative measures. This review explores the potential risks imposed by mass gathering (MG) football events, with particular emphasis on tools and methodologies to manage the risks of football MG events. Effective planning and implementation of MGs along with the mitigation of risks related to people's health require special attention to all potential threats, especially in frequent and recurring MG events such as football leagues. The well-being of all participants can be compromised by ignoring a single risk. Healthcare systems should cooperate with all stakeholders and organizations who are involved in MG management and response. Provision of services during MG or a disaster must be performed by trained personnel or entities that have full access to available resources in accessible publicly known locations at the MG event site. Several MG assessment tools were developed worldwide; however, to adapt to the Saudi context, SALEM tool was developed to provide a guide for MG planning and assessment. SALEM assesses the risks of MG events with scores that help to categorize the risk of MG events by offering recommendations for required resources.


Subject(s)
Football , Soccer , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Public Health
7.
Front Immunol ; 12: 727989, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450808

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A growing number of experiments have suggested potential cross-reactive immunity between severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and previous human coronaviruses. We conducted the present retrospective cohort study to investigate the relationship between previous Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection as well as the relationship between previous MERS-CoV and COVID-19-related hospitalization and mortality. METHODS: Starting in March 2020, we prospectively followed two groups of individuals who tested negative for COVID-19 infection. The first group had a previously confirmed MERS-CoV infection, which was compared to a control group of MERS-negative individuals. The studied cohort was then followed until November 2020 to track evidence of contracting COVID-19 infection. FINDINGS: A total of 82 (24%) MERS-positive and 260 (31%) MERS-negative individuals had COVID-19 infection. Patients in the MERS-positive group had a lower risk of COVID-19 infection than those in the MERS-negative group (Risk ratio [RR] 0.696, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.522-0.929; p =0.014). The risk of COVID-19-related hospitalization in the MERS-positive group was significantly higher (RR 4.036, 95% CI 1.705-9.555; p =0.002). The case fatality rate (CFR) from COVID-19 was 4.9% in the MERS-positive group and 1.2% in the MERS-negative group (p =0.038). The MERS-positive group had a higher risk of death than the MERS-negative group (RR 6.222, 95% CI 1.342-28.839; p =0.019). However, the risk of mortality was similar between the two groups when death was adjusted for age (p =0.068) and age and sex (p =0.057). After controlling for all the independent variables, only healthcare worker occupation and >1 comorbidity were independent predictors of SARS-CoV-2 infection. INTERPRETATION: Individuals with previous MERS-CoV infection can exhibit a cross-reactive immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our study demonstrated that patients with MERS-CoV infection had higher risks of COVID-19-related hospitalization and death than MERS-negative individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Cross Reactions/immunology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Young Adult
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(7)2021 03 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1378227

ABSTRACT

The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 placed human health at the centre of disaster risk reduction, calling for the global community to enhance local and national health emergency and disaster risk management (Health EDRM). The Health EDRM Framework, published in 2019, describes the functions required for comprehensive disaster risk management across prevention, preparedness, readiness, response, and recovery to improve the resilience and health security of communities, countries, and health systems. Evidence-based Health EDRM workforce development is vital. However, there are still significant gaps in the evidence identifying common competencies for training and education programmes, and the clarification of strategies for workforce retention, motivation, deployment, and coordination. Initiated in June 2020, this project includes literature reviews, case studies, and an expert consensus (modified Delphi) study. Literature reviews in English, Japanese, and Chinese aim to identify research gaps and explore core competencies for Health EDRM workforce training. Thirteen Health EDRM related case studies from six WHO regions will illustrate best practices (and pitfalls) and inform the consensus study. Consensus will be sought from global experts in emergency and disaster medicine, nursing, public health and related disciplines. Recommendations for developing effective health workforce strategies for low- and middle-income countries and high-income countries will then be disseminated.


Subject(s)
Disaster Medicine , Disaster Planning , Disasters , Emergencies , Health Workforce , Humans
9.
Prehosp Disaster Med ; 36(5): 531-535, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1349626

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Terrorism-related deaths have fallen year after year since peaking in 2014, and whilst the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has disrupted terrorist organizations capacity to conduct attacks and limited their potential targets, counter-terrorism experts believe this is a short-term phenomenon with serious concerns of an escalation of violence and events in the near future. This study aims to provide an epidemiological analysis of all terrorism-related mass-fatality events (>100 fatalities) sustained between 1970-2019, including historical attack strategies, modalities used, and target selection, to better inform health care responders on the injury types they are likely to encounter. METHODS: The Global Terrorism Database (GTD) was searched for all attacks between the years 1970-2019. Attacks met inclusion criteria if they fulfilled the three terrorism-related criteria as set by the GTD codebook. Ambiguous events were excluded. State-sponsored terrorist events do not meet the codebook's definition, and as such, are excluded from the study. Data analysis and subsequent discussions were focused on events causing 100+ fatal injuries (FI). RESULTS: In total, 168,003 events were recorded between the years 1970-2019. Of these, 85,225 (50.73%) events recorded no FI; 67,356 (40.10%) events recorded 1-10 FI; 5,791 (3.45%) events recorded 11-50 FI; 405 (0.24%) events recorded 51-100 FI; 149 (0.09%) events recorded over 100 FI; and 9,077 (5.40%) events recorded unknown number of FI.Also, 96,905 events recorded no non-fatal injuries (NFI); 47,425 events recorded 1-10 NFI; 8,313 events recorded 11-50 NFI; 867 events recorded 51-100 NFI; 360 events recorded over 100 NFI; and 14,130 events recorded unknown number of NFI. Private citizens and property were the primary targets in 67 of the 149 high-FI events (100+ FI). Of the 149 events recording 100+ FI, 46 (30.87%) were attributed to bombings/explosions as the primary attack modality, 43 (28.86%) were armed assaults, 23 (15.44%) hostage incidents, two (1.34%) were facility/infrastructure attacks (incendiary), one (0.67%) was an unarmed assault, seven (4.70%) had unknown modalities, and 27 (18.12%) were mixed modality attacks. CONCLUSIONS: The most common attack modality causing 100+ FI was the use of bombs and explosions (30.87%), followed by armed assaults (28.86%). Private citizens and properties (44.97%) were most commonly targeted, followed by government (6.04%), businesses (5.37%), police (4.70%), and airports and aircrafts (4.70%). These data will be useful for the development of training programs in Counter-Terrorism Medicine (CTM), a rapidly emerging Disaster Medicine sub-specialty.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disaster Planning , Terrorism , Demography , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Prehosp Disaster Med ; 36(5): 501-502, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345519

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused the greatest global loss of life and economic impact due to a respiratory virus since the 1918 influenza pandemic. While health care systems around the world faced the enormous challenges of managing COVID-19 patients, health care workers in the Republic of Armenia were further tasked with caring for the surge of casualties from a concurrent, large-scale war. These compounding events put a much greater strain on the health care system, creating a complex humanitarian crisis that resulted in significant psychosocial consequences for health care workers in Armenia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disasters , Relief Work , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Prehosp Disaster Med ; 36(4): 399-402, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319002

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Terrorist attacks are growing in complexity, increasing concerns around the use of chemical, biological, radiation, and nuclear (CBRN) agents. This has led to increasing interest in Counter-Terrorism Medicine (CTM) as a Disaster Medicine (DM) sub-specialty. This study aims to provide the epidemiology of CBRN use in terrorism, to detail specific agents used, and to develop training programs for responders. METHODS: The open-source Global Terrorism Database (GTD) was searched for all CBRN attacks from January 1, 1970 through December 31, 2018. Attacks were included if they fulfilled the terrorism-related criteria as set by the GTD's Codebook. Ambiguous events or those meeting only partial criteria were excluded. The database does not include acts of state terrorism. RESULTS: There were 390 total CBRN incidents, causing 930 total fatal injuries (FI) and 14,167 total non-fatal injuries (NFI). A total of 347 chemical attacks (88.9% of total) caused 921 FI (99.0%) and 13,361 NFI (94.3%). Thirty-one biological attacks (8.0%) caused nine FI (1.0%) and 806 NFI (5.7%). Twelve radiation attacks (3.1%) caused zero FI and zero NFI. There were no nuclear attacks. The use of CBRN accounted for less than 0.3% of all terrorist attacks and is a high-risk, low-frequency attack methodology.The Taliban was implicated in 40 of the 347 chemical events, utilizing a mixture of agents including unconfirmed chemical gases (grey literature suggests white phosphorous and chlorine), contaminating water sources with pesticides, and the use of corrosive acid. The Sarin gas attack in Tokyo contributed to 5,500 NFI. Biological attacks accounted for 8.0% of CBRN attacks. Anthrax was used or suspected in 20 of the 31 events, followed by salmonella (5), ricin (3), fecal matter (1), botulinum toxin (1), and HIV (1). Radiation attacks accounted for 3.1% of CBRN attacks. Monazite was used in 10 of the 12 events, followed by iodine 131 (1) and undetermined irradiated plates (1). CONCLUSION: Currently, CBRN are low-frequency, high-impact attack modalities and remain a concern given the rising rate of terrorist events. Counter-Terrorism Medicine is a developing DM sub-specialty focusing on the mitigation of health care risks from such events. First responders and health care workers should be aware of historic use of CBRN weapons regionally and globally, and should train and prepare to respond appropriately.


Subject(s)
Disaster Planning , Terrorism , Databases, Factual , Health Personnel , Humans
12.
BMJ Leader ; 4(3):154-156, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1317041

ABSTRACT

Dr Ciottone has taught educational programmes in Disaster Medicine and Emergency Management in over 30 countries around the world, and has consulted domestically for the US State Department, Department of Health and Human Services, Department of Homeland Security, Department of Justice and the White House Medical Unit. Early in his career, he worked with the United States Agency for International Development to create and implement sustainable disaster medical education programmes throughout the former Soviet Union that have trained over 50 000 healthcare providers, and later helped lead an International Atomic Energy Agency nuclear accident preparedness programme for Eastern Europe. First and foremost, are there any key leadership messages you want to get out to our readership? Later, as Medical Director of Emergency Management at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, I was able to help create important disaster preparedness and response plans for a major medical centre and Harvard teaching hospital, including a comprehensive plan for pandemic influenza.

13.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(7): e28615, 2021 07 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1311344

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The early conversations on social media by emergency physicians offer a window into the ongoing response to the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: This retrospective observational study of emergency physician Twitter use details how the health care crisis has influenced emergency physician discourse online and how this discourse may have use as a harbinger of ensuing surge. METHODS: Followers of the three main emergency physician professional organizations were identified using Twitter's application programming interface. They and their followers were included in the study if they identified explicitly as US-based emergency physicians. Statuses, or tweets, were obtained between January 4, 2020, when the new disease was first reported, and December 14, 2020, when vaccination first began. Original tweets underwent sentiment analysis using the previously validated Valence Aware Dictionary and Sentiment Reasoner (VADER) tool as well as topic modeling using latent Dirichlet allocation unsupervised machine learning. Sentiment and topic trends were then correlated with daily change in new COVID-19 cases and inpatient bed utilization. RESULTS: A total of 3463 emergency physicians produced 334,747 unique English-language tweets during the study period. Out of 3463 participants, 910 (26.3%) stated that they were in training, and 466 of 902 (51.7%) participants who provided their gender identified as men. Overall tweet volume went from a pre-March 2020 mean of 481.9 (SD 72.7) daily tweets to a mean of 1065.5 (SD 257.3) daily tweets thereafter. Parameter and topic number tuning led to 20 tweet topics, with a topic coherence of 0.49. Except for a week in June and 4 days in November, discourse was dominated by the health care system (45,570/334,747, 13.6%). Discussion of pandemic response, epidemiology, and clinical care were jointly found to moderately correlate with COVID-19 hospital bed utilization (Pearson r=0.41), as was the occurrence of "covid," "coronavirus," or "pandemic" in tweet texts (r=0.47). Momentum in COVID-19 tweets, as demonstrated by a sustained crossing of 7- and 28-day moving averages, was found to have occurred on an average of 45.0 (SD 12.7) days before peak COVID-19 hospital bed utilization across the country and in the four most contributory states. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 Twitter discussion among emergency physicians correlates with and may precede the rising of hospital burden. This study, therefore, begins to depict the extent to which the ongoing pandemic has affected the field of emergency medicine discourse online and suggests a potential avenue for understanding predictors of surge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communication , Emergency Medicine , Forecasting/methods , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/trends , Physicians , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Humans , Latent Class Analysis , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
15.
Prehosp Disaster Med ; 36(4): 380-384, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275839

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The United States (US) is ranked 22nd on the Global Terrorism Index (2019), a scoring system of terrorist activities. While the global number of deaths from terrorism over the past five years is down, the number of countries affected by terrorism is growing and the health care repercussions remain significant. Counter-Terrorism Medicine (CTM) is rapidly emerging as a necessary sub-specialty, and this study aims to provide the epidemiological context over the past decade supporting this need by detailing the unique injury types responders are likely to encounter and setting the stage for the development of training programs utilizing these data. METHODS: The Global Terrorism Database (GTD) was searched for all attacks in the US from 2008-2018. Attacks met inclusion criteria if they fulfilled the three terrorism-related criteria as set by the GTD. Ambiguous events were excluded when there was uncertainty as to whether the incident met all of the criteria for inclusion in the GTD. The grey literature was reviewed, and each event was cross-matched with reputable international and national newspaper sources online to confirm or add details regarding weapon type used and, whenever available, details of victim and perpetrator fatalities and injuries. RESULTS: In total, 304 events were recorded during the period of study. Of the 304 events, 117 (38.5%) used incendiary-only weapons, 80 (26.3%) used firearms as their sole weapon, 55 (18.1%) used explosives, bombs, or dynamite (E/B/D), 23 (7.6%) were melee-only, six (2.0%) used vehicles-only, four (1.3%) were chemicals-only, two (0.7%) used sabotage equipment, two (0.7%) were listed as "others," and one (0.3%) used biological weapon. There was no recorded nuclear or radiological weapon use. In addition, 14 (4.6%) events used a mix of weapons. CONCLUSIONS: In the decade from 2008 through 2018, terrorist attacks on US soil used weapons with well-understood injury-causing modalities. A total of 217 fatal injuries (FI) and 660 non-fatal injuries (NFI) were sustained as a result of these events during that period.Incendiary weapons were the most commonly chosen methodology, followed by firearms and E/B/D attacks. Firearm events contributed to a disproportionality high fatality count while E/B/D events contributed to a disproportionally high NFI count.


Subject(s)
Disaster Planning , Emergency Medical Services/trends , Emergency Medicine/trends , Terrorism/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Terrorism/trends , United States
16.
Ann Thorac Med ; 16(2): 165-171, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1227112

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: Several medical procedures are thought to increase the risk of transmission of infectious agents to health-care providers (HCPs) through an aerosol-generating mechanism. AIMS: Given the significant influenza and coronavirus pandemics that have occurred in the 20th and 21st century, including the current severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 global pandemic, the objective of this analysis is to assess the occurrence of disease transmission to HCPs from the performance aerosol-generating procedures (AGPs). SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This was a systematic review and meta-analysis. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We performed a systematic meta-analysis looking at the odds ratio (OR) of AGP, causing infection among HCPs. We searched the following databases: MEDLINE (PubMed), ProQuest, Cochrane databases, and the Gray literature (ClinicalTrials.gov and World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform). In addition, we conducted nondatabase search activities. The search terms used were "MERS-CoV," "COVID," and "SARS" combined with "provider" or "healthcare provider." STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: RevMan meta-analysis was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Following the search, we reviewed 880 studies, of which six studies were eligible. The estimated odd ratio utilizing a control group of HCPs who were exposed to AGP but did not develop the infection was 1.85 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.33, 2.57). The OR remained the same when we added another control group who, despite not being exposed to AGP, had developed the infection. The OR remained 1.85 (95% CI: 1.33, 2.55). However, there is an increase in the OR to 1.89 (95% CI: 1.38, 2.59) when we added HCPs who did not use adequate personal protective equipment (PPE) during the procedures to the total estimates. CONCLUSIONS: The performance of AGP with inadequate PPE can result in an increased risk of disease transmission to HCWs.

18.
Prehosp Disaster Med ; 35(6): 599-603, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065735

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In 2009, the Institute of Medicine published guidelines for implementation of Crisis Standards of Care (CSC) at the state level in the United States (US). Based in part on the then concern for H1N1 pandemic, there was a recognized need for additional planning at the state level to maintain health system preparedness and conventional care standards when available resources become scarce. Despite the availability of this framework, in the years since and despite repeated large-scale domestic events, implementation remains mixed. PROBLEM: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) rejuvenates concern for how health systems can maintain quality care when faced with unrelenting burden. This study seeks to outline which states in the US have developed CSC and which areas of care have thus far been addressed. METHODS: An online search was conducted for all 50 states in 2015 and again in 2020. For states without CSC plans online, state officials were contacted by email and phone. Public protocols were reviewed to assess for operational implementation capabilities, specifically highlighting guidance on ventilator use, burn management, sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score, pediatric standards, and reliance on influenza planning. RESULTS: Thirty-six states in the US were actively developing (17) or had already developed (19) official CSC guidance. Fourteen states had no publicly acknowledged effort. Eleven of the 17 public plans had updated within five years, with a majority addressing ventilator usage (16/17), influenza planning (14/17), and pediatric care (15/17), but substantially fewer addressing care for burn patients (9/17). CONCLUSION: Many states lacked publicly available guidance on maintaining standards of care during disasters, and many states with specific care guidelines had not sufficiently addressed the full spectrum of hazard to which their health care systems remain vulnerable.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Disaster Medicine/standards , Disaster Planning/standards , Health Planning Councils , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Standard of Care , State Government , United States/epidemiology
19.
Prehosp Disaster Med ; 36(1): 1-3, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1042459

ABSTRACT

State governments and hospital facilities are often unprepared to handle a complex medical crisis, despite a moral and ethical obligation to be prepared for disaster. The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has drawn attention to the lack of state guidance on how hospitals should provide care in a crisis. When the resources available are insufficient to treat the current patient load, crisis standards of care (CSC) are implemented to provide care to the population in an ethical manner, while maintaining an ability to handle the surge. This Editorial aims to raise awareness concerning a lack of preparedness that calls for immediate correction at the state and local level.Analysis of state guidelines for implementation of CSC demonstrates a lack of preparedness, as only five states in the US have appropriately completed necessary plans, despite a clear understanding of the danger. States have a legal responsibility to regulate the medical care within their borders. Failure of hospital facilities to properly prepare for disasters is not a new issue; Hurricane Katrina (2005) demonstrated a lack of planning and coordination. Improving disaster health care readiness in the United States requires states to create new policy and legislative directives for the health care facilities within their respective jurisdictions. Hospitals should have clear directives to prepare for disasters as part of a "duty to care" and to ensure that the necessary planning and supplies are available to their employees.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Disaster Planning/standards , Emergency Medical Services/standards , Pandemics/prevention & control , State Government , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Medical Services/ethics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Societies, Medical , United States/epidemiology
20.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 14(5): e51, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1042286
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