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1.
Thromb Haemost ; 2022 Mar 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730360

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV2)-related pneumonia is associated with venous and arterial thrombosis . Aim of the study was to find-out a new score for predicting thrombosis in patients with SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We included a cohort of 674 patients affected by SARS-CoV-2, not requiring intensive care units, and followed-up during the hospitalization until discharge. Routinary analyses performed at in-hospital admission included also serum albumin and D-dimer while arterial and venous thromboses were the end-points of the study. RESULTS: During the follow-up thrombotic events 110 were registered; patients with thrombotic events were older and had lower albumin and higher D-dimer, compared to thrombotic event-free ones. On multivariable logistic regression with step by stepwise procedure age, serum albumin, D-dimer, were independently associated with thrombotic events. The linear combination of age, D-dimer, albumin allowed to build-up the ADA score, whose AUC was 0.752 (95% CI, 0.708-0.795). ADA score was internally validated by bootstrap sampling procedure giving an AUC of 0.752 (95% CI: 0.708 - 0.794). CONCLUSIONS: Combination of age, D-dimer, albumin in the ADA score allows identifying SARS-CoV-2 patients at higher risk of thrombotic events.

2.
J Clin Med ; 11(3)2022 Jan 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667215

ABSTRACT

Clinical outcome data of patients discharged after Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are limited and no study has evaluated predictors of cardiovascular prognosis in this setting. Our aim was to assess short-term mortality and cardiovascular outcome after hospitalization for COVID-19. A prospective cohort of 296 consecutive patients discharged after COVID-19 from two Italian institutions during the first wave of the pandemic and followed up to 6 months was included. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality. The co-primary endpoint was the incidence of the composite outcome of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE: cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, pulmonary embolism, acute heart failure, or hospitalization for cardiovascular causes). The mean follow-up duration was 6 ± 2 months. The incidence of all-cause death was 4.7%. At multivariate analysis, age was the only independent predictor of mortality (aHR 1.08, 95% CI 1.01-1.16). MACCE occurred in 7.2% of patients. After adjustment, female sex (aHR 2.6, 95% CI 1.05-6.52), in-hospital acute heart failure during index hospitalization (aHR 3.45, 95% CI 1.19-10), and prevalent atrial fibrillation (aHR 3.05, 95% CI 1.13-8.24) significantly predicted the incident risk of MACCE. These findings may help to identify patients for whom a closer and more accurate surveillance after discharge for COVID-19 should be considered.

3.
Thromb Haemost ; 122(2): 257-266, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592074

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is still unclear if patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have different rate, typology, and impact of thrombosis on survival. METHODS: In this multicenter observational cohort study, 1,138 patients, hospitalized for CAP (n = 559) or COVID-19 (n = 579) from seven clinical centers in Italy, were included in the study. Consecutive adult patients (age ≥ 18 years) with confirmed COVID-19-related pneumonia, with or without mechanical ventilation, hospitalized from March 1, 2020 to April 30, 2020, were enrolled. COVID-19 was diagnosed based on the World Health Organization interim guidance. Patients were followed-up until discharge or in-hospital death, registering the occurrence of thrombotic events including ischemic/embolic events. RESULTS: During the in-hospital stay, 11.4% of CAP and 15.5% of COVID-19 patients experienced thrombotic events (p = 0.046). In CAP patients all the events were arterial thromboses, while in COVID-19 patients 8.3% were venous and 7.2% arterial thromboses.During the in-hospital follow-up, 3% of CAP patients and 17% of COVID-19 patients died (p < 0.001). The highest mortality rate was found among COVID-19 patients with thrombotic events (47.6 vs. 13.4% in thrombotic-event-free patients; p < 0.001). In CAP, 13.8% of patients experiencing thrombotic events died versus 1.8% of thrombotic event-free ones (p < 0.001). A multivariable Cox-regression analysis confirmed a higher risk of death in COVID-19 patients with thrombotic events (hazard ratio: 2.1; 95% confidence interval: 1.4-3.3; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Compared with CAP, COVID-19 is characterized by a higher burden of thrombotic events, different thrombosis typology and higher risk of thrombosis-related in-hospital mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Community-Acquired Infections/mortality , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia/mortality , Risk Factors , Survival Analysis , Thrombosis/mortality
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19817, 2021 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454815

ABSTRACT

Recent studies have focused their attention on conjunctivitis as one of the symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Therefore, tear samples were taken from COVID-19 patients and the presence of SARS-CoV-2 was evidenced using Real Time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The main aim of this study was to analyze mRNA expression in the tears of patients with COVID-19 compared with healthy subjects using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS). The functional evaluation of the transcriptome highlighted 25 genes that differ statistically between healthy individuals and patients affected by COVID-19. In particular, the NGS analysis identified the presence of several genes involved in B cell signaling and keratinization. In particular, the genes involved in B cell signaling were downregulated in the tears of COVID-19 patients, while those involved in keratinization were upregulated. The results indicated that SARS-CoV-2 may induce a process of ocular keratinization and a defective B cell response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Eye Diseases/virology , Tears/metabolism , Transcriptome , Aged , B-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Eye Diseases/genetics , Female , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , Humans , Keratins/metabolism , Male , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sequence Analysis, RNA/methods , Skin/metabolism , Skin/pathology , Skin/virology , Tears/virology
6.
Respiration ; 101(2): 122-131, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398750

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Point-of-care lung ultrasound (LUS) score is a semiquantitative score of lung damage severity. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is the gold standard method to evaluate the severity of lung involvement from the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Few studies have investigated the clinical significance of LUS and HRCT scores in patients with COVID-19. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic yield of LUS and of HRCT in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We carried out a multicenter, retrospective study aimed at evaluating the prognostic yield of LUS and HRCT by exploring the survival curve of COVID-19 inpatients. LUS and chest CT scores were calculated retrospectively by 2 radiologists with >10 years of experience in chest imaging, and the decisions were reached in consensus. LUS score was calculated on the basis of the presence or not of pleural line abnormalities, B-lines, and lung consolidations. The total score (range 0-36) was obtained from the sum of the highest scores obtained in each region. CT score was calculated for each of the 5 lobes considering the anatomical extension according to the percentage parenchymal involvement. The resulting overall global semiquantitative CT score was the sum of each single lobar score and ranged from 0 (no involvement) to 25 (maximum involvement). RESULTS: One hundred fifty-three COVID-19 inpatients (mean age 65 ± 15 years; 65% M), including 23 (15%) in-hospital deaths for any cause over a mean follow-up of 14 days were included. Mean LUS and CT scores were 19 ± 12 and 10 ± 7, respectively. A strong positive linear correlation between LUS and CT scores (Pearson correlation r = 0.754; R2 = 0.568; p < 0.001) was observed. By ROC curve analysis, the optimal cut-point for mortality prediction was 20 for LUS score and 4.5 for chest CT score. According to Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, in-hospital mortality significantly increased among COVID-19 patients presenting with an LUS score ≥20 (log-rank 0.003; HR 9.87, 95% CI: 2.22-43.83) or a chest CT score ≥4.5 (HR 4.34, 95% CI: 0.97-19.41). At multivariate Cox regression analysis, LUS score was the sole independent predictor of in-hospital mortality yielding an adjusted HR of 7.42 (95% CI: 1.59-34.5). CONCLUSION: LUS score is useful to stratify the risk in COVID-19 patients, predicting those that are at high risk of mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/mortality , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Point-of-Care Testing , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Ultrasonography , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies
7.
Life (Basel) ; 11(8)2021 Aug 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367866

ABSTRACT

It seems that during SARS-CoV-2 infection, total cholesterol, LDL-C, and HDL-C values decrease and lipids could play a fundamental role in viral replication. Moreover, it has been shown that SARS-CoV-2 infection could influence thyroid function. We performed a retrospective analysis of 118 hospitalized patients with COVID-19, comparing pre-infection lipid profile (53 patients) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) values (45 patients) to those measured on admission. Our aim was to evaluate whether SARS-CoV-2 infection could be involved in thyroid and lipid profile alterations and study possible correlations with disease severity and clinical outcome. Median baseline values at the admission time were: total cholesterol at 136.89 ± 42.73 mg/dL, LDL-C 81.53 ± 30.35 mg/dL, and HDL-C 32.36 ± 15.13 mg/dL; and triglycerides at 115.00 ± 40.45 mg/dL, non-HDL-C 104.53 ± 32.63 md/dL, and TSH 1.15 ± 1.08 µUI/mL. Median values of pre-infection total cholesterol, HDL-C, and TSH were significantly higher than those measured at the admission time (p value < 0.05). The C-reactive protein (CRP) negatively correlated with LDL-C (p = 0.013) and HDL-C (p = 0.05). Our data underline a possible impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on thyroid function. Moreover it suggests a possible relation between COVID-19 and the lipid profile with a negative correlation between CRP, LDL-C, and HDL-C values, proposing the hypothesis that lipid lowering could follow the rising of the COVID-19 inflammatory state.

8.
Neurol Sci ; 42(10): 3981-3988, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328622

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Although recent data show that SARS-CoV-2 infection seems to affect the central nervous system (CNS), little is known about the neuropsychiatric effects resulting from this condition. In addition to the well-known neurotrophism of coronaviruses, recent evidence shows also that the "cytokine storm" induced by the infection is at the basis of the neuroinflammation of the CNS. Furthermore, prolonged hospitalization, polypharmacotherapy, and isolation could be at the basis of the onset of delirium in hospitalized COVID patients. This multicentric observational study explores the incidence of the onset of delirium in an Italian cohort of SARS-CoV-2 positive inpatients. METHODS: Data were collected in the COVIDhospitals of Brescia, Bergamo, Chieti, and Genova. Different socio-demographic, medical, neurological, and pharmacological parameters were collected. As a rapid screening for delirium, the 4AT scale was used. Eighty COVID-19 inpatients (mean age 74.7 ± 14.5 years) met the inclusion criteria (confirmed positivity to the SARS-CoV-2 virus; the presence of delirium and/or psychomotor agitation and/or new onset of other neuropsychiatric symptoms during hospitalization). RESULTS: The majority of these patients (68.8%) had "hyperactive delirium" subtype. Polypharmacotherapy, current treatment with corticosteroids, and higher age were associated with delirium severity. CONCLUSION: These data provide an insight into the onset of delirium among COVID-19 patients underlining the need for monitoring, especially in elderly patients, the neuropsychiatric symptoms, and the therapy in order to have shorter hospitalization times and better outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delirium , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Delirium/diagnosis , Delirium/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Healthc Eng ; 2021: 5556207, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314165

ABSTRACT

The efficacy of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) in treating SARS-CoV-2 infection is harshly debated, with observational and experimental studies reporting contrasting results. To clarify the role of HCQ in Covid-19 patients, we carried out a retrospective observational study of 4,396 unselected patients hospitalized for Covid-19 in Italy (February-May 2020). Patients' characteristics were collected at entry, including age, sex, obesity, smoking status, blood parameters, history of diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular and chronic pulmonary diseases, and medications in use. These were used to identify subtypes of patients with similar characteristics through hierarchical clustering based on Gower distance. Using multivariable Cox regressions, these clusters were then tested for association with mortality and modification of effect by treatment with HCQ. We identified two clusters, one of 3,913 younger patients with lower circulating inflammation levels and better renal function, and one of 483 generally older and more comorbid subjects, more prevalently men and smokers. The latter group was at increased death risk adjusted by HCQ (HR[CI95%] = 3.80[3.08-4.67]), while HCQ showed an independent inverse association (0.51[0.43-0.61]), as well as a significant influence of cluster∗HCQ interaction (p < 0.001). This was driven by a differential association of HCQ with mortality between the high (0.89[0.65-1.22]) and the low risk cluster (0.46[0.39-0.54]). These effects survived adjustments for additional medications in use and were concordant with associations with disease severity and outcome. These findings suggest a particularly beneficial effect of HCQ within low risk Covid-19 patients and may contribute to clarifying the current controversy on HCQ efficacy in Covid-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials/adverse effects , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cluster Analysis , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
10.
Intern Emerg Med ; 16(5): 1231-1237, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293431

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) may experience venous thrombosis while data regarding arterial thrombosis are sparse. METHODS: Prospective multicenter study in 5 hospitals including 373 patients with Covid-19-related pneumonia. Demographic data, laboratory findings including coagulation tests and comorbidities were reported. During the follow-up any arterial or venous thrombotic events and death were registered. RESULTS: Among 373 patients, 75 (20%) had a thrombotic event and 75 (20%) died. Thrombotic events included 41 venous thromboembolism and 34 arterial thrombosis. Age, cardiovascular disease, intensive care unit treatment, white blood cells, D-dimer, albumin and troponin blood levels were associated with thrombotic events. In a multivariable regression logistic model, intensive care unit treatment (Odds Ratio [OR]: 6.0; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 2.8-12.6; p < 0.001); coronary artery disease (OR: 2.4; 95% CI 1.4-5.0; p = 0.022); and albumin levels (OR: 0.49; 95% CI 0.28-0.87; p = 0.014) were associated with ischemic events. Age, sex, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, heart failure, coronary heart disease, intensive care unit treatment, in-hospital thrombotic events, D-dimer, C-reactive protein, troponin, and albumin levels were associated with mortality. A multivariable Cox regression analysis showed that in-hospital thrombotic events (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.72; 95% CI 1.59-4.65; p < 0.001), age (HR: 1.035; 95% CI 1.014-1.057; p = 0.001), and albumin (HR: 0.447; 95% CI 0.277-0.723; p = 0.001) predicted morality. CONCLUSIONS: Covid-19 patients experience an equipollent rate of venous and arterial thrombotic events, that are associated with poor survival. Early identification and appropriate treatment of Covid-19 patients at risk of thrombosis may improve prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/etiology , Mortality/trends , Thromboembolism/etiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coronary Artery Disease/epidemiology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Proportional Hazards Models , Prospective Studies , Thromboembolism/epidemiology
11.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 639970, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285307

ABSTRACT

Background: Protease inhibitors have been considered as possible therapeutic agents for COVID-19 patients. Objectives: To describe the association between lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) or darunavir/cobicistat (DRV/c) use and in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients. Study Design: Multicenter observational study of COVID-19 patients admitted in 33 Italian hospitals. Medications, preexisting conditions, clinical measures, and outcomes were extracted from medical records. Patients were retrospectively divided in three groups, according to use of LPV/r, DRV/c or none of them. Primary outcome in a time-to event analysis was death. We used Cox proportional-hazards models with inverse probability of treatment weighting by multinomial propensity scores. Results: Out of 3,451 patients, 33.3% LPV/r and 13.9% received DRV/c. Patients receiving LPV/r or DRV/c were more likely younger, men, had higher C-reactive protein levels while less likely had hypertension, cardiovascular, pulmonary or kidney disease. After adjustment for propensity scores, LPV/r use was not associated with mortality (HR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.78 to 1.13), whereas treatment with DRV/c was associated with a higher death risk (HR = 1.89, 1.53 to 2.34, E-value = 2.43). This increased risk was more marked in women, in elderly, in patients with higher severity of COVID-19 and in patients receiving other COVID-19 drugs. Conclusions: In a large cohort of Italian patients hospitalized for COVID-19 in a real-life setting, the use of LPV/r treatment did not change death rate, while DRV/c was associated with increased mortality. Within the limits of an observational study, these data do not support the use of LPV/r or DRV/c in COVID-19 patients.

12.
J Clin Med ; 10(9)2021 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241270

ABSTRACT

Cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) is an unusual, but potentially harmful, manifestation of systemic sarcoidosis (SA), a chronic disease characterized by organ involvement from noncaseating and nonnecrotizing granulomas. Lungs and intrathoracic lymph nodes are usually the sites that are most frequently affected, but no organ is spared and CS can affect a variable portion of SA patients, up to 25% from post-mortem studies. The cardiovascular involvement is usually associated with a bad prognosis and is responsible for the major cause of death and complications, particularly in African American patients. Furthermore, the diagnosis is often complicated by the occurrence of non-specific clinical manifestations, which can mimic the effect of more common heart disorders, and imaging and biopsies are the most valid approach to avoid misdiagnosis. This narrative review summarizes the main clinical features of CS and imaging findings, particularly of CMR and 18-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (18F-FDG PET) that can give the best cost/benefit ratio in terms of the diagnostic approach. Imaging can be very useful in replacing the endomyocardial biopsy in selected cases, to avoid unnecessary, and potentially dangerous, invasive maneuvers.

13.
Intern Emerg Med ; 16(4): 1005-1015, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1202836

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 2020 outbreak, a large body of data has been provided on general management and outcomes of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Yet, relatively little is known on characteristics and outcome of patients managed in Internal Medicine Units (IMU). To address this gap, the Italian Society of Internal Medicine has conducted a nationwide cohort multicentre study on death outcome in adult COVID-19 patients admitted and managed in IMU. This study assessed 3044 COVID-19 patients at 41 referral hospitals across Italy from February 3rd to May 8th 2020. Demographics, comorbidities, organ dysfunction, treatment, and outcomes including death were assessed. During the study period, 697 patients (22.9%) were transferred to intensive care units, and 351 died in IMU (death rate 14.9%). At admission, factors independently associated with in-hospital mortality were age (OR 2.46, p = 0.000), productive cough (OR 2.04, p = 0.000), pre-existing chronic heart failure (OR 1.58, p = 0.017) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (OR 1.17, p = 0.048), the number of comorbidities (OR 1.34, p = 0.000) and polypharmacy (OR 1.20, p = 0.000). Of note, up to 40% of elderly patients did not report fever at admission. Decreasing PaO2/FiO2 ratio at admission was strongly inversely associated with survival. The use of conventional oxygen supplementation increased with the number of pre-existing comorbidities, but it did not associate with better survival in patients with PaO2/FiO2 ratio < 100. The latter, significantly benefited by the early use of non-invasive mechanical ventilation. Our study identified PaO2/FiO2 ratio at admission and comorbidity as the main alert signs to inform clinical decisions and resource allocation in non-critically ill COVID-19 patients admitted to IMU.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization , Internal Medicine , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , Cohort Studies , Critical Care , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Italy , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Survival Rate
14.
Neurol Sci ; 42(4): 1527-1530, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1130795

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 patients present with delirium during their hospitalization. AIMS: To assess the incidence of delirium in hospitalized COVID-19 patients and analyze the possible association with demographic, clinical, laboratory, and pharmacological factors. METHODS: COVID-19 patients were assessed for clinical signs of delirium and administered the assessment test for delirium and cognitive impairment (4AT) and the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU) scales. RESULTS: Out of the 56 patients of our cohort, 14 (25.0%) experienced delirium. The use of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) (enoxaparin 1 mg/kg/daily) was less frequent in patients with delirium (p = 0.004) and was accompanied by lower C reactive protein (CRP) levels (p = 0.006). DISCUSSION: The use of LMWH was associated with absence of delirium, independently of comorbidities and age. CONCLUSIONS: The use of LMWH may help preventing the occurrence of delirium in COVID-19 patients, with possible reduction of length of stay in the hospital and sequelae.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Delirium/etiology , Delirium/prevention & control , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/psychology , Cognition Disorders/etiology , Cognition Disorders/psychology , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Confusion/psychology , Delirium/psychology , Female , Humans , Inpatients , Length of Stay , Male , Neuropsychological Tests
15.
Thromb Haemost ; 121(8): 1054-1065, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112023

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: A hypercoagulable condition was described in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and proposed as a possible pathogenic mechanism contributing to disease progression and lethality. AIM: We evaluated if in-hospital administration of heparin improved survival in a large cohort of Italian COVID-19 patients. METHODS: In a retrospective observational study, 2,574 unselected patients hospitalized in 30 clinical centers in Italy from February 19, 2020 to June 5, 2020 with laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 infection were analyzed. The primary endpoint in a time-to event analysis was in-hospital death, comparing patients who received heparin (low-molecular-weight heparin [LMWH] or unfractionated heparin [UFH]) with patients who did not. We used multivariable Cox proportional-hazards regression models with inverse probability for treatment weighting by propensity scores. RESULTS: Out of 2,574 COVID-19 patients, 70.1% received heparin. LMWH was largely the most used formulation (99.5%). Death rates for patients receiving heparin or not were 7.4 and 14.0 per 1,000 person-days, respectively. After adjustment for propensity scores, we found a 40% lower risk of death in patients receiving heparin (hazard ratio = 0.60; 95% confidence interval: 0.49-0.74; E-value = 2.04). This association was particularly evident in patients with a higher severity of disease or strong coagulation activation. CONCLUSION: In-hospital heparin treatment was associated with a lower mortality, particularly in severely ill COVID-19 patients and in those with strong coagulation activation. The results from randomized clinical trials are eagerly awaited to provide clear-cut recommendations.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Heparin/therapeutic use , Thrombophilia/etiology , Thrombophilia/prevention & control , Aged , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Survival Analysis , Thrombophilia/blood
16.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 52(3): 782-790, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1111318

ABSTRACT

A pro-thrombotic milieu and a higher risk of thrombotic events were observed in patients with CoronaVirus disease-19 (COVID-19). Accordingly, recent data suggested a beneficial role of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), but the optimal dosage of this treatment is unknown. We evaluated the association between prophylactic vs. intermediate-to-fully anticoagulant doses of enoxaparin and in-hospital adverse events in patients with COVID-19. We retrospectively included 436 consecutive patients admitted in three Italian hospitals. Outcome according to the use of prophylactic (4000 IU) vs. higher (> 4000 IU) daily dosage of enoxaparin was evaluated. The primary end-point was in-hospital death. Secondary outcome measures were in-hospital cardiovascular death, venous thromboembolism, new-onset acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and mechanical ventilation. A total of 287 patients (65.8%) were treated with the prophylactic enoxaparin regimen and 149 (34.2%) with a higher dosing regimen. The use of prophylactic enoxaparin dose was associated with a similar incidence of all-cause mortality (25.4% vs. 26.9% with the higher dose; OR at multivariable analysis, including the propensity score: 0.847, 95% CI 0.400-0.1.792; p = 0.664). In the prophylactic dose group, a significantly lower incidence of cardiovascular death (OR 0.165), venous thromboembolism (OR 0.067), new-onset ARDS (OR 0.454) and mechanical intubation (OR 0.150) was observed. In patients hospitalized for COVID-19, the use of a prophylactic dosage of enoxaparin appears to be associated with similar in-hospital overall mortality compared to higher doses. These findings require confirmation in a randomized, controlled study.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , COVID-19/therapy , Enoxaparin/administration & dosage , Hospitalization , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Enoxaparin/adverse effects , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Protective Factors , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Thromboembolism/blood , Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Thromboembolism/mortality , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
19.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(2)2021 Jan 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1050596

ABSTRACT

The recent COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically changed the world in the last months, leading to a serious global emergency related to a novel coronavirus infection that affects both sexes of all ages ubiquitously. Advanced age, cardiovascular comorbidity, and viral load have been hypothesized as some of the risk factors for severity, but their role in patients affected with other diseases, in particular immune disorders, such as sarcoidosis, and the specific interaction between these two diseases remains unclear. The two conditions might share similar imaging findings but have distinctive features that are here described. The recent development of complex imaging softwares, called deep learning techniques, opens new scenarios for the diagnosis and management.

20.
Immun Inflamm Dis ; 9(2): 399-405, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1037475

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Clinicians all around the world are currently experiencing a pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Several therapeutic strategies have been used until now but, to date, there is no specific therapy to treat SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this study, we used canakinumab, a human monoclonal antibody targeting interleukin-1 beta to improve respiratory function and laboratory parameters compared with standard therapy (hydroxycloroquine plus lopinavir/ritonavir). METHODS: We enrolled 34 patients with mild or severe non intensive care unit (ICU) coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): 17 patients treated with standard therapy and 17 patients treated with a subcutaneous single dose of canakinumab 300 mg. We collected data about oxygen supports and laboratory parameters such as inflammation indices and hemogasanalysis. We compared the data collected before the administration of canakinumab (T0), 3 days after T0 (T1) and 7 days after T0 (T2) with the same data from patients taking the standard therapy. RESULTS: We observed a reduction in inflammation indices and a significant and rapid increase in P/F ratio in canakinumab group, with improvement of 60.3% after the administration. We reported a significant reduction in oxygen flow in patients treated with canakinumab (-28.6% at T1 vs. T0 and -40.0% at T2 vs. T1). Conversely, the standard group increased the supply of high oxygen at T1 versus T0 (+66.7%), but reduced oxygen flows at T2 versus T1 (-40.0%). CONCLUSION: In hospitalized adult patients with mild or severe non ICU COVID-19, canakinumab could be a valid therapeutic option. Canakinumab therapy causes rapid and long-lasting improvement in oxygenation levels in the absence of any severe adverse events.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Interleukin-1beta/antagonists & inhibitors , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/therapy , Combined Modality Therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
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