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Baruch, Joaquin, Rojek, Amanda, Kartsonaki, Christiana, Vijayaraghavan, Bharath K. T.; Gonçalves, Bronner P.; Pritchard, Mark G.; Merson, Laura, Dunning, Jake, Hall, Matthew, Sigfrid, Louise, Citarella, Barbara W.; Murthy, Srinivas, Yeabah, Trokon O.; Olliaro, Piero, Abbas, Ali, Abdukahil, Sheryl Ann, Abdulkadir, Nurul Najmee, Abe, Ryuzo, Abel, Laurent, Absil, Lara, Acharya, Subhash, Acker, Andrew, Adam, Elisabeth, Adrião, Diana, Al Ageel, Saleh, Ahmed, Shakeel, Ainscough, Kate, Airlangga, Eka, Aisa, Tharwat, Hssain, Ali Ait, Tamlihat, Younes Ait, Akimoto, Takako, Akmal, Ernita, Al Qasim, Eman, Alalqam, Razi, Alberti, Angela, Al‐dabbous, Tala, Alegesan, Senthilkumar, Alegre, Cynthia, Alessi, Marta, Alex, Beatrice, Alexandre, Kévin, Al‐Fares, Abdulrahman, Alfoudri, Huda, Ali, Imran, Ali, Adam, Shah, Naseem Ali, Alidjnou, Kazali Enagnon, Aliudin, Jeffrey, Alkhafajee, Qabas, Allavena, Clotilde, Allou, Nathalie, Altaf, Aneela, Alves, João, Alves, Rita, Alves, João Melo, Amaral, Maria, Amira, Nur, Ampaw, Phoebe, Andini, Roberto, Andréjak, Claire, Angheben, Andrea, Angoulvant, François, Ansart, Séverine, Anthonidass, Sivanesen, Antonelli, Massimo, de Brito, Carlos Alexandre Antunes, Apriyana, Ardiyan, Arabi, Yaseen, Aragao, Irene, Araujo, Carolline, Arcadipane, Antonio, Archambault, Patrick, Arenz, Lukas, Arlet, Jean‐Benoît, Arora, Lovkesh, Arora, Rakesh, Artaud‐Macari, Elise, Aryal, Diptesh, Asensio, Angel, Ashraf, Muhammad, Asif, Namra, Asim, Mohammad, Assie, Jean Baptiste, Asyraf, Amirul, Atique, Anika, Attanyake, A. M. Udara Lakshan, Auchabie, Johann, Aumaitre, Hugues, Auvet, Adrien, Axelsen, Eyvind W.; Azemar, Laurène, Azoulay, Cecile, Bach, Benjamin, Bachelet, Delphine, Badr, Claudine, Bævre‐Jensen, Roar, Baig, Nadia, Baillie, J. Kenneth, Baird, J. Kevin, Bak, Erica, Bakakos, Agamemnon, Bakar, Nazreen Abu, Bal, Andriy, Balakrishnan, Mohanaprasanth, Balan, Valeria, Bani‐Sadr, Firouzé, Barbalho, Renata, Barbosa, Nicholas Yuri, Barclay, Wendy S.; Barnett, Saef Umar, Barnikel, Michaela, Barrasa, Helena, Barrelet, Audrey, Barrigoto, Cleide, Bartoli, Marie, Baruch, Joaquín, Bashir, Mustehan, Basmaci, Romain, Basri, Muhammad Fadhli Hassin, Battaglini, Denise, Bauer, Jules, Rincon, Diego Fernando Bautista, Dow, Denisse Bazan, Beane, Abigail, Bedossa, Alexandra, Bee, Ker Hong, Begum, Husna, Behilill, Sylvie, Beishuizen, Albertus, Beljantsev, Aleksandr, Bellemare, David, Beltrame, Anna, Beltrão, Beatriz Amorim, Beluze, Marine, Benech, Nicolas, Benjiman, Lionel Eric, Benkerrou, Dehbia, Bennett, Suzanne, Bento, Luís, Berdal, Jan‐Erik, Bergeaud, Delphine, Bergin, Hazel, Sobrino, José Luis Bernal, Bertoli, Giulia, Bertolino, Lorenzo, Bessis, Simon, Bevilcaqua, Sybille, Bezulier, Karine, Bhatt, Amar, Bhavsar, Krishna, Bianco, Claudia, Bidin, Farah Nadiah, Singh, Moirangthem Bikram, Humaid, Felwa Bin, Kamarudin, Mohd Nazlin Bin, Bissuel, François, Bitker, Laurent, Bitton, Jonathan, Blanco‐Schweizer, Pablo, Blier, Catherine, Bloos, Frank, Blot, Mathieu, Boccia, Filomena, Bodenes, Laetitia, Bogaarts, Alice, Bogaert, Debby, Boivin, Anne‐Hélène, Bolze, Pierre‐Adrien, Bompart, François, Bonfasius, Aurelius, Borges, Diogo, Borie, Raphaël, Bosse, Hans Martin, Botelho‐Nevers, Elisabeth, Bouadma, Lila, Bouchaud, Olivier, Bouchez, Sabelline, Bouhmani, Dounia, Bouhour, Damien, Bouiller, Kévin, Bouillet, Laurence, Bouisse, Camile, Boureau, Anne‐Sophie, Bourke, John, Bouscambert, Maude, Bousquet, Aurore, Bouziotis, Jason, Boxma, Bianca, Boyer‐Besseyre, Marielle, Boylan, Maria, Bozza, Fernando Augusto, Braconnier, Axelle, Braga, Cynthia, Brandenburger, Timo, Monteiro, Filipa Brás, Brazzi, Luca, Breen, Patrick, Breen, Dorothy, Breen, Patrick, Brickell, Kathy, Browne, Shaunagh, Browne, Alex, Brozzi, Nicolas, Brunvoll, Sonja Hjellegjerde, Brusse‐Keizer, Marjolein, Buchtele, Nina, Buesaquillo, Christian, Bugaeva, Polina, Buisson, Marielle, Buonsenso, Danilo, Burhan, Erlina, Burrell, Aidan, Bustos, Ingrid G.; Butnaru, Denis, Cabie, André, Cabral, Susana, Caceres, Eder, Cadoz, Cyril, Calligy, Kate, Calvache, Jose Andres, Camões, João, Campana, Valentine, Campbell, Paul, Campisi, Josie, Canepa, Cecilia, Cantero, Mireia, Caraux‐Paz, Pauline, Cárcel, Sheila, Cardellino, Chiara Simona, Cardoso, Sofia, Cardoso, Filipe, Cardoso, Filipa, Cardoso, Nelson, Carelli, Simone, Carlier, Nicolas, Carmoi, Thierry, Carney, Gayle, Carqueja, Inês, Carret, Marie‐Christine, Carrier, François Martin, Carroll, Ida, Carson, Gail, Casanova, Maire‐Laure, Cascão, Mariana, Casey, Siobhan, Casimiro, José, Cassandra, Bailey, Castañeda, Silvia, Castanheira, Nidyanara, Castor‐Alexandre, Guylaine, Castrillón, Henry, Castro, Ivo, Catarino, Ana, Catherine, François‐Xavier, Cattaneo, Paolo, Cavalin, Roberta, Cavalli, Giulio Giovanni, Cavayas, Alexandros, Ceccato, Adrian, Cervantes‐Gonzalez, Minerva, Chair, Anissa, Chakveatze, Catherine, Chan, Adrienne, Chand, Meera, Auger, Christelle Chantalat, Chapplain, Jean‐Marc, Chas, Julie, Chatterjee, Allegra, Chaudry, Mobin, Iñiguez, Jonathan Samuel Chávez, Chen, Anjellica, Chen, Yih‐Sharng, Cheng, Matthew Pellan, Cheret, Antoine, Chiarabini, Thibault, Chica, Julian, Chidambaram, Suresh Kumar, Tho, Leong Chin, Chirouze, Catherine, Chiumello, Davide, Cho, Sung‐Min, Cholley, Bernard, Chopin, Marie‐Charlotte, Chow, Ting Soo, Chow, Yock Ping, Chua, Jonathan, Chua, Hiu Jian, Cidade, Jose Pedro, Herreros, José Miguel Cisneros, Citarella, Barbara Wanjiru, Ciullo, Anna, Clarke, Jennifer, Clarke, Emma, Granado, Rolando Claure‐Del, Clohisey, Sara, Cobb, Perren J.; Codan, Cassidy, Cody, Caitriona, Coelho, Alexandra, Coles, Megan, Colin, Gwenhaël, Collins, Michael, Colombo, Sebastiano Maria, Combs, Pamela, Connor, Marie, Conrad, Anne, Contreras, Sofía, Conway, Elaine, Cooke, Graham S.; Copland, Mary, Cordel, Hugues, Corley, Amanda, Cornelis, Sabine, Cornet, Alexander Daniel, Corpuz, Arianne Joy, Cortegiani, Andrea, Corvaisier, Grégory, Costigan, Emma, Couffignal, Camille, Couffin‐Cadiergues, Sandrine, Courtois, Roxane, Cousse, Stéphanie, Cregan, Rachel, Croonen, Sabine, Crowl, Gloria, Crump, Jonathan, Cruz, Claudina, Bermúdez, Juan Luis Cruz, Rojo, Jaime Cruz, Csete, Marc, Cullen, Ailbhe, Cummings, Matthew, Curley, Gerard, Curlier, Elodie, Curran, Colleen, Custodio, Paula, da Silva Filipe, Ana, Da Silveira, Charlene, Dabaliz, Al‐Awwab, Dagens, Andrew, Dahl, John Arne, Dahly, Darren, Dalton, Heidi, Dalton, Jo, Daly, Seamus, Daneman, Nick, Daniel, Corinne, Dankwa, Emmanuelle A.; Dantas, Jorge, D'Aragon, Frédérick, de Loughry, Gillian, de Mendoza, Diego, De Montmollin, Etienne, de Oliveira França, Rafael Freitas, de Pinho Oliveira, Ana Isabel, De Rosa, Rosanna, De Rose, Cristina, de Silva, Thushan, de Vries, Peter, Deacon, Jillian, Dean, David, Debard, Alexa, Debray, Marie‐Pierre, DeCastro, Nathalie, Dechert, William, Deconninck, Lauren, Decours, Romain, Defous, Eve, Delacroix, Isabelle, Delaveuve, Eric, Delavigne, Karen, Delfos, Nathalie M.; Deligiannis, Ionna, Dell'Amore, Andrea, Delmas, Christelle, Delobel, Pierre, Delsing, Corine, Demonchy, Elisa, Denis, Emmanuelle, Deplanque, Dominique, Depuydt, Pieter, Desai, Mehul, Descamps, Diane, Desvallées, Mathilde, Dewayanti, Santi, Dhanger, Pathik, Diallo, Alpha, Diamantis, Sylvain, Dias, André, Diaz, Juan Jose, Diaz, Priscila, Diaz, Rodrigo, Didier, Kévin, Diehl, Jean‐Luc, Dieperink, Wim, Dimet, Jérôme, Dinot, Vincent, Diop, Fara, Diouf, Alphonsine, Dishon, Yael, Djossou, Félix, Docherty, Annemarie B.; Doherty, Helen, Dondorp, Arjen M.; Donnelly, Maria, Donnelly, Christl A.; Donohue, Sean, Donohue, Yoann, Donohue, Chloe, Doran, Peter, Dorival, Céline, D'Ortenzio, Eric, Douglas, James Joshua, Douma, Renee, Dournon, Nathalie, Downer, Triona, Downey, Joanne, Downing, Mark, Drake, Tom, Driscoll, Aoife, Dryden, Murray, Fonseca, Claudio Duarte, Dubee, Vincent, Dubos, François, Ducancelle, Alexandre, Duculan, Toni, Dudman, Susanne, Duggal, Abhijit, Dunand, Paul, Dunning, Jake, Duplaix, Mathilde, Durante‐Mangoni, Emanuele, Durham, Lucian, Dussol, Bertrand, Duthoit, Juliette, Duval, Xavier, Dyrhol‐Riise, Anne Margarita, Ean, Sim Choon, Echeverria‐Villalobos, Marco, Egan, Siobhan, Eggesbø, Linn Margrete, Eira, Carla, El Sanharawi, Mohammed, Elapavaluru, Subbarao, Elharrar, Brigitte, Ellerbroek, Jacobien, Ellingjord‐Dale, Merete, Eloy, Philippine, Elshazly, Tarek, Elyazar, Iqbal, Enderle, Isabelle, Endo, Tomoyuki, Eng, Chan Chee, Engelmann, Ilka, Enouf, Vincent, Epaulard, Olivier, Escher, Martina, Esperatti, Mariano, Esperou, Hélène, Esposito‐Farese, Marina, Estevão, João, Etienne, Manuel, Ettalhaoui, Nadia, Everding, Anna Greti, Evers, Mirjam, Fabre, Marc, Fabre, Isabelle, Faheem, Amna, Fahy, Arabella, Fairfield, Cameron J.; Fakar, Zul, Fareed, Komal, Faria, Pedro, Farooq, Ahmed, Fateena, Hanan, Fatoni, Arie Zainul, Faure, Karine, Favory, Raphaël, Fayed, Mohamed, Feely, Niamh, Feeney, Laura, Fernandes, Jorge, Fernandes, Marília Andreia, Fernandes, Susana, Ferrand, François‐Xavier, Devouge, Eglantine Ferrand, Ferrão, Joana, Ferraz, Mário, Ferreira, Sílvia, Ferreira, Isabel, Ferreira, Benigno, Ferrer‐Roca, Ricard, Ferriere, Nicolas, Ficko, Céline, Figueiredo‐Mello, Claudia, Finlayson, William, Fiorda, Juan, Flament, Thomas, Flateau, Clara, Fletcher, Tom, Florio, Letizia Lucia, Flynn, Deirdre, Foley, Claire, Foley, Jean, Fomin, Victor, Fonseca, Tatiana, Fontela, Patricia, Forsyth, Simon, Foster, Denise, Foti, Giuseppe, Fourn, Erwan, Fowler, Robert A.; Fraher, Marianne, Franch‐Llasat, Diego, Fraser, John F.; Fraser, Christophe, Freire, Marcela Vieira, Ribeiro, Ana Freitas, Friedrich, Caren, Fry, Stéphanie, Fuentes, Nora, Fukuda, Masahiro, Argin, G.; Gaborieau, Valérie, Gaci, Rostane, Gagliardi, Massimo, Gagnard, Jean‐Charles, Gagneux‐Brunon, Amandine, Gaião, Sérgio, Skeie, Linda Gail, Gallagher, Phil, Gamble, Carrol, Gani, Yasmin, Garan, Arthur, Garcia, Rebekha, Barrio, Noelia García, Garcia‐Diaz, Julia, Garcia‐Gallo, Esteban, Garimella, Navya, Garot, Denis, Garrait, Valérie, Gauli, Basanta, Gault, Nathalie, Gavin, Aisling, Gavrylov, Anatoliy, Gaymard, Alexandre, Gebauer, Johannes, Geraud, Eva, Morlaes, Louis Gerbaud, Germano, Nuno, Ghisulal, Praveen Kumar, Ghosn, Jade, Giani, Marco, Gibson, Jess, Gigante, Tristan, Gilg, Morgane, Gilroy, Elaine, Giordano, Guillermo, Girvan, Michelle, Gissot, Valérie, Glikman, Daniel, Glybochko, Petr, Gnall, Eric, Goco, Geraldine, Goehringer, François, Goepel, Siri, Goffard, Jean‐Christophe, Goh, Jin Yi, Golob, Jonathan, Gomez, Kyle, Gómez‐Junyent, Joan, Gominet, Marie, Gonçalves, Bronner P.; Gonzalez, Alicia, Gordon, Patricia, Gorenne, Isabelle, Goubert, Laure, Goujard, Cécile, Goulenok, Tiphaine, Grable, Margarite, Graf, Jeronimo, Grandin, Edward Wilson, Granier, Pascal, Grasselli, Giacomo, Green, Christopher A.; Greene, Courtney, Greenhalf, William, Greffe, Segolène, Grieco, Domenico Luca, Griffee, Matthew, Griffiths, Fiona, Grigoras, Ioana, Groenendijk, Albert, Lordemann, Anja Grosse, Gruner, Heidi, Gu, Yusing, Guedj, Jérémie, Guego, Martin, Guellec, Dewi, Guerguerian, Anne‐Marie, Guerreiro, Daniela, Guery, Romain, Guillaumot, Anne, Guilleminault, Laurent, Guimarães de Castro, Maisa, Guimard, Thomas, Haalboom, Marieke, Haber, Daniel, Habraken, Hannah, Hachemi, Ali, Hackmann, Amy, Hadri, Nadir, Haidri, Fakhir, Hakak, Sheeba, Hall, Adam, Hall, Matthew, Halpin, Sophie, Hameed, Jawad, Hamer, Ansley, Hamers, Raph L.; Hamidfar, Rebecca, Hammarström, Bato, Hammond, Terese, Han, Lim Yuen, Haniffa, Rashan, Hao, Kok Wei, Hardwick, Hayley, Harrison, Ewen M.; Harrison, Janet, Harrison, Samuel Bernard Ekow, Hartman, Alan, Hasan, Mohd Shahnaz, Hashmi, Junaid, Hayat, Muhammad, Hayes, Ailbhe, Hays, Leanne, Heerman, Jan, Heggelund, Lars, Hendry, Ross, Hennessy, Martina, Henriquez‐Trujillo, Aquiles, Hentzien, Maxime, Hernandez‐Montfort, Jaime, Hershey, Andrew, Hesstvedt, Liv, Hidayah, Astarini, Higgins, Eibhilin, Higgins, Dawn, Higgins, Rupert, Hinchion, Rita, Hinton, Samuel, Hiraiwa, Hiroaki, Hirkani, Haider, Hitoto, Hikombo, Ho, Yi Bin, Ho, Antonia, Hoctin, Alexandre, Hoffmann, Isabelle, Hoh, Wei Han, Hoiting, Oscar, Holt, Rebecca, Holter, Jan Cato, Horby, Peter, Horcajada, Juan Pablo, Hoshino, Koji, Houas, Ikram, Hough, Catherine L.; Houltham, Stuart, Hsu, Jimmy Ming‐Yang, Hulot, Jean‐Sébastien, Huo, Stella, Hurd, Abby, Hussain, Iqbal, Ijaz, Samreen, Illes, Hajnal‐Gabriela, Imbert, Patrick, Imran, Mohammad, Sikander, Rana Imran, Imtiaz, Aftab, Inácio, Hugo, Dominguez, Carmen Infante, Ing, Yun Sii, Iosifidis, Elias, Ippolito, Mariachiara, Isgett, Sarah, Isidoro, Tiago, Ismail, Nadiah, Isnard, Margaux, Istre, Mette Stausland, Itai, Junji, Ivulich, Daniel, Jaafar, Danielle, Jaafoura, Salma, Jabot, Julien, Jackson, Clare, Jamieson, Nina, Jaquet, Pierre, Jaud‐Fischer, Coline, Jaureguiberry, Stéphane, Jaworsky, Denise, Jego, Florence, Jelani, Anilawati Mat, Jenum, Synne, Jimbo‐Sotomayor, Ruth, Joe, Ong Yiaw, Jorge García, Ruth N.; Jørgensen, Silje Bakken, Joseph, Cédric, Joseph, Mark, Joshi, Swosti, Jourdain, Mercé, Jouvet, Philippe, Jung, Hanna, Jung, Anna, Juzar, Dafsah, Kafif, Ouifiya, Kaguelidou, Florentia, Kaisbain, Neerusha, Kaleesvran, Thavamany, Kali, Sabina, Kalicinska, Alina, Kalleberg, Karl Trygve, Kalomoiri, Smaragdi, Kamaluddin, Muhammad Aisar Ayadi, Kamaruddin, Zul Amali Che, Kamarudin, Nadiah, Kamineni, Kavita, Kandamby, Darshana Hewa, Kandel, Chris, Kang, Kong Yeow, Kanwal, Darakhshan, Karpayah, Pratap, Kartsonaki, Christiana, Kasugai, Daisuke, Kataria, Anant, Katz, Kevin, Kaur, Aasmine, Kay, Christy, Keane, Hannah, Keating, Seán, Kedia, Pulak, Kelly, Claire, Kelly, Yvelynne, Kelly, Andrea, Kelly, Niamh, Kelly, Aoife, Kelly, Sadie, Kelsey, Maeve, Kennedy, Ryan, Kennon, Kalynn, Kernan, Maeve, Kerroumi, Younes, Keshav, Sharma, Khalid, Imrana, Khalid, Osama, Khalil, Antoine, Khan, Coralie, Khan, Irfan, Khan, Quratul Ain, Khanal, Sushil, Khatak, Abid, Khawaja, Amin, Kherajani, Krish, Kho, Michelle E.; Khoo, Ryan, Khoo, Denisa, Khoo, Saye, Khoso, Nasir, Kiat, Khor How, Kida, Yuri, Kiiza, Peter, Granerud, Beathe Kiland, Kildal, Anders Benjamin, Kim, Jae Burm, Kimmoun, Antoine, Kindgen‐Milles, Detlef, King, Alexander, Kitamura, Nobuya, Kjetland, Eyrun Floerecke Kjetland, Klenerman, Paul, Klont, Rob, Bekken, Gry Kloumann, Knight, Stephen R.; Kobbe, Robin, Kodippily, Chamira, Vasconcelos, Malte Kohns, Koirala, Sabin, Komatsu, Mamoru, Kosgei, Caroline, Kpangon, Arsène, Krawczyk, Karolina, Krishnan, Vinothini, Krishnan, Sudhir, Kruglova, Oksana, Kumar, Ganesh, Kumar, Deepali, Kumar, Mukesh, Vecham, Pavan Kumar, Kuriakose, Dinesh, Kurtzman, Ethan, Kutsogiannis, Demetrios, Kutsyna, Galyna, Kyriakoulis, Konstantinos, Lachatre, Marie, Lacoste, Marie, Laffey, John G.; Lagrange, Marie, Laine, Fabrice, Lairez, Olivier, Lakhey, Sanjay, Lalueza, Antonio, Lambert, Marc, Lamontagne, François, Langelot‐Richard, Marie, Langlois, Vincent, Lantang, Eka Yudha, Lanza, Marina, Laouénan, Cédric, Laribi, Samira, Lariviere, Delphine, Lasry, Stéphane, Lath, Sakshi, Latif, Naveed, Launay, Odile, Laureillard, Didier, Lavie‐Badie, Yoan, Law, Andy, Lawrence, Teresa, Lawrence, Cassie, Le, Minh, Le Bihan, Clément, Le Bris, Cyril, Le Falher, Georges, Le Fevre, Lucie, Le Hingrat, Quentin, Le Maréchal, Marion, Le Mestre, Soizic, Le Moal, Gwenaël, Le Moing, Vincent, Le Nagard, Hervé, Le Turnier, Paul, Leal, Ema, Santos, Marta Leal, Lee, Heng Gee, Lee, Biing Horng, Lee, Yi Lin, Lee, Todd C.; Lee, James, Lee, Jennifer, Lee, Su Hwan, Leeming, Gary, Lefebvre, Laurent, Lefebvre, Bénédicte, Lefèvre, Benjamin, LeGac, Sylvie, Lelievre, Jean‐Daniel, Lellouche, François, Lemaignen, Adrien, Lemee, Véronique, Lemeur, Anthony, Lemmink, Gretchen, Lene, Ha Sha, Lennon, Jenny, León, Rafael, Leone, Marc, Leone, Michela, Lepiller, Quentin, Lescure, François‐Xavier, Lesens, Olivier, Lesouhaitier, Mathieu, Lester‐Grant, Amy, Levy, Yves, Levy, Bruno, Levy‐Marchal, Claire, Lewandowska, Katarzyna, L'Her, Erwan, Bassi, Gianluigi Li, Liang, Janet, Liaquat, Ali, Liegeon, Geoffrey, Lim, Kah Chuan, Lim, Wei Shen, Lima, Chantre, Lina, Lim, Lina, Bruno, Lind, Andreas, Lingad, Maja Katherine, Lingas, Guillaume, Lion‐Daolio, Sylvie, Lissauer, Samantha, Liu, Keibun, Livrozet, Marine, Lizotte, Patricia, Loforte, Antonio, Lolong, Navy, Loon, Leong Chee, Lopes, Diogo, Lopez‐Colon, Dalia, Lopez‐Revilla, Jose W.; Loschner, Anthony L.; Loubet, Paul, Loufti, Bouchra, Louis, Guillame, Lourenco, Silvia, Lovelace‐Macon, Lara, Low, Lee Lee, Lowik, Marije, Loy, Jia Shyi, Lucet, Jean Christophe, Bermejo, Carlos Lumbreras, Luna, Carlos M.; Lungu, Olguta, Luong, Liem, Luque, Nestor, Luton, Dominique, Lwin, Nilar, Lyons, Ruth, Maasikas, Olavi, Mabiala, Oryane, Machado, Moïse, Macheda, Gabriel, Madiha, Hashmi, Maestro de la Calle, Guillermo, Mahieu, Rafael, Mahy, Sophie, Maia, Ana Raquel, Maier, Lars S.; Maillet, Mylène, Maitre, Thomas, Malfertheiner, Maximilian, Malik, Nadia, Mallon, Paddy, Maltez, Fernando, Malvy, Denis, Manda, Victoria, Mandelbrot, Laurent, Manetta, Frank, Mankikian, Julie, Manning, Edmund, Manuel, Aldric, Sant'Ana Malaque, Ceila Maria, Marino, Flávio, Marino, Daniel, Markowicz, Samuel, Maroun Eid, Charbel, Marques, Ana, Marquis, Catherine, Marsh, Brian, Marsh, Laura, Marshal, Megan, Marshall, John, Martelli, Celina Turchi, Martin, Dori‐Ann, Martin, Emily, Martin‐Blondel, Guillaume, Martin‐Loeches, Ignacio, Martinot, Martin, Martin‐Quiros, Alejandro, Martins, João, Martins, Ana, Martins, Nuno, Rego, Caroline Martins, Martucci, Gennaro, Martynenko, Olga, Marwali, Eva Miranda, Marzukie, Marsilla, Maslove, David, Mason, Sabina, Masood, Sobia, Nor, Basri Mat, Matan, Moshe, Mathew, Meghena, Mathieu, Daniel, Mattei, Mathieu, Matulevics, Romans, Maulin, Laurence, Maxwell, Michael, Maynar, Javier, Mazzoni, Thierry, Evoy, Natalie Mc, Sweeney, Lisa Mc, McArthur, Colin, McArthur, Colin, McCarthy, Anne, McCarthy, Aine, McCloskey, Colin, McConnochie, Rachael, McDermott, Sherry, McDonald, Sarah E.; McElroy, Aine, McElwee, Samuel, McEneany, Victoria, McGeer, Allison, McKay, Chris, McKeown, Johnny, McLean, Kenneth A.; McNally, Paul, McNicholas, Bairbre, McPartlan, Elaine, Meaney, Edel, Mear‐Passard, Cécile, Mechlin, Maggie, Meher, Maqsood, Mehkri, Omar, Mele, Ferruccio, Melo, Luis, Memon, Kashif, Mendes, Joao Joao, Menkiti, Ogechukwu, Menon, Kusum, Mentré, France, Mentzer, Alexander J.; Mercier, Noémie, Mercier, Emmanuelle, Merckx, Antoine, Mergeay‐Fabre, Mayka, Mergler, Blake, Merson, Laura, Mesquita, António, Meta, Roberta, Metwally, Osama, Meybeck, Agnès, Meyer, Dan, Meynert, Alison M.; Meysonnier, Vanina, Meziane, Amina, Mezidi, Mehdi, Michelanglei, Céline, Michelet, Isabelle, Mihelis, Efstathia, Mihnovit, Vladislav, Miranda‐Maldonado, Hugo, Misnan, Nor Arisah, Mohamed, Tahira Jamal, Mohamed, Nik Nur Eliza, Moin, Asma, Molina, David, Molinos, Elena, Molloy, Brenda, Mone, Mary, Monteiro, Agostinho, Montes, Claudia, Montrucchio, Giorgia, Moore, Shona C.; Moore, Sarah, Cely, Lina Morales, Moro, Lucia, Morton, Ben, Motherway, Catherine, Motos, Ana, Mouquet, Hugo, Perrot, Clara Mouton, Moyet, Julien, Mudara, Caroline, Mufti, Aisha Kalsoom, Muh, Ng Yong, Muhamad, Dzawani, Mullaert, Jimmy, Müller, Fredrik, Müller, Karl Erik, Munblit, Daniel, Muneeb, Syed, Munir, Nadeem, Munshi, Laveena, Murphy, Aisling, Murphy, Lorna, Murphy, Aisling, Murris, Marlène, Murthy, Srinivas, Musaab, Himed, Muvindi, Himasha, Muyandy, Gugapriyaa, Myrodia, Dimitra Melia, Mohd‐Hanafiah, Farah Nadia, Nagpal, Dave, Nagrebetsky, Alex, Narasimhan, Mangala, Narayanan, Nageswaran, Khan, Rashid Nasim, Nazerali‐Maitland, Alasdair, Neant, Nadège, Neb, Holger, Nekliudov, Nikita, Nelwan, Erni, Neto, Raul, Neumann, Emily, Ng, Pauline Yeung, Ng, Wing Yiu, Nghi, Anthony, Nguyen, Duc, Choileain, Orna Ni, Leathlobhair, Niamh Ni, Nichol, Alistair, Nitayavardhana, Prompak, Nonas, Stephanie, Noordin, Nurul Amani Mohd, Noret, Marion, Norharizam, Nurul Faten Izzati, Norman, Lisa, Notari, Alessandra, Noursadeghi, Mahdad, Nowicka, Karolina, Nowinski, Adam, Nseir, Saad, Nunez, Jose I.; Nurnaningsih, Nurnaningsih, Nusantara, Dwi Utomo, Nyamankolly, Elsa, Nygaard, Anders Benteson, Brien, Fionnuala O.; Callaghan, Annmarie O.; O'Callaghan, Annmarie, Occhipinti, Giovanna, Oconnor, Derbrenn, O'Donnell, Max, Ogston, Tawnya, Ogura, Takayuki, Oh, Tak‐Hyuk, O'Halloran, Sophie, O'Hearn, Katie, Ohshimo, Shinichiro, Oldakowska, Agnieszka, Oliveira, João, Oliveira, Larissa, Olliaro, Piero L.; Ong, Jee Yan, Ong, David S. Y.; Oosthuyzen, Wilna, Opavsky, Anne, Openshaw, Peter, Orakzai, Saijad, Orozco‐Chamorro, Claudia Milena, Ortoleva, Jamel, Osatnik, Javier, O'Shea, Linda, O'Sullivan, Miriam, Othman, Siti Zubaidah, Ouamara, Nadia, Ouissa, Rachida, Oziol, Eric, Pagadoy, Maïder, Pages, Justine, Palacios, Mario, Palacios, Amanda, Palmarini, Massimo, Panarello, Giovanna, Panda, Prasan Kumar, Paneru, Hem, Pang, Lai Hui, Panigada, Mauro, Pansu, Nathalie, Papadopoulos, Aurélie, Parke, Rachael, Parker, Melissa, Parra, Briseida, Pasha, Taha, Pasquier, Jérémie, Pastene, Bruno, Patauner, Fabian, Patel, Drashti, Pathmanathan, Mohan Dass, Patrão, Luís, Patricio, Patricia, Patrier, Juliette, Patterson, Lisa, Pattnaik, Rajyabardhan, Paul, Mical, Paul, Christelle, Paulos, Jorge, Paxton, William A.; Payen, Jean‐François, Peariasamy, Kalaiarasu, Jiménez, Miguel Pedrera, Peek, Giles J.; Peelman, Florent, Peiffer‐Smadja, Nathan, Peigne, Vincent, Pejkovska, Mare, Pelosi, Paolo, Peltan, Ithan D.; Pereira, Rui, Perez, Daniel, Periel, Luis, Perpoint, Thomas, Pesenti, Antonio, Pestre, Vincent, Petrou, Lenka, Petrovic, Michele, Petrov‐Sanchez, Ventzislava, Pettersen, Frank Olav, Peytavin, Gilles, Pharand, Scott, Picard, Walter, Picone, Olivier, de Piero, Maria, Pierobon, Carola, Piersma, Djura, Pimentel, Carlos, Pinto, Raquel, Pires, Catarina, Pironneau, Isabelle, Piroth, Lionel, Pitaloka, Ayodhia, Pius, Riinu, Plantier, Laurent, Png, Hon Shen, Poissy, Julien, Pokeerbux, Ryadh, Pokorska‐Spiewak, Maria, Poli, Sergio, Pollakis, Georgios, Ponscarme, Diane, Popielska, Jolanta, Porto, Diego Bastos, Post, Andra‐Maris, Postma, Douwe F.; Povoa, Pedro, Póvoas, Diana, Powis, Jeff, Prapa, Sofia, Preau, Sébastien, Prebensen, Christian, Preiser, Jean‐Charles, Prinssen, Anton, Pritchard, Mark G.; Priyadarshani, Gamage Dona Dilanthi, Proença, Lucia, Pudota, Sravya, Puéchal, Oriane, Semedi, Bambang Pujo, Pulicken, Mathew, Purcell, Gregory, Quesada, Luisa, Quinones‐Cardona, Vilmaris, González, Víctor Quirós, Quist‐Paulsen, Else, Quraishi, Mohammed, Rabaa, Maia, Rabaud, Christian, Rabindrarajan, Ebenezer, Rafael, Aldo, Rafiq, Marie, Rahardjani, Mutia, Rahman, Rozanah Abd, Rahman, Ahmad Kashfi Haji Ab, Rahutullah, Arsalan, Rainieri, Fernando, Rajahram, Giri Shan, Ramachandran, Pratheema, Ramakrishnan, Nagarajan, Ramli, Ahmad Afiq, Rammaert, Blandine, Ramos, Grazielle Viana, Rana, Asim, Rangappa, Rajavardhan, Ranjan, Ritika, Rapp, Christophe, Rashan, Aasiyah, Rashan, Thalha, Rasheed, Ghulam, Rasmin, Menaldi, Rätsep, Indrek, Rau, Cornelius, Ravi, Tharmini, Raza, Ali, Real, Andre, Rebaudet, Stanislas, Redl, Sarah, Reeve, Brenda, Rehman, Attaur, Reid, Liadain, Reikvam, Dag Henrik, Reis, Renato, Rello, Jordi, Remppis, Jonathan, Remy, Martine, Ren, Hongru, Renk, Hanna, Resseguier, Anne‐Sophie, Revest, Matthieu, Rewa, Oleksa, Reyes, Luis Felipe, Reyes, Tiago, Ribeiro, Maria Ines, Ricchiuto, Antonia, Richardson, David, Richardson, Denise, Richier, Laurent, Ridzuan, Siti Nurul Atikah Ahmad, Riera, Jordi, Rios, Ana L.; Rishu, Asgar, Rispal, Patrick, Risso, Karine, Nuñez, Maria Angelica Rivera, Rizer, Nicholas, Robba, Chiara, Roberto, André, Roberts, Stephanie, Robertson, David L.; Robineau, Olivier, Roche‐Campo, Ferran, Rodari, Paola, Rodeia, Simão, Abreu, Julia Rodriguez, Roessler, Bernhard, Roger, Pierre‐Marie, Roger, Claire, Roilides, Emmanuel, Rojek, Amanda, Romaru, Juliette, Roncon‐Albuquerque, Roberto, Roriz, Mélanie, Rosa‐Calatrava, Manuel, Rose, Michael, Rosenberger, Dorothea, Roslan, Nurul Hidayah Mohammad, Rossanese, Andrea, Rossetti, Matteo, Rossignol, Bénédicte, Rossignol, Patrick, Rousset, Stella, Roy, Carine, Roze, Benoît, Rusmawatiningtyas, Desy, Russell, Clark D.; Ryan, Maria, Ryan, Maeve, Ryckaert, Steffi, Holten, Aleksander Rygh, Saba, Isabela, Sadaf, Sairah, Sadat, Musharaf, Sahraei, Valla, Saint‐Gilles, Maximilien, Sakiyalak, Pranya, Salahuddin, Nawal, Salazar, Leonardo, Saleem, Jodat, Sales, Gabriele, Sallaberry, Stéphane, Salmon Gandonniere, Charlotte, Salvator, Hélène, Sanchez, Olivier, Sanchez‐Miralles, Angel, Sancho‐Shimizu, Vanessa, Sandhu, Gyan, Sandhu, Zulfiqar, Sandrine, Pierre‐François, Sandulescu, Oana, Santos, Marlene, Sarfo‐Mensah, Shirley, Banheiro, Bruno Sarmento, Sarmiento, Iam Claire E.; 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W.; Tveita, Anders, Twardowski, Pawel, Uchiyama, Makoto, Udayanga, P. G. Ishara, Udy, Andrew, Ullrich, Roman, Uribe, Alberto, Usman, Asad.
Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2019369

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Case definitions are used to guide clinical practice, surveillance and research protocols. However, how they identify COVID-19-hospitalised patients is not fully understood. We analysed the proportion of hospitalised patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19, in the ISARIC prospective cohort study database, meeting widely used case definitions. Methods: Patients were assessed using the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), World Health Organization (WHO) and UK Health Security Agency (UKHSA) case definitions by age, region and time. Case fatality ratios (CFRs) and symptoms of those who did and who did not meet the case definitions were evaluated. Patients with incomplete data and non-laboratory-confirmed test result were excluded. Results: A total of 263,218 of the patients (42%) in the ISARIC database were included. Most patients (90.4%) were from Europe arid Central Asia. The proportions of patients meeting the case definitions were 56.8% (WHO), 74.4% (UKHSA), 81.6% (ECDC) and 82.3% (CDC). For each case definition, patients at the extremes of age distribution met the criteria less frequently than those aged 30 to 70 years;geographical and time variations were also observed. Estimated CFRs were similar for the patients who met the case definitions. However, when more patients did riot meet the case definition, the CFR increased. Conclusions: The performance of case definitions might be different in different regions and may change over time. Similarly concerning is the fact that older patients often did not meet case definitions, risking delayed medical care. While epidemiologists must balance their analytics with field applicability, ongoing revision of case definitions is necessary to improve patient care through early diagnosis and limit potential nosocomial spread.

2.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 22(1): 123, 2022 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759693

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The influence of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors on the critically ill COVID-19 patients with pre-existing hypertension remains uncertain. This study examined the impact of previous use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) on the critically ill COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Data from an international, prospective, observational cohort study involving 354 hospitals spanning 54 countries were included. A cohort of 737 COVID-19 patients with pre-existing hypertension admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) in 2020 were targeted. Multi-state survival analysis was performed to evaluate in-hospital mortality and hospital length of stay up to 90 days following ICU admission. RESULTS: A total of 737 patients were included-538 (73%) with pre-existing hypertension had received ACEi/ARBs before ICU admission, while 199 (27%) had not. Cox proportional hazards model showed that previous ACEi/ARB use was associated with a decreased hazard of in-hospital death (HR, 0.74, 95% CI 0.58-0.94). Sensitivity analysis adjusted for propensity scores showed similar results for hazards of death. The average length of hospital stay was longer in ACEi/ARB group with 21.2 days (95% CI 19.7-22.8 days) in ICU and 6.7 days (5.9-7.6 days) in general ward compared to non-ACEi/ARB group with 16.2 days (14.1-18.6 days) and 6.4 days (5.1-7.9 days), respectively. When analysed separately, results for ACEi or ARB patient groups were similar for both death and discharge. CONCLUSIONS: In critically ill COVID-19 patients with comorbid hypertension, use of ACEi/ARBs prior to ICU admission was associated with a reduced risk of in-hospital mortality following adjustment for baseline characteristics although patients with ACEi/ARB showed longer length of hospital stay. Clinical trial registration The registration number: ACTRN12620000421932; The date of registration: 30, March 2020; The URL of the registration: https://www.australianclinicaltrials.gov.au/anzctr/trial/ACTRN12620000421932 .


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Cohort Studies , Critical Illness , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , Renin-Angiotensin System , Retrospective Studies
3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-295915

ABSTRACT

Background: The influence of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors on the critically ill COVID-19 patients with pre-existing hypertension remains uncertain. This study examined the impact of previous use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) on the critically ill COVID-19 patients. Methods: Data from an international, prospective, observational cohort study involving 354 hospitals spanning 54 countries were included. A cohort of 746 COVID-19 patients with pre-existing hypertension admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) in 2020 were targeted. Multi-state survival analysis was performed to evaluate in-hospital mortality and hospital length of stay up to 90 days following ICU admission. Results: A total of 746 patients were included - 543 (73%) with pre-existing hypertension had received ACEi/ARBs before ICU admission, while 203 (27%) had not. Cox proportional hazards model showed that previous ACEi/ARB use was associated with a decreased hazard of in-hospital death (HR, 0.73, 95% CI, 0.58 to 0.93). Sensitivity analysis adjusted for propensity scores showed similar results for hazards of death. The average length of hospital stay was longer in ACEi/ARB group with 21.4 days (95% CI: 19.9 to 23.0 days) in ICU and 6.7 days (5.9 to 7.6 days) in general ward compared to non-ACEi/ARB group with 16.2 days (14.1 to 18.5 days) and 6.3 days (5.0 to 7.7 days), respectively. When analysed separately, there was insufficient evidence of differential effects between ACEi and ARB use on the hazards of death and discharge. Conclusions: In critically ill COVID-19 patients with comorbid hypertension, use of ACEi/ARBs prior to ICU admission was associated with a reduced risk of in-hospital mortality following adjustment for baseline characteristics although patients with ACEi/ARB showed longer length of hospital stay.

4.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(17)2021 Aug 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374493

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The standard test that identifies the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is based on reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) from nasopharyngeal (NP) swab specimens. We compared the accuracy of a rapid antigen detection test using exhaled breath condensate by a modified Inflammacheck® device with the standard RT-PCR to diagnose SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: We performed a manufacturer-independent, cross-sectional, diagnostic accuracy study involving two Italian hospitals. Sensitivity, specificity, positive (PLR) and negative likelihood ratio (NLR), positive (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) and diagnostic accuracy with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of Inflammacheck® were calculated using the RT-PCR results as the standard. Further RT-PCR tests were conducted on NP specimens from test positive subjects to obtain the Ct (cycle threshold) values as indicative evidence of the viral load. RESULTS: A total of 105 individuals (41 females, 39.0%; 64 males, 61.0%; mean age: 58.4 years) were included in the final analysis, with the RT-PCR being positive in 13 (12.4%) and negative in 92 (87.6%). The agreement between the two methods was 98.1%, with a Cohen's κ score of 0.91 (95% CI: 0.79-1.00). The overall sensitivity and specificity of the Inflammacheck® were 92.3% (95% CI: 64.0%-99.8%) and 98.9% (95% CI: 94.1%-100%), respectively, with a PLR of 84.9 (95% CI: 12.0-600.3) and a NLR of 0.08 (95% CI: 0.01-0.51). Considering a 12.4% disease prevalence in the study cohort, the PPV was 92.3% (95% CI: 62.9%-98.8%) and the NPV was 98.9% (95% CI: 93.3%-99.8%), with an overall accuracy of 98.1% (95% CI: 93.3%-99.8%). The Fagan's nomogram substantially confirmed the clinical applicability of the test in a realistic scenario with a pre-test probability set at 4%. Ct values obtained for the positive test subjects by means of the RT-PCR were normally distributed between 26 and 38 cycles, corresponding to viral loads from light (38 cycles) to high (26 cycles). The single false negative record had a Ct value of 33, which was close to the mean of the cohort (32.5 cycles). CONCLUSIONS: The modified Inflammacheck® device may be a rapid, non-demanding and cost-effective method for SARS-CoV-2 detection. This device may be used for routine practice in different healthcare settings (community, hospital, rehabilitation).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity
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