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1.
Rheumatol Adv Pract ; 6(2): rkac031, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1853209

ABSTRACT

Objectives: We report the results of a pilot young patient survey that targeted patients with JSLE and JDM, exploring well-being, resilience and general concern about the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic as well as self-assessment of disease activity. Methods: The survey was completed anonymously by patients who had been approached via the automatically generated hospital database between June and December 2020. In addition to disease characteristics, geographic location, education and employment level, we explored young patients' resilience, mood and feelings, mental well-being, self-assessed disease activity and general COVID-19 concerns using validated tools and visual analogue scales. Results: This pilot study found that self-perceived disease activity was the strongest predictor of COVID-19 concern, irrespective of gender, employment and education status or well-being and resilience. Generalized concerns regarding the COVID-19 pandemic were significantly higher in females, although their self-reported DASs were comparable to male respondents. Conclusion: Our findings highlight a gender bias in the generalized concern related to the COVID-19 pandemic, irrespective of the examined potential confounders. This suggests the need for further research around young patient self-reported outcomes outside hospital visits, especially in the context of gender differences and potential challenges of future pandemics.

2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-292339

ABSTRACT

Here we report the results of a pilot young patient survey which targeted patients with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE) and juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM), which explored wellbeing, resilience and general concern about the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey was completed anonymously by patients who have been approached via the automatically generated hospital data base between June-December 2020. This pilot study found that generalised concerns regarding the COVID-19 pandemic were significantly higher in females, although their self-reported disease activity scores were comparable with male respondents. Our findings highlight a need to improve remote assessments to facilitate triaging for face-to-face visits in the situation of future pandemics associated with disruption of clinical services, as well as further research in this area of young patient-reported outcomes outside hospital visits.

3.
Med (N Y) ; 2(9): 1093-1109.e6, 2021 09 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1404795

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Differences in humoral immunity to coronaviruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), between children and adults remain unexplained, and the effect of underlying immune dysfunction or suppression is unknown. Here, we sought to examine the antibody immune competence of children and adolescents with prevalent inflammatory rheumatic diseases, juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM), and juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE) against the seasonal human coronavirus (HCoV)-OC43 that frequently infects this age group. METHODS: Sera were collected from JIA (n = 118), JDM (n = 49), and JSLE (n = 30) patients and from healthy control (n = 54) children and adolescents prior to the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic. We used sensitive flow-cytometry-based assays to determine titers of antibodies that reacted with the spike and nucleoprotein of HCoV-OC43 and cross-reacted with the spike and nucleoprotein of SARS-CoV-2, and we compared them with respective titers in sera from patients with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children and adolescents (MIS-C). FINDINGS: Despite immune dysfunction and immunosuppressive treatment, JIA, JDM, and JSLE patients maintained comparable or stronger humoral responses than healthier peers, which was dominated by immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to HCoV-OC43 spike, and harbored IgG antibodies that cross-reacted with SARS-CoV-2 spike. In contrast, responses to HCoV-OC43 and SARS-CoV-2 nucleoproteins exhibited delayed age-dependent class-switching and were not elevated in JIA, JDM, and JSLE patients, which argues against increased exposure. CONCLUSIONS: Consequently, autoimmune rheumatic diseases and their treatment were associated with a favorable ratio of spike to nucleoprotein antibodies. FUNDING: This work was supported by a Centre of Excellence Centre for Adolescent Rheumatology Versus Arthritis grant, 21593, UKRI funding reference MR/R013926/1, the Great Ormond Street Children's Charity, Cure JM Foundation, Myositis UK, Lupus UK, and the NIHR Biomedical Research Centres at GOSH and UCLH. This work was supported by the Francis Crick Institute, which receives its core funding from Cancer Research UK, the UK Medical Research Council, and the Wellcome Trust.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Coronavirus OC43, Human , Rheumatic Diseases , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/complications , Child , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Nucleoproteins , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 6317, 2020 12 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-968664

ABSTRACT

Anecdotal evidence suggests that Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, exhibits differences in morbidity and mortality between sexes. Here, we present a meta-analysis of 3,111,714 reported global cases to demonstrate that, whilst there is no difference in the proportion of males and females with confirmed COVID-19, male patients have almost three times the odds of requiring intensive treatment unit (ITU) admission (OR = 2.84; 95% CI = 2.06, 3.92) and higher odds of death (OR = 1.39; 95% CI = 1.31, 1.47) compared to females. With few exceptions, the sex bias observed in COVID-19 is a worldwide phenomenon. An appreciation of how sex is influencing COVID-19 outcomes will have important implications for clinical management and mitigation strategies for this disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Mortality , Sex Factors , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
8.
Science ; 370(6522): 1339-1343, 2020 12 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-913669

ABSTRACT

Zoonotic introduction of novel coronaviruses may encounter preexisting immunity in humans. Using diverse assays for antibodies recognizing SARS-CoV-2 proteins, we detected preexisting humoral immunity. SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein (S)-reactive antibodies were detectable using a flow cytometry-based method in SARS-CoV-2-uninfected individuals and were particularly prevalent in children and adolescents. They were predominantly of the immunoglobulin G (IgG) class and targeted the S2 subunit. By contrast, SARS-CoV-2 infection induced higher titers of SARS-CoV-2 S-reactive IgG antibodies targeting both the S1 and S2 subunits, and concomitant IgM and IgA antibodies, lasting throughout the observation period. SARS-CoV-2-uninfected donor sera exhibited specific neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV-2 S pseudotypes. Distinguishing preexisting and de novo immunity will be critical for our understanding of susceptibility to and the natural course of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Humoral , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , COVID-19/blood , Epitope Mapping , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Viral Zoonoses/blood , Viral Zoonoses/immunology , Young Adult
9.
SSRN; 2020.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-883

ABSTRACT

Background: There have been anecdotal reports of a male sex bias in COVID-19. We aimed to perform a meta-analysis of available case reports to investigate wheth

10.
Br J Hosp Med (Lond) ; 81(8): 1-10, 2020 Aug 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-743028

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has predominantly affected the adult population. The disease is less well-defined in children (≤18 years). This review summarises the current understanding of the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and management of COVID-19 in children and adolescents. The prevalence of COVID-19 is significantly lower in children than adults, but paediatric disease is likely underdiagnosed as a result of the high numbers of asymptomatic or mild cases. Children are vulnerable to family cluster outbreaks, but are unlikely to be index cases within a household. Vertical transmission or breast milk transmission are yet to be proven. Between 10 and 90% of paediatric COVID-19 cases are asymptomatic. Symptomatic cases typically present with mild symptoms, including cough, fever and sore throat. Intensive care admission and mortality are rare. Paediatric multisystem inflammatory syndrome temporally associated with COVID-19 is a rare, but severe, newly emerging phenotype. At present, there is no specific treatment for COVID-19 in adults or children; management is usually supportive. For severe or critical disease, including paediatric multisystem inflammatory syndrome temporally associated with COVID-19, the decision to start antiviral or immunomodulatory therapy should be on a case-by-case basis; in the UK, this should be done within a clinical trial. Further research is needed into both the disease course and treatment of paediatric COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Adolescent , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Hemofiltration , Humans , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric/statistics & numerical data , Mortality , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology
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