Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 24
Filter
1.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(5): ofac081, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778944

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) has been reported in ~5%-10% of critically ill COVID-19 patients. However, incidence varies widely (0%-33%) across hospitals, most cases are unproven, and CAPA definitions and clinical relevance are debated. Methods: We reframed the debate by asking, what is the likelihood that patients with CAPA have invasive aspergillosis? We use diagnostic test performance in other clinical settings to estimate positive predictive values (PPVs) and negative predictive values (NPVs) of CAPA criteria for invasive aspergillosis in populations with varying CAPA incidence. Results: In a population with CAPA incidence of 10%, anticipated PPV/NPV of diagnostic criteria are ~30%-60%/≥97%; ~3%-5% of tested cohort would be anticipated to have true invasive aspergillosis. If CAPA incidence is 2%-3%, anticipated PPV and NPV are ~8%-30%/>99%. Conclusions: Depending on local epidemiology and clinical details of a given case, PPVs and NPVs may be useful in guiding antifungal therapy. We incorporate this model into a stepwise strategy for diagnosing and managing CAPA.

2.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1733095

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) has been reported in ~5%-10% of critically-ill COVID-19 patients. However, incidence varies widely (0%-33%) across hospitals, most cases are unproven, and CAPA definitions and clinical relevance are debated. We re-frame the debate by asking, what is the likelihood that patients with CAPA have invasive aspergillosis? We use diagnostic test performance in other clinical settings to estimate positive and negative predictive values (PPV, NPV) of CAPA criteria for invasive aspergillosis in populations with varying CAPA incidence. In a population with CAPA incidence of 10%, anticipated PPV/NPV of diagnostic criteria are ~30%-60%/≥97%;~3%-5% of tested cohort would be anticipated to have true invasive aspergillosis. If CAPA incidence is 2%-3%, anticipated PPV/NPV are ~8%-30%/>99%. Depending on local epidemiology and clinical details of a given case, PPVs/NPVs may be useful in guiding antifungal therapy. We incorporate this model into a stepwise strategy for diagnosing and managing CAPA.

3.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S254-S254, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1601680

ABSTRACT

Background During the COVID-19 pandemic, >50% of hospitalized patients (pts) received an antimicrobial. ECMO is increasingly used in COVID-19 pts with severe ARDS. ECMO has been used for ARDS due to influenza at our center in prior years. Pts on ECMO are at high risk for infections. We compared the rates of antibiotic (Ab) and antifungal (AF) use in pts on ECMO for COVID-19 vs influenza ARDS. Methods This was a retrospective review of pts on ECMO for COVID-19 (2020-2021) or influenza (2013-2019). Antimicrobials (Abs and AFs) were categorized as anti-MRSA, anti-pseudomonal β-lactams (AP-BL), carbapenems, and new broader spectrum β-lactams. We calculated total Ab and AF utilization, adjusted for ECMO duration. Results Seventy-one pts (36 COVID-19 and 35 influenza) were included. COVID-19 pts had longer ECMO duration (median: 25 vs 11 days, p=.03). 100% and 97% of pts with COVID-19 and influenza received ≥1 Ab, respectively, and 42% and 33% an AF, respectively. COVID-19 pts received longer duration of Abs (26 vs 10 days, p< 0.001) and but not AF. COVID-19 group (gp) were more likely to receive anti-MRSA Ab (69% vs 33%, p=.004);otherwise, there were no differences between gps in types of Abs used. When adjusted for ECMO days, COVID-19 gp received higher median number of Abs (1.23 vs 1, p=.06). Specifically, COVID-19 gp received higher median number of anti-MRSA Ab (0.2 vs 0, p=.007) and AP-BL (0.44 vs 0.28, p=.08). There was no difference in Ab-free days between gps, though the proportion of Ab-free days was lower (0.2 vs 0.36) in COVID-19 pts (p=.08). More COVID-19 pts had pathogens recovered from clinical cultures, especially S. aureus and Enterobacterales (Figure). Pathogens recovered from clinical cultures Patients recovered from clinical cultures of patients with COVID-19 and Influenza ARDS requiring ECMO Conclusion Among pts on ECMO, those with COVID-19 received significantly longer courses of Abs than those with influenza, even after adjusting for longer durations of ECMO. Differences were driven by receipt of anti-MRSA and AP-BLs. Recovery of pathogenic bacteria was greater in COVID-19 pts than influenza pts. Given difficulties in distinguishing pneumonia from airway colonization among ARDS pts on ECMO, development of diagnostic criteria for pt care, rational antimicrobial stewardship and further research are needed. Disclosures Cornelius J. Clancy, MD, Merck (Grant/Research Support)

5.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S260-S260, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564731

ABSTRACT

Background Rescue ECMO has been used worldwide in patients (pts) with ARDS caused by COVID-19. Bacterial super-infections affect 3.5-14.3% of hospitalized pts with COVID-19. Pts requiring ECMO may be at an increased risk of infection due to their severity of illness, gut translocation and ECMO impact on host immunity. Methods This was a retrospective review of pts requiring ECMO for COVID-19 from April 2020-2021 at a single center. Strict definitions of infections (including ventilator-associated PNA, VAP) were in accordance with CDC criteria. Results 43 ECMO pts with 1065 ECMO days were evaluated. Median age was 53 yrs (range: 21-62) and median BMI was 36.2 (range: 19.4-75.8). 70% were men and 65% were white. 37 patients (86%) experienced a total of 40 infectious episodes with a median onset from ECMO cannulation to first infection of 10.5d (range: 4-50). Median SOFA and SAPSII scores at time of infection were 12 (6-20) and 63 (30-90), respectively. PNA was the most common infection (78%, with 19% of cases complicated by bacteremia and 3% by empyema) (Fig. 1). The most common organisms isolated were Enterobacterales (37%), S. aureus (25%) and P. aeruginosa (16%) (Fig. 2). Only 2% of all organisms were multi-drug resistant. 3 pts had fungal infections (1 candidemia, 2 aspergillus PNA). Duration of ECMO was significantly longer for infected pts (26d, range: 5-92d) vs (11d, range: 3-24d), p=.01. 95% of infected pts had received steroids vs. 67% of uninfected pts, p=0.09. Treatment success at 1 week was 50%, and 24% and 40% of pts had recurrent infections and persistent/recurrent organisms in clinical cultures, respectively. S. aureus (54%) and Enterobacterales (26%) were associated with persistent or recurrent clinical cultures, requiring prolonged antimicrobial therapy. Mortality rate at 30 days was 65% and was significantly higher for pts with infection than those without (67% vs 33%, p=.02). Conclusion Super-infection (most commonly PNA) occurred in almost all COVID-19 pts requiring ECMO for >4 days, and was a significant risk factor for death. Recurrent infections among survivors were common, especially when caused by Enterbacterales or S. aureus. Super-infection and mortality rates of ARDS pts on ECMO for COVID-19 were worse than for ARDS pts on ECMO for influenza at our center. Disclosures Ryan K. Shields, PharmD, MS, Shionogi (Consultant, Research Grant or Support) Fernanda P. Silveira, MD, MS, FIDSA, Ansun (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Grant/Research Support;Novartis (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Grant/Research Support;Qiagen (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Grant/Research Support;Shire (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Advisor or Review Panel member, Grant/Research Support;SlieaGen (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Grant/Research Support;Whiscon (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Grant/Research Support Cornelius J. Clancy, MD, Merck (Grant/Research Support)

6.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(11): ofab478, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528170

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is increasingly recognized as a complication of severe influenza and coronavirus disease 2019. The extent to which other respiratory viral infections (RVIs) predispose to IPA is unclear. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of IPA occurring within 90 days of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza, or adenovirus infections (noninfluenza respiratory viral infections [NI-RVIs]) in patients who underwent solid organ transplant between 1/15/2011 and 12/19/2017. RESULTS: At a median post-transplant follow-up of 43.4 months, 221 of 2986 patients (7.4%) developed 255 RSV, parainfluenza, or adenovirus infections. IPA complicating these NI-RVIs was exclusively observed in lung and small bowel transplant recipients, in whom incidence was 5% and 33%, respectively. Cumulative prednisone doses >140mg within 7 days and pneumonia at the time of NI-RVI were independent risk factors for IPA (odds ratio [OR], 22.6; 95% CI, 4.5-112; and OR, 7.2; 95% CI, 1.6-31.7; respectively). Mortality at 180 days following NI-RVI was 27% and 7% among patients with and without IPA, respectively (P = .04). CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, IPA can complicate RSV, parainfluenza, and adenovirus infection in lung and small bowel transplant recipients. Future research is needed on the epidemiology of IPA complicating various RVIs. In the interim, physicians should be aware of this complication.

8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(6): e1365-e1367, 2021 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1413083

ABSTRACT

In nursing home residents with asymptomatic COVID-19 diagnosed through twice-weekly surveillance testing, single-dose BNT162b2 vaccination (Pfizer-BioNTech) was associated with -2.4 mean log10 lower nasopharyngeal viral load than detected in absence of vaccination (P = .004). Since viral load is linked to transmission, single-dose mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccination may help control outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Nursing Homes , RNA, Messenger , Viral Load
9.
Am J Infect Control ; 49(10): 1237-1241, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340504

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreaks often occur in nursing homes and prompt frequent surveillance testing for SARS-CoV-2. A single dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine reduces viral load and transmission. In this study, we describe the real-world efficacy of BNT162b2 single-dose vaccination during a COVID-19 outbreak at a Veterans Affairs Community Living Center (CLC). METHODS: From 12/2/20 to 5/14/21, twice weekly antigen testing was used to detect COVID-19 among 146 residents at the CLC. Residents without a prior history of COVID-19 who agreed to immunization were vaccinated with the BNT162b2 vaccine on 12/16/20 and 1/6/21. Single-dose vaccine efficacy was determined for days 1-21 and days 14-21 after the first vaccine dose. RESULTS: The outbreak occurred from 12/2/20 to 1/7/21 with an attack rate of 30.8% (45/146); 46.7% (21/45) of the cases were due to asymptomatic COVID-19. One unit accounted for 77.8% (35/45) of the cases. In the vaccine analysis, 116 residents were a median age of 74.5 years and 93.1% (108/116) had ≥ 1 comorbid condition. Between the first and second dose, 15.5% (15/97) of vaccinated residents, and 21.2% (4/19) of unvaccinated residents developed COVID-19 (P = .81). One week after the second dose, no cases of COVID-19 occurred. CONCLUSIONS: Albeit limited by the small numbers, a single dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine was not efficacious at preventing COVID-19 during this nursing home outbreak.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Nursing Homes , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Lancet Microbe ; 2(8): e405-e414, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286408

ABSTRACT

Invasive mould disease (IMD) might affect up to a third of critically ill patients with COVID-19. COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) is typically diagnosed on the basis of a combination of non-specific clinical, radiographical, and mycological findings, but whether most cases represent invasive disease is unresolved. We systematically reviewed autopsy series of three or more decedents with COVID-19 for evidence of IMD. We searched PubMed, Web of Science, OVID (Embase), and medRxiv for studies in English or French published from Jan 1, 2019, to Sept 26, 2020. We identified 1070 references, of which 50 studies met the criteria. These studies described autopsies from 677 decedents, with individual-level data for 443 decedents. The median age was 70·0 years (IQR 57·0-79·0). Of decedents with individual-level data, 133 (30%) had diabetes, 97 (22%) had pre-existing lung disease, and 27 (6%) had immunocompromising conditions. Of 548 decedents with such data, 320 (58%) received invasive mechanical ventilation; among 140 decedents for whom this was known, ventilation was for a median of 9·0 days (IQR 5·0-20·0). Treatment included immunomodulation in 60 decedents and antifungals in 50 decedents. Autopsy-proven IMD occurred in 11 (2%) of 677 decedents, including eight CAPA, two unspecified IMD, and one disseminated mucormycosis. Among 320 decedents who received mechanical ventilation, six (2%) had IMD. We conclude that IMD, including CAPA, is an uncommon autopsy finding in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Aged , Autopsy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Intensive Care Med ; 47(8): 819-834, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279405

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is increasingly reported in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Diagnosis and management of COVID-19 associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) are challenging and our aim was to develop practical guidance. METHODS: A group of 28 international experts reviewed current insights in the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of CAPA and developed recommendations using GRADE methodology. RESULTS: The prevalence of CAPA varied between 0 and 33%, which may be partly due to variable case definitions, but likely represents true variation. Bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) remain the cornerstone of CAPA diagnosis, allowing for diagnosis of invasive Aspergillus tracheobronchitis and collection of the best validated specimen for Aspergillus diagnostics. Most patients diagnosed with CAPA lack traditional host factors, but pre-existing structural lung disease and immunomodulating therapy may predispose to CAPA risk. Computed tomography seems to be of limited value to rule CAPA in or out, and serum biomarkers are negative in 85% of patients. As the mortality of CAPA is around 50%, antifungal therapy is recommended for BAL positive patients, but the decision to treat depends on the patients' clinical condition and the institutional incidence of CAPA. We recommend against routinely stopping concomitant corticosteroid or IL-6 blocking therapy in CAPA patients. CONCLUSION: CAPA is a complex disease involving a continuum of respiratory colonization, tissue invasion and angioinvasive disease. Knowledge gaps including true epidemiology, optimal diagnostic work-up, management strategies and role of host-directed therapy require further study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg ; 115(10): 1122-1129, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153250

ABSTRACT

Antibiotic use in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) patients during the COVID-19 pandemic has exceeded the incidence of bacterial coinfections and secondary infections, suggesting inappropriate and excessive prescribing. Even in settings with established antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) programmes, there were weaknesses exposed regarding appropriate antibiotic use in the context of the pandemic. Moreover, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance and AMS have been deprioritised with diversion of health system resources to the pandemic response. This experience highlights deficiencies in AMR containment and mitigation strategies that require urgent attention from clinical and scientific communities. These include the need to implement diagnostic stewardship to assess the global incidence of coinfections and secondary infections in COVID-19 patients, including those by multidrug-resistant pathogens, to identify patients most likely to benefit from antibiotic treatment and identify when antibiotics can be safely withheld, de-escalated or discontinued. Long-term global surveillance of clinical and societal antibiotic use and resistance trends is required to prepare for subsequent changes in AMR epidemiology, while ensuring uninterrupted supply chains and preventing drug shortages and stock outs. These interventions present implementation challenges in resource-constrained settings, making a case for implementation research on AMR. Knowledge and support for these practices will come from internationally coordinated, targeted research on AMR, supporting the preparation for future challenges from emerging AMR in the context of the current COVID-19 pandemic or future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(6): e1365-e1367, 2021 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153206

ABSTRACT

In nursing home residents with asymptomatic COVID-19 diagnosed through twice-weekly surveillance testing, single-dose BNT162b2 vaccination (Pfizer-BioNTech) was associated with -2.4 mean log10 lower nasopharyngeal viral load than detected in absence of vaccination (P = .004). Since viral load is linked to transmission, single-dose mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccination may help control outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Nursing Homes , RNA, Messenger , Viral Load
15.
J Glob Antimicrob Resist ; 25: 5-7, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1146079

ABSTRACT

Antimicrobial resistance must be recognised as a global societal priority - even in the face of the worldwide challenge of the COVID-19 pandemic. COVID-19 has illustrated the vulnerability of our healthcare systems in co-managing multiple infectious disease threats as resources for monitoring and detecting, and conducting research on antimicrobial resistance have been compromised during the pandemic. The increased awareness of the importance of infectious diseases, clinical microbiology and infection control and lessons learnt during the COVID-19 pandemic should be exploited to ensure that emergence of future infectious disease threats, including those related to AMR, are minimised. Harnessing the public understanding of the relevance of infectious diseases towards the long-term pandemic of AMR could have major implications for promoting good practices about the control of AMR transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
16.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248347, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1140529

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers (HCW) are at increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection from both patients and other HCW with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). RT-PCR cycle threshold (Ct) values of SARS-CoV-2 ≤ 34 and the first 7-9 days of symptoms are associated with enhanced infectivity. We determined Ct values and duration of symptoms of HCW with a positive SARS-CoV-2 test. As HCW often assume their greatest risk of acquiring SARS-CoV-2 is working on a COVID-19 unit, we also determined Ct values and symptom duration of inpatients with a positive SARS-CoV-2 test. METHODS: From 6/24/2020-8/23/2020, Ct values and duration of symptoms from 13 HCW, 12 outpatients, and 28 inpatients who had a positive nasopharyngeal swab for SARS-CoV-2 were analyzed. RESULTS: Among HCW with a positive SARS-CoV-2 test, 46.2% (6/13) were asymptomatic and requested testing due to an exposure to someone with COVID-19; 83.3% (5/6) of those exposures occurred in the community rather than in the hospital. The median Ct value of HCW was 23.2, and 84.6% (11/13) had a Ct value ≤ 34. The median Ct value of 29.0 among outpatients with COVID-19 did not significantly differ from HCW. In contrast, inpatients with a positive SARS-CoV-2 test had a median Ct value of 34.0 (p = 0.003), which translated into a median ~1,000-fold lower viral load than observed in HCW. Among those with symptoms related to COVID-19, no (0/6) HCW compared to 50% (6/12) of inpatients had symptoms for at least one week (p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: At our institution, asymptomatic COVID-19 accounted for nearly half of the cases among HCW. Symptomatic HCW had high viral loads and short duration of symptoms, both of which are associated with peak infectivity. Infection prevention programs should educate HCW on these findings in an effort to increase adherence to the requirement to maintain six feet separation in workspaces and breakrooms, in addition to consistently wearing personal protection equipment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Health Personnel , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Load , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional , Inpatients , Middle Aged , Outpatients
17.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(3): ofab065, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069304

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Limited clinical data suggest a ~16% prevalence of bacterial superinfections among critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: We reviewed postmortem studies of patients with COVID-19 published in English through September 26, 2020, for histopathologic findings consistent with bacterial lung infections. RESULTS: Worldwide, 621 patients from 75 studies were included. The quality of data was uneven, likely because identifying superinfections was not a major objective in 96% (72/75) of studies. Histopathology consistent with a potential lung superinfection was reported in 32% (200/621) of patients (22-96 years old; 66% men). Types of infections were pneumonia (95%), abscesses or empyema (3.5%), and septic emboli (1.5%). Seventy-three percent of pneumonias were focal rather than diffuse. The predominant histopathologic findings were intra-alveolar neutrophilic infiltrations that were distinct from those typical of COVID-19-associated diffuse alveolar damage. In studies with available data, 79% of patients received antimicrobial treatment; the most common agents were beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitors (48%), macrolides (16%), cephalosoprins (12%), and carbapenems (6%). Superinfections were proven by direct visualization or recovery of bacteria in 25.5% (51/200) of potential cases and 8% of all patients in postmortem studies. In rank order, pathogens included Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Lung superinfections were the cause of death in 16% of potential cases and 3% of all patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Potential bacterial lung superinfections were evident at postmortem examination in 32% of persons who died with COVID-19 (proven, 8%; possible, 24%), but they were uncommonly the cause of death.

18.
19.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(10): 2736-2743, 2020 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1005680

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) arose at a time of great concern about antimicrobial resistance (AMR). No studies have specifically assessed COVID-19-associated superinfections or AMR. Based on limited data from case series, it is reasonable to anticipate that an appreciable minority of patients with severe COVID-19 will develop superinfections, most commonly pneumonia due to nosocomial bacteria and Aspergillus. Microbiology and AMR patterns are likely to reflect institutional ecology. Broad-spectrum antimicrobial use is likely to be widespread among hospitalized patients, both as directed and empiric therapy. Stewardship will have a crucial role in limiting unnecessary antimicrobial use and AMR. Congressional COVID-19 relief bills are considering antimicrobial reimbursement reforms and antimicrobial subscription models, but it is unclear if these will be included in final legislation. Prospective studies on COVID-19 superinfections are needed, data from which can inform rational antimicrobial treatment and stewardship strategies, and models for market reform and sustainable drug development.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , COVID-19 , Superinfection , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Superinfection/drug therapy
20.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 7(12): ofaa575, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-990783

ABSTRACT

In April 2020, there were significant reductions in prescription fills of each of the 10 most prescribed outpatient antibiotics in the United States. Monthly azithromycin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, and levofloxacin fills did not rebound significantly from April through July 2020. Coronavirus disease 2019 had an immediate and sustained impact on US outpatient antibiotic prescribing.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL