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1.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 97(5): 951-990, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1814930

ABSTRACT

Coronary artery disease continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality despite significant advances in risk stratification and management. This has prompted the search for alternative nonconventional risk factors that may provide novel therapeutic targets. Psychosocial stress, or mental stress, has emerged as an important risk factor implicated in a higher incidence of cardiovascular events, and although our understanding of this far ranging and interesting phenomenon has developed greatly over recent times, there is still much to be learned regarding how to measure mental stress and how it may impact physical health. With the current coronavirus disease 2019 global pandemic and its incumbent lockdowns and social distancing, understanding the potentially harmful biological effects of stress related to life-changing events and social isolation has become even more important. In the current review our multidisciplinary team discusses stress from a psychosocial perspective and aims to define psychological stress as rigorously as possible; discuss the pathophysiologic mechanisms by which stress may mediate cardiovascular disease, with a particular focus to its effects on vascular health; outline existing methods and approaches to quantify stress by means of a vascular biomarker; outline the mechanisms whereby psychosocial stressors may have their pathologic effects ultimately transduced to the vasculature through the neuroendocrine immunologic axis; highlight areas for improvement to refine existing approaches in clinical research when studying the consequences of psychological stress on cardiovascular health; and discuss evidence-based therapies directed at reducing the deleterious effects of mental stress including those that target endothelial dysfunction. To this end we searched PubMed and Google Scholar to identify studies evaluating the relationship between mental or psychosocial stress and cardiovascular disease with a particular focus on vascular health. Search terms included "myocardial ischemia," "coronary artery disease," "mental stress," "psychological stress," "mental∗ stress∗," "psychologic∗ stress∗," and "cardiovascular disease∗." The search was limited to studies published in English in peer-reviewed journals between 1990 and the present day. To identify potential studies not captured by our database search strategy, we also searched studies listed in the bibliography of relevant publications and reviews.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Coronary Artery Disease , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Stress, Psychological/complications
2.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(7)2022 Mar 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785529

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Approximately 30% of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) will have recurrence. The aim of this study was to develop a radiomic based model derived from baseline PET/CT to predict 2-year event free survival (2-EFS). METHODS: Patients with DLBCL treated with R-CHOP chemotherapy undergoing pre-treatment PET/CT between January 2008 and January 2018 were included. The dataset was split into training and internal unseen test sets (ratio 80:20). A logistic regression model using metabolic tumour volume (MTV) and six different machine learning classifiers created from clinical and radiomic features derived from the baseline PET/CT were trained and tuned using four-fold cross validation. The model with the highest mean validation receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve area under the curve (AUC) was tested on the unseen test set. RESULTS: 229 DLBCL patients met the inclusion criteria with 62 (27%) having 2-EFS events. The training cohort had 183 patients with 46 patients in the unseen test cohort. The model with the highest mean validation AUC combined clinical and radiomic features in a ridge regression model with a mean validation AUC of 0.75 ± 0.06 and a test AUC of 0.73. CONCLUSIONS: Radiomics based models demonstrate promise in predicting outcomes in DLBCL patients.

3.
EClinicalMedicine ; 44: 101287, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757288

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to describe pre-existing factors associated with severe disease, primarily admission to critical care, and death secondary to SARS-CoV-2 infection in hospitalised children and young people (CYP), within a systematic review and individual patient meta-analysis. METHODS: We searched Pubmed, European PMC, Medline and Embase for case series and cohort studies published between 1st January 2020 and 21st May 2021 which included all CYP admitted to hospital with ≥ 30 CYP with SARS-CoV-2 or ≥ 5 CYP with PIMS-TS or MIS-C. Eligible studies contained (1) details of age, sex, ethnicity or co-morbidities, and (2) an outcome which included admission to critical care, mechanical invasive ventilation, cardiovascular support, or death. Studies reporting outcomes in more restricted groupings of co-morbidities were eligible for narrative review. We used random effects meta-analyses for aggregate study-level data and multilevel mixed effect models for IPD data to examine risk factors (age, sex, comorbidities) associated with admission to critical care and death. Data shown are odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI).PROSPERO: CRD42021235338. FINDINGS: 83 studies were included, 57 (21,549 patients) in the meta-analysis (of which 22 provided IPD) and 26 in the narrative synthesis. Most studies had an element of bias in their design or reporting. Sex was not associated with critical care or death. Compared with CYP aged 1-4 years (reference group), infants (aged <1 year) had increased odds of admission to critical care (OR 1.63 (95% CI 1.40-1.90)) and death (OR 2.08 (1.57-2.86)). Odds of death were increased amongst CYP over 10 years (10-14 years OR 2.15 (1.54-2.98); >14 years OR 2.15 (1.61-2.88)).The number of comorbid conditions was associated with increased odds of admission to critical care and death for COVID-19 in a step-wise fashion. Compared with CYP without comorbidity, odds ratios for critical care admission were: 1.49 (1.45-1.53) for 1 comorbidity; 2.58 (2.41-2.75) for 2 comorbidities; 2.97 (2.04-4.32) for ≥3 comorbidities. Corresponding odds ratios for death were: 2.15 (1.98-2.34) for 1 comorbidity; 4.63 (4.54-4.74) for 2 comorbidities and 4.98 (3.78-6.65) for ≥3 comorbidities. Odds of admission to critical care were increased for all co-morbidities apart from asthma (0.92 (0.91-0.94)) and malignancy (0.85 (0.17-4.21)) with an increased odds of death in all co-morbidities considered apart from asthma. Neurological and cardiac comorbidities were associated with the greatest increase in odds of severe disease or death. Obesity increased the odds of severe disease and death independently of other comorbidities. IPD analysis demonstrated that, compared to children without co-morbidity, the risk difference of admission to critical care was increased in those with 1 comorbidity by 3.61% (1.87-5.36); 2 comorbidities by 9.26% (4.87-13.65); ≥3 comorbidities 10.83% (4.39-17.28), and for death: 1 comorbidity 1.50% (0.00-3.10); 2 comorbidities 4.40% (-0.10-8.80) and ≥3 co-morbidities 4.70 (0.50-8.90). INTERPRETATION: Hospitalised CYP at greatest vulnerability of severe disease or death with SARS-CoV-2 infection are infants, teenagers, those with cardiac or neurological conditions, or 2 or more comorbid conditions, and those who are obese. These groups should be considered higher priority for vaccination and for protective shielding when appropriate. Whilst odds ratios were high, the absolute increase in risk for most comorbidities was small compared to children without underlying conditions. FUNDING: RH is in receipt of a fellowship from Kidney Research UK (grant no. TF_010_20171124). JW is in receipt of a Medical Research Council Fellowship (Grant No. MR/R00160X/1). LF is in receipt of funding from Martin House Children's Hospice (there is no specific grant number for this). RV is in receipt of a grant from the National Institute of Health Research to support this work (grant no NIHR202322). Funders had no role in study design, data collection, analysis, decision to publish or preparation of the manuscript.

4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308595

ABSTRACT

While COVID19 vaccines have been administered to over 100 million patients, a small minority (40,000) have reported adverse events, and an even smaller fraction have reported cardiovascular issues (~500). There have been reporting of a few unusual cardiovascular events associated with some varieties of COVID19 vaccines resulting in pauses of use. Here we analyze the reports of adverse events associated with the COVID19 vaccines in the FDA Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) database to apply standard methods of detecting safety signals. In this work we apply this methodology to reports in the FDA VAERS database and have identified concerning signals for pulmonary embolism and myocardial infarction associated with COVID19 vaccines. These signals are compared with cardiovascular events reported in connection with influenza (FLU3) vaccines that are administered to a similar population. While signals of these events are higher for COVID19 than other vaccines, the incidence rates are comparable to the normally expected rate for non-vaccinated individuals.

5.
Am J Health Promot ; 36(3): 458-471, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650207

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To examine the feasibility and acceptability of a social network weight loss intervention delivered by lay health promoters (HPs) to immigrant populations. DESIGN: Single-arm, non-randomized, pilot study of a social network weight loss intervention developed by a community-based participatory research partnership and delivered by HPs. SETTING: Community-based setting in Southeastern Minnesota, United States. SAMPLE: Somali and Hispanic immigrants to the United States: 4 social networks of adults (2 Hispanic and 2 Somali) with 39 network participants. INTERVENTION: Twelve-week behavioral weight loss intervention delivered by HPs (4 weeks in-person and then 8 weeks virtual). MEASURES: Feasibility was assessed by recruitment and retention rates. Acceptability was assessed by surveys and focus groups with HPs and participants. Behavioral measures included servings of fruits and vegetables, drinking soda, and physical activity. Physiologic measures included weight, blood pressure, glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides. ANALYSIS: Paired t-tests of pre- to post-intervention changes at the end of 12 weeks of treatment. RESULTS: Recruitment was feasible and post-intervention was 100%. Participants highly rated the intervention on satisfaction, motivation, and confidence to eat a healthy diet, be physically active, and lose weight. Participants were motivated by group social support and cohesion of their social networks. On average, participants lost weight (91.6 ± 15.9 to 89.7 ± 16.6 kg, P < .0001), lowered their systolic blood pressure (133.9±16.9 to 127.2 ± 15.8 mm Hg; P < .001), lowered their diastolic blood pressure (81 ± 9.5 to 75.8 ± 9.6 mm Hg; P < .0001), had more servings of vegetables per day (1.9 ± 1.2 to 2.6 ± 1.4; P < .001), and increased their physical activity (2690 ± 3231 to 6595 ± 7322 MET-minutes per week; P = .02). CONCLUSION: This pilot study of 2 immigrant communities who participated in a peer-led weight loss social network intervention delivered during the COVID-19 pandemic demonstrated high feasibility and acceptability. Participants lost weight, improved their health status, and improved their health behaviors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emigrants and Immigrants , Adult , Humans , Pandemics , Pilot Projects , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Networking , United States , Weight Loss
6.
Nat Med ; 28(1): 193-200, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585817

ABSTRACT

Identifying which children and young people (CYP) are most vulnerable to serious infection due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is important to guide protective interventions. To address this question, we used data for all hospitalizations in England among 0-17 year olds from 1 February 2019 to 31 January 2021. We examined how sociodemographic factors and comorbidities might be risk factors for pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission among hospitalizations due to the following causes: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and pediatric inflammatory multi-system syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS) in the first pandemic year (2020-2021); hospitalizations due to all other non-traumatic causes in 2020-2021; hospitalizations due to all non-traumatic causes in 2019-2020; and hospitalizations due to influenza in 2019-2020. Risk of PICU admission and death from COVID-19 or PIMS-TS in CYP was very low. We identified 6,338 hospitalizations with COVID-19, of which 259 were admitted to a PICU and eight CYP died. We identified 712 hospitalizations with PIMS-TS, of which 312 were admitted to a PICU and fewer than five CYP died. Hospitalizations with COVID-19 and PIMS-TS were more common among males, older CYP, those from socioeconomically deprived neighborhoods and those who were of non-White ethnicity (Black, Asian, Mixed or Other). The odds of PICU admission were increased in CYP younger than 1 month old and decreased among 15-17 year olds compared to 1-4 year olds with COVID-19; increased in older CYP and females with PIMS-TS; and increased for Black compared to White ethnicity in patients with COVID-19 and PIMS-TS. Odds of PICU admission in COVID-19 were increased for CYP with comorbidities and highest for CYP with multiple medical problems. Increases in odds of PICU admission associated with different comorbidities in COVID-19 showed a similar pattern to other causes of hospitalization examined and, thus, likely reflect background vulnerabilities. These findings identify distinct risk factors associated with PICU admission among CYP with COVID-19 or PIMS-TS that might aid treatment and prevention strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric/statistics & numerical data , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Adolescent , Age Factors , /statistics & numerical data , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , England/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Odds Ratio , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , /statistics & numerical data
7.
Telemed J E Health ; 27(12): 1385-1392, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574377

ABSTRACT

Background: To examine clinician perspectives on the acceptability, appropriateness/suitability, and feasibility of video telehealth as a way to deliver mental health services during the COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and Methods: Mental health clinicians were surveyed with 27 Likert questions, using previously validated measures, on satisfaction and implementation experience with video telehealth visits between March and June 2020. Results: A total of 112 of 193 clinicians completed the survey (58.0%), including psychiatrists, psychologists, trainees (i.e., residents and fellows), advanced practice providers, and licensed mental health counselors. Clinicians reported high levels of acceptability, feasibility, and appropriateness of video telehealth; they also reported high levels of satisfaction with video telehealth visits. Seventy-nine and a half (79.5%) reported that their patients seemed highly satisfied with video telehealth visits, and 107 (95.5%) of clinicians responded that they would like video telehealth visits to represent at least 25% of their practice in the future. Discussion: Mental health clinicians showed positive attitudes toward the implementation of video telehealth visits, high levels of satisfaction with this care, and indicated strong interest in continuing this modality as a significant portion of clinical practice. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the ability of mental health clinicians to embrace new technology to expand access to care during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results indicate that telemental health is likely to be an integral part of clinic practice in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Humans , Pandemics , Personal Satisfaction , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S343-S344, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564002

ABSTRACT

Background Multi-system inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a rare consequence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). MIS-C shares features with common infectious and inflammatory syndromes and differentiation early in the course is difficult. Identification of early features specific to MIS-C may lead to faster diagnosis and treatment. We aimed to determine clinical, laboratory, and cardiac features distinguishing MIS-C patients within the first 24 hours of admission to the hospital from those who present with similar features but ultimately diagnosed with an alternative etiology. Methods We performed retrospective chart reviews of children (0-20 years) who were admitted to Vanderbilt Children’s Hospital and evaluated under our institutional MIS-C algorithm between June 10, 2020-April 8, 2021. Subjects were identified by review of infectious disease (ID) consults during the study period as all children with possible MIS-C require an ID consult per our institutional algorithm. Clinical, lab, and cardiac characteristics were compared between children with and without MIS-C. The diagnosis of MIS-C was determined by the treating team and available consultants. P-values were calculated using two-sample t-tests allowing unequal variances for continuous and Pearson’s chi-squared test for categorical variables, alpha set at < 0.05. Results There were 128 children admitted with concern for MIS-C. Of these, 45 (35.2%) were diagnosed with MIS-C and 83 (64.8%) were not. Patients with MIS-C had significantly higher rates of SARS-CoV-2 exposure, hypotension, conjunctival injection, abdominal pain, and abnormal cardiac exam (Table 1). Laboratory evaluation showed that patients with MIS-C had lower platelet count, lymphocyte count and sodium level, with higher c-reactive protein, fibrinogen, B-type natriuretic peptide, and neutrophil percentage (Table 2). Patients with MIS-C also had lower ejection fraction and were more likely to have abnormal electrocardiogram. Conclusion We identified early features that differed between patients with MIS-C from those without. Development of a diagnostic prediction model based on these early distinguishing features is currently in progress. Disclosures Natasha B. Halasa, MD, MPH, Genentech (Other Financial or Material Support, I receive an honorarium for lectures - it’s a education grant, supported by genetech)Quidel (Grant/Research Support, Other Financial or Material Support, Donation of supplies/kits)Sanofi (Grant/Research Support, Other Financial or Material Support, HAI/NAI testing) Natasha B. Halasa, MD, MPH, Genentech (Individual(s) Involved: Self): I receive an honorarium for lectures - it’s a education grant, supported by genetech, Other Financial or Material Support, Other Financial or Material Support;Sanofi (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Grant/Research Support, Research Grant or Support James A. Connelly, MD, Horizon Therapeutics (Advisor or Review Panel member)X4 Pharmaceuticals (Advisor or Review Panel member)

9.
Nat Med ; 28(1): 185-192, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1514420

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is rarely fatal in children and young people (CYP, <18 years old), but quantifying the risk of death is challenging because CYP are often infected with SARS-CoV-2 exhibiting no or minimal symptoms. To distinguish between CYP who died as a result of SARS-CoV-2 infection and those who died of another cause but were coincidentally infected with the virus, we undertook a clinical review of all CYP deaths with a positive SARS-CoV-2 test from March 2020 to February 2021. The predominant SARS-CoV-2 variants were wild-type and Alpha. Here we show that, of 12,023,568 CYP living in England, 3,105 died, including 61 who were positive for SARS-CoV-2. Of these deaths, 25 were due to SARS-CoV-2 infection (mortality rate, two per million), including 22 due to coronavirus disease 2019-the clinical disease associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection-and 3 were due to pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2. In total, 99.995% of CYP with a positive SARS-CoV-2 test survived. CYP older than 10 years, Asian and Black ethnic backgrounds and comorbidities were over-represented in SARS-CoV-2-related deaths compared with other CYP deaths. These results are important for guiding decisions on shielding and vaccinating children. New variants might have different mortality risks and should be evaluated in a similar way.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/mortality , Adolescent , Age Distribution , /statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/ethnology , Cause of Death , Child , Child, Preschool , England/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/ethnology , /statistics & numerical data
10.
Cell ; 184(21): 5432-5447.e16, 2021 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454060

ABSTRACT

Understanding vaccine-elicited protection against SARS-CoV-2 variants and other sarbecoviruses is key for guiding public health policies. We show that a clinical stage multivalent SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domain nanoparticle (RBD-NP) vaccine protects mice from SARS-CoV-2 challenge after a single immunization, indicating a potential dose-sparing strategy. We benchmarked serum neutralizing activity elicited by RBD-NPs in non-human primates against a lead prefusion-stabilized SARS-CoV-2 spike (HexaPro) using a panel of circulating mutants. Polyclonal antibodies elicited by both vaccines are similarly resilient to many RBD residue substitutions tested, although mutations at and surrounding position 484 have negative consequences for neutralization. Mosaic and cocktail nanoparticle immunogens displaying multiple sarbecovirus RBDs elicit broad neutralizing activity in mice and protect mice against SARS-CoV challenge even in the absence of SARS-CoV RBD in the vaccine. This study provides proof of principle that multivalent sarbecovirus RBD-NPs induce heterotypic protection and motivates advancing such broadly protective sarbecovirus vaccines to the clinic.

11.
Gastrointestinal Endoscopy ; 93(6):AB1-AB386, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1298668

ABSTRACT

The proceedings contains 638 papers. The topics discussed include: 3526666 TUBULAR POUCHPLASTY TRANSORAL OUTLET REDUCTION (TTORE) IS SUPERIOR TO AND MORE DURABLE THAN TRADITIONAL TORE IN A LARGE COHORT STUDY;3522113 ENDOSCOPIC VERSUS SURGICAL GASTROJEJUNAL REVISION FOR WEIGHT REGAIN IN ROUX-EN-Y GASTRIC BYPASS PATIENTS: 5-YEAR SAFETY AND EFFICACY COMPARISON;3526904 PRIMARY OBESITY SURGERY ENDOLUMINAL 2 (POSE 2.0): AN INTERNATIONAL MULTICENTER PROSPECTIVE TRIAL WITH PLICATION DURABILITY ASSESSMENT;3523069 CHANGES IN INCRETINS, BILE ACIDS AND THE MICROBIOME AFTER DUODENAL MUCOSAL RESURFACING IN PATIENTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES;3523981 THE “ERAS” PROTOCOL REDUCES POST ENDOSCOPIC BARIATRIC PROCEDURE HEALTHCARE UTILIZATION;3520884 QUANTIFYING HEALTHCARE UTILIZATION AND DELAY IN TREATMENT OF GASTRIC STENOSIS FOLLOWING SLEEVE GASTRECTOMY;3523424 ENODOSCOPIC SLEEVE GASTROPLASTY (ESG) SUCCESSES AND FAILURES: PREDICTORS FOR ESG REVISION;3525620 ENDOSCOPIC SLEEVE GASTROPLASTY AS NEW HOPE FOR MILD OBESITY;3526737 HOW WELL MY PATIENT WILL DO? PERSONALITY TRAITS PREDICT WEIGHT LOSS AFTER ENDOSCOPIC SLEEVE GASTROPLASTY;3492486 SEMAGLUTIDE IN ASSOCIATION TO ENDOSCOPIC SLEEVE GASTROPLASTY: TAKING ENDOSCOPIC BATRIATRIC PROCEDURES OUTCOMES TO THE NEXT LEVEL;3520710 GLYCEMIC AND HEPATIC OUTCOMES AFTER ENDOSCOPIC DUODENAL MUCOSAL RESURFACING: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND META-ANALYSIS;3525747 SHORT TERM OUTCOMES OF ENDOSCOPIC SLEEVE GASTROPLASTY (ESG) IN TYPE III OBESE PATIENTS: A CLINICAL, RETROSPECTIVE, SINGLE CENTER STUDY;3526510 ENDOSCOPIC SEPTOTOMY/STAPLE LINE RELEASE TO TREAT AN UNUSUAL CAUSE OF DYSPHAGIA AFTER SLEEVE GASTRECTOMY;3526579 MODIFIED ENDOSCOPIC SUBMUCOSAL DISSECTION – TRANSORAL OUTLET REDUCTION (ESD-TORE) FOR WEIGHT REGAIN;3522594 SAFETY AND FEASIBILITY OF SAME DAY DISCHARGE AFTER PER ORAL ENDOSCOPIC PYLOROMYOTOMY IN REFRACTORY GASTROPARESIS: A PILOT STUDY;3524289 IMPACT OF COVID-19 ON THE MANAGEMENT AND OUTCOMES OF SEVERE ACUTE CHOLANGITIS: FINDINGS FROM A NATIONWIDE CLINICAL DATA RESEARCH NETWORK

13.
Bone Jt Open ; 1(5): 137-143, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-947961

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The current global pandemic due to COVID-19 is generating significant burden on the health service in the UK. On 23 March 2020, the UK government issued requirements for a national lockdown. The aim of this multicentre study is to gain a greater understanding of the impact lockdown has had on the rates, mechanisms and types of injuries together with their management across a regional trauma service. METHODS: Data was collected from an adult major trauma centre, paediatric major trauma centre, district general hospital, and a regional hand trauma unit. Data collection included patient demographics, injury mechanism, injury type and treatment required. Time periods studied corresponded with the two weeks leading up to lockdown in the UK, two weeks during lockdown, and the same two-week period in 2019. RESULTS: There was a 55.7% (12,935 vs 5,733) reduction in total accident and emergency (A&E) attendances with a 53.7% (354 vs 164) reduction in trauma admissions during lockdown compared to 2019. The number of patients with fragility fractures requiring admission remained constant (32 patients in 2019 vs 31 patients during lockdown; p > 0.05). Road traffic collisions (57.1%, n = 8) were the commonest cause of major trauma admissions during lockdown. There was a significant increase in DIY related-hand injuries (26% (n = 13)) lockdown vs 8% (n = 11 in 2019, p = 0.006) during lockdown, which resulted in an increase in nerve injuries (12% (n = 6 in lockdown) vs 2.5% (n = 3 in 2019, p = 0.015) and hand infections (24% (n = 12) in lockdown vs 6.2% (n = 8) in 2019, p = 0.002). CONCLUSION: The national lockdown has dramatically reduced orthopaedic trauma admissions. The incidence of fragility fractures requiring surgery has not changed. Appropriate provision in theatres should remain in place to ensure these patients can be managed as a surgical priority. DIY-related hand injuries have increased which has led to an increased in nerve injuries requiring intervention.

14.
Bone Jt Open ; 1(7): 424-430, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-937192

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To determine the impact of COVID-19 on orthopaediatric admissions and fracture clinics within a regional integrated care system (ICS). METHODS: A retrospective review was performed for all paediatric orthopaedic patients admitted across the region during the recent lockdown period (24 March 2020 to 10 May 2020) and the same period in 2019. Age, sex, mechanism, anatomical region, and treatment modality were compared, as were fracture clinic attendances within the receiving regional major trauma centre (MTC) between the two periods. RESULTS: Paediatric trauma admissions across the region fell by 33% (197 vs 132) with a proportional increase to 59% (n = 78) of admissions to the MTC during lockdown compared with 28.4% in 2019 (N = 56). There was a reduction in manipulation under anaesthetic (p = 0.015) and the use of Kirschner wires (K-wires) (p = 0.040) between the two time periods. The median time to surgery remained one day in both (2019 IQR 0 to 2; 2020 IQR 1 to 1). Supracondylar fractures were the most common reason for fracture clinic attendance (17.3%, n = 19) with a proportional increase of 108.4% vs 2019 (2019 n = 20; 2020 n = 19) (p = 0.007). While upper limb injuries and falls from play apparatus, equipment, or height remained the most common indications for admission, there was a reduction in sports injuries (p < 0.001) but an increase in lacerations (p = 0.031). Fracture clinic management changed with 67% (n = 40) of follow-up appointments via telephone and 69% (n = 65) of patients requiring cast immobilization treated with a 3M Soft Cast, enabling self-removal. The safeguarding team saw a 22% reduction in referrals (2019: n = 41, 2020: n = 32). CONCLUSION: During this viral pandemic, the number of trauma cases decreased with a change in the mechanism of injury, median age of presentation, and an increase in referrals to the regional MTC. Adaptions in standard practice led to fewer MUA, and K-wire procedures being performed, more supracondylar fractures managed through clinic and an increase in the use of removable cast.Cite this article: Bone Joint Open 2020;1-7:424-430.

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