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BMJ Open ; 10(10): e039323, 2020 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228876


INTRODUCTION: Blood and imaging biomarkers show promise in prognosticating outcomes after paediatric cardiac arrest in pilot studies. We describe the methods and early recruitment challenges and solutions for an ongoing multicentre (n=14) observational trial, Personalising Outcomes following Child Cardiac Arrest to validate clinical, blood and imaging biomarkers individually and together in a clinically relevant panel. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Children (n=164) between 48 hours and 17 years of age who receive chest compressions irrespective of provider, duration, or event location and are admitted to an intensive care unit are eligible. Blood samples will be taken on days 1-3 for the measurement of brain-focused biomarkers analysed to predict the outcome. Clinically indicated and timed brain MRI and spectroscopy biomarkers will be analysed to predict the outcome. The primary outcome for the trial is survival with favourable (Vineland Adaptive Behavioural Scale score >70) outcome at 1 year. Secondary outcomes include mortality and pre-event and postdischarge measures of emotional, cognitive, physical and family functioning and health-related quality of life. Early enrollment targets were not met due to prolonged regulatory and subcontract processes. Multiple, simultaneous interventions including modification to inclusion criteria, additional sites and site visits were implemented with successful improvement in recruitment. Study procedures including outcomes and biomarker analysis are ongoing. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Twelve of 14 sites will use the centralised Institutional Review Board (IRB) at the University of Pittsburgh (PRO14030712). Two sites will use individual IRBs: Children's Healthcare of Atlanta Institutional Review Board and Children's Hospital of Wisconsin IRB. Parents and/or guardians are consented and children assented (when possible) by the site Primary investigator (PI) or research coordinator for enrollment. Study findings will be disseminated through scientific conferences, peer-reviewed journal publications, public study website materials and invited lectures. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02769026.

COVID-19 , Heart Arrest , Aftercare , Child , Heart Arrest/therapy , Humans , Patient Discharge , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Wisconsin
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(2): e2037227, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1083348


Importance: In early 2020, the United States declared a public health emergency in response to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and implemented a variety of social distancing measures. The association between the COVID-19 pandemic and the number of pediatric admissions is unclear. Objective: To determine the changes in patterns of pediatric admissions in 2020 compared with the prior decade. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study included 49 US hospitals contributing to the Pediatric Health Information Systems database. Inpatient admissions were transformed into time-series data, and ensemble forecasting models were generated to analyze admissions across a range of diagnoses in 2020 compared with previous years. The setting was inpatient admissions. All patients discharged between January 1, 2010, and June 30, 2020, from an inpatient hospital encounter were included. Main Outcomes and Measures: Number of hospital admissions by primary diagnosis for each encounter. Results: Of 5 424 688 inpatient encounters among 3 372 839 patients (median [interquartile range] age, 5.1 [0.7-13.3] years; 2 823 748 [52.1%] boys; 3 171 224 [58.5%] White individuals) at 49 hospitals, 213 571 (3.9%) were between January 1, 2020, and June 30, 2020. There was a decrease in the number of admissions beginning in March 2020 compared with the period from 2010 to 2019. At the nadir, admissions in April 2020 were reduced 45.4% compared with prior years (23 798 in April 2020 compared with a median [interquartile range] of 43 550 [42 110-43 946] in April 2010-2019). Inflation-adjusted hospital charges decreased 27.7% in the second quarter of 2020 compared with prior years ($4 327 580 511 in 2020 compared with a median [interquartile range] of $5 983 142 102 [$5 762 690 022-$6 324 978 456] in 2010-2019). Seasonal patterns were evident between 2010 and 2019 for a variety of common pediatric conditions, including asthma, atrial septal defects, bronchiolitis, diabetic ketoacidosis, Kawasaki syndrome, mental health admissions, and trauma. Ensemble models were able to discern seasonal patterns in admission diagnoses and accurately predicted admission rates from July 2019 until December 2019 but not from January 2020 to June 2020. All diagnoses except for birth decreased below the model 95% CIs between January 2020 and June 2020. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study, pediatric admissions to US hospitals decreased in 2020 across an array of pediatric conditions. Although some conditions may have decreased in incidence, others may represent unmet needs in pediatric care during the COVID-19 pandemic.

COVID-19 , Hospitalization , Hospitals, Pediatric , Pandemics , Seasons , Adolescent , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Female , Heart Septal Defects, Atrial/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/trends , Humans , Male , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/epidemiology , Patient Admission , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , United States/epidemiology , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology
J Neurotrauma ; 38(1): 1-43, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066221


The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus attacks multiple organs of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, including the brain. There are worldwide descriptions of neurological deficits in COVID-19 patients. Central nervous system (CNS) symptoms can be present early in the course of the disease. As many as 55% of hospitalized COVID-19 patients have been reported to have neurological disturbances three months after infection by SARS-CoV-2. The mutability of the SARS-COV-2 virus and its potential to directly affect the CNS highlight the urgency of developing technology to diagnose, manage, and treat brain injury in COVID-19 patients. The pathobiology of CNS infection by SARS-CoV-2 and the associated neurological sequelae of this infection remain poorly understood. In this review, we outline the rationale for the use of blood biomarkers (BBs) for diagnosis of brain injury in COVID-19 patients, the research needed to incorporate their use into clinical practice, and the improvements in patient management and outcomes that can result. BBs of brain injury could potentially provide tools for detection of brain injury in COVID-19 patients. Elevations of BBs have been reported in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood of COVID-19 patients. BB proteins have been analyzed in CSF to detect CNS involvement in patients with infectious diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus and tuberculous meningitis. BBs are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for diagnosis of mild versus moderate traumatic brain injury and have identified brain injury after stroke, cardiac arrest, hypoxia, and epilepsy. BBs, integrated with other diagnostic tools, could enhance understanding of viral mechanisms of brain injury, predict severity of neurological deficits, guide triage of patients and assignment to appropriate medical pathways, and assess efficacy of therapeutic interventions in COVID-19 patients.

Brain Injuries/blood , Brain Injuries/diagnosis , Brain/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Biomarkers/blood , Brain/pathology , Brain Injuries/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/blood , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies