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1.
Am J Transplant ; 22(9): 2254-2260, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1831928

ABSTRACT

Heterologous vaccination ("mixing platforms") for the third (D3) dose of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine is a potential strategy to improve antibody responses in solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs), but data are mixed regarding potential differential immunogenicity. We assessed for differences in immunogenicity and tolerability of homologous (BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273; D3-mRNA) versus heterologous (Ad.26.COV2.S; D3-JJ) D3 among 377 SARS-CoV-2-infection naïve SOTRs who remained seronegative after two mRNA vaccines. We measured anti-spike titers and used weighted Poisson regression to evaluate seroconversion and development of high-titers, comparing D3-JJ to D3-mRNA, at 1-, 3-, and 6 month post-D3. 1-month post-D3, seroconversion (63% vs. 52%, p = .3) and development of high-titers (29% vs. 25%, p = .7) were comparable between D3-JJ and D3-mRNA recipients. 3 month post-D3, D3-JJ recipients were 1.4-fold more likely to seroconvert (80% vs. 57%, weighted incidence-rate-ratio: wIRR = 1.10 1.401.77 , p = .006) but not more likely to develop high-titers (27% vs. 22%, wIRR = 0.44 0.921.93 , p = .8). 6 month post-D3, D3-JJ recipients were 1.41-fold more likely to seroconvert (88% vs. 59%, wIRR = 1.04 1.411.93 , p = .029) and 2.63-fold more likely to develop high-titers (59% vs. 21%, wIRR = 1.38 2.635.00 , p = .003). There was no differential signal in alloimmune events or reactogenicity between platforms. SOTRs without antibody response after two mRNA vaccines may derive benefit from heterologous Ad.26.COV2.S D3.


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Organ Transplantation , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/adverse effects , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Organ Transplantation/adverse effects , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients , Vaccination
2.
JCI Insight ; 7(9)2022 05 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765225

ABSTRACT

BackgroundSome clinical features of severe COVID-19 represent blood vessel damage induced by activation of host immune responses initiated by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. We hypothesized autoantibodies against angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the SARS-CoV-2 receptor expressed on vascular endothelium, are generated during COVID-19 and are of mechanistic importance.MethodsIn an opportunity sample of 118 COVID-19 inpatients, autoantibodies recognizing ACE2 were detected by ELISA. Binding properties of anti-ACE2 IgM were analyzed via biolayer interferometry. Effects of anti-ACE2 IgM on complement activation and endothelial function were demonstrated in a tissue-engineered pulmonary microvessel model.ResultsAnti-ACE2 IgM (not IgG) autoantibodies were associated with severe COVID-19 and found in 18/66 (27.2%) patients with severe disease compared with 2/52 (3.8%) of patients with moderate disease (OR 9.38, 95% CI 2.38-42.0; P = 0.0009). Anti-ACE2 IgM autoantibodies were rare (2/50) in non-COVID-19 ventilated patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Unexpectedly, ACE2-reactive IgM autoantibodies in COVID-19 did not undergo class-switching to IgG and had apparent KD values of 5.6-21.7 nM, indicating they are T cell independent. Anti-ACE2 IgMs activated complement and initiated complement-binding and functional changes in endothelial cells in microvessels, suggesting they contribute to the angiocentric pathology of COVID-19.ConclusionWe identify anti-ACE2 IgM as a mechanism-based biomarker strongly associated with severe clinical outcomes in SARS-CoV-2 infection, which has therapeutic implications.FUNDINGBill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Gates Philanthropy Partners, Donald B. and Dorothy L. Stabler Foundation, and Jerome L. Greene Foundation; NIH R01 AR073208, R01 AR069569, Institutional Research and Academic Career Development Award (5K12GM123914-03), National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute R21HL145216, and Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship (DGE1746891).


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Autoantibodies , Endothelial Cells , Humans , Immunoglobulin M , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 195: 113656, 2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432990

ABSTRACT

Serological tests play an important role in the fight against Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), including monitoring the dynamic immune response after vaccination, identifying past infection and determining community infection rate. Conventional methods for serological testing, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and chemiluminescence immunoassays, provide reliable and sensitive antibody detection but require sophisticated laboratory infrastructure and/or lengthy assay time. Conversely, lateral flow immunoassays are suitable for rapid point-of-care tests but have limited sensitivity. Here, we describe the development of a rapid and sensitive magnetofluidic immuno-PCR platform that can address the current gap in point-of-care serological testing for COVID-19. Our magnetofluidic immuno-PCR platform automates a magnetic bead-based, single-binding, and one-wash immuno-PCR assay in a palm-sized magnetofluidic device and delivers results in ∼30 min. In the device, a programmable magnetic arm attracts and transports magnetically-captured antibodies through assay reagents pre-loaded in a companion plastic cartridge, and a miniaturized thermocycler and a fluorescence detector perform immuno-PCR to detect the antibodies. We evaluated our magnetofluidic immuno-PCR with 108 clinical serum/plasma samples and achieved 93.8% (45/48) sensitivity and 98.3% (59/60) specificity, demonstrating its potential as a rapid and sensitive point-of-care serological test for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Point-of-Care Systems , Point-of-Care Testing , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
5.
J Clin Microbiol ; 59(1)2020 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-991751

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of an ongoing pandemic that has infected over 36 million and killed over 1 million people. Informed implementation of government public health policies depends on accurate data on SARS-CoV-2 immunity at a population scale. We hypothesized that detection of SARS-CoV-2 salivary antibodies could serve as a noninvasive alternative to serological testing for monitoring of SARS-CoV-2 infection and seropositivity at a population scale. We developed a multiplex SARS-CoV-2 antibody immunoassay based on Luminex technology that comprised 12 CoV antigens, mostly derived from SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) and spike (S). Saliva and sera collected from confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases and from the pre-COVID-19 era were tested for IgG, IgA, and IgM to the antigen panel. Matched saliva and serum IgG responses (n = 28) were significantly correlated. The salivary anti-N IgG response resulted in the highest sensitivity (100%), exhibiting a positive response in 24/24 reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR)-confirmed COVID-19 cases sampled at >14 days post-symptom onset (DPSO), whereas the salivary anti-receptor binding domain (RBD) IgG response yielded 100% specificity. Temporal kinetics of IgG in saliva were consistent with those observed in blood and indicated that most individuals seroconvert at around 10 DPSO. Algorithms employing a combination of the IgG responses to N and S antigens result in high diagnostic accuracy (100%) by as early as 10 DPSO. These results support the use of saliva-based antibody testing as a noninvasive and scalable alternative to blood-based antibody testing.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Saliva/immunology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
6.
Science ; 370(6520)2020 11 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-809284

ABSTRACT

Understanding humoral responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is critical for improving diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccines. Deep serological profiling of 232 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients and 190 pre-COVID-19 era controls using VirScan revealed more than 800 epitopes in the SARS-CoV-2 proteome, including 10 epitopes likely recognized by neutralizing antibodies. Preexisting antibodies in controls recognized SARS-CoV-2 ORF1, whereas only COVID-19 patient antibodies primarily recognized spike protein and nucleoprotein. A machine learning model trained on VirScan data predicted SARS-CoV-2 exposure history with 99% sensitivity and 98% specificity; a rapid Luminex-based diagnostic was developed from the most discriminatory SARS-CoV-2 peptides. Individuals with more severe COVID-19 exhibited stronger and broader SARS-CoV-2 responses, weaker antibody responses to prior infections, and higher incidence of cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus 1, possibly influenced by demographic covariates. Among hospitalized patients, males produce stronger SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses than females.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Epitope Mapping , Epitopes/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Cross Reactions , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Epitopes/chemistry , Epitopes/genetics , Female , Humans , Male , Protein Conformation , Seroconversion
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