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3.
Chronic Obstr Pulm Dis ; 9(2): 266-273, 2022 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1856402

ABSTRACT

Patients with severe alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) are at increased risk for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), particularly if they smoke. This, coupled with their predilection for dysregulated inflammation and autoimmunity, makes affected individuals priority candidates for vaccination against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To promote vaccine uptake effectively, an understanding of the factors motivating people to proceed with vaccination is essential. The attitudes of patients with AATD towards COVID-19 vaccination have yet to be described. We prospectively studied 170 Pi*ZZ genotype AATD patients, 150 patients with nonhereditary (Pi*MM genotype) COPD and 140 Pi*MM genotype individuals without lung disease receiving first-dose vaccination with ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AstraZeneca). Patient attitudes towards vaccination and motivations for getting vaccinated were assessed at the time of the vaccine being offered. Following completion of the 2-dose vaccine series, Pi*ZZ patients were then re-assessed regarding their attitudes towards booster vaccination. The most common primary motivation for accepting vaccination in Pi*ZZ participants ≥50 years old was a fear of illness or death from COVID-19. In contrast, Pi*ZZ patients <50 years most often cited a desire to socialize. The motivation pattern of younger Pi*ZZ AATD patients was similar to that of non-deficient individuals of comparable age, whereas older Pi*ZZ individuals were more closely aligned with Pi*MM COPD and differed from age-matched controls without lung disease. When considering booster vaccination, Pi*ZZ patients were increasingly motivated by a desire to reacquire social freedoms. A desire to reduce the risk of transmission was not a prominent consideration in any of the groups studied. The most commonly cited reason for booster hesitancy was a lack of incentive, given that no additional social freedoms were available to triple-vaccinated individuals compared to those who were double-vaccinated at the time. Taken together, these data may inform policymakers attempting to promote vaccine uptake among patients with AATD.

5.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1837, 2022 04 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778600

ABSTRACT

Large scale screening is a critical tool in the life sciences, but is often limited by reagents, samples, or cost. An important recent example is the challenge of achieving widespread COVID-19 testing in the face of substantial resource constraints. To tackle this challenge, screening methods must efficiently use testing resources. However, given the global nature of the pandemic, they must also be simple (to aid implementation) and flexible (to be tailored for each setting). Here we propose HYPER, a group testing method based on hypergraph factorization. We provide theoretical characterizations under a general statistical model, and carefully evaluate HYPER with alternatives proposed for COVID-19 under realistic simulations of epidemic spread and viral kinetics. We find that HYPER matches or outperforms the alternatives across a broad range of testing-constrained environments, while also being simpler and more flexible. We provide an online tool to aid lab implementation: http://hyper.covid19-analysis.org .


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Mass Screening , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(3)2022 01 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650743

ABSTRACT

Insight into the epidemiology of perinatal medication use during the COVID-19 pandemic is scarce. Therefore, a cross-sectional study using an anonymous web survey was performed in Ireland, Norway, Switzerland, The Netherlands, and United Kingdom (UK) to investigate the prevalence and type of medications used by pregnant and breast-feeding women during the first pandemic wave. Factors associated with medication use were estimated by logistic regression. In total, 8378 women participated (i.e., 3666 pregnant and 4712 breastfeeding women). Most responses were collected in Norway (34%) and The Netherlands (28%), followed by Switzerland (19%), Ireland (17%) and UK (2%). Participants were more often professionally active and more often had a higher educational level compared to the general birthing population in each country. Overall, approximately 60% of women reported having used at least 1 medication in the preceding 3 months. Daily and occasional use was reported by 34% and 42% of pregnant and 29% and 44% of breastfeeding women. The most prevalent ATC (Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical) categories were the nervous system, the respiratory system, the alimentary tract/metabolism, and the musculo-skeletal system. Paracetamol, ibuprofen, antacids, and cetirizine were the most frequently used medications. The rate of antibacterial use was lower than previously reported. Having a chronic illness, country, maternal age, SARS-CoV-2 testing, professional status and time since delivery were associated with medication use. In conclusion, perinatal medication use was highly prevalent during the first pandemic wave, underlining the importance of maintaining counseling efforts on medication use, even in times of disrupted healthcare services and/or limited resources.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Breast Feeding , COVID-19 Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13898, 2021 07 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1298848

ABSTRACT

Pregnant women may be at higher risk of severe complications associated with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which may lead to obstetrical complications. We performed a case control study comparing pregnant women with severe coronavirus disease 19 (cases) to pregnant women with a milder form (controls) enrolled in the COVI-Preg international registry cohort between March 24 and July 26, 2020. Risk factors for severity, obstetrical and immediate neonatal outcomes were assessed. A total of 926 pregnant women with a positive test for SARS-CoV-2 were included, among which 92 (9.9%) presented with severe COVID-19 disease. Risk factors for severe maternal outcomes were pulmonary comorbidities [aOR 4.3, 95% CI 1.9-9.5], hypertensive disorders [aOR 2.7, 95% CI 1.0-7.0] and diabetes [aOR2.2, 95% CI 1.1-4.5]. Pregnant women with severe maternal outcomes were at higher risk of caesarean section [70.7% (n = 53/75)], preterm delivery [62.7% (n = 32/51)] and newborns requiring admission to the neonatal intensive care unit [41.3% (n = 31/75)]. In this study, several risk factors for developing severe complications of SARS-CoV-2 infection among pregnant women were identified including pulmonary comorbidities, hypertensive disorders and diabetes. Obstetrical and neonatal outcomes appear to be influenced by the severity of maternal disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnant Women , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , Premature Birth/virology , Risk Factors
8.
Nat Biotechnol ; 39(12): 1556-1562, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1287813

ABSTRACT

Frequent testing of large population groups combined with contact tracing and isolation measures will be crucial for containing Coronavirus Disease 2019 outbreaks. Here we present LAMP-Seq, a modified, highly scalable reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) method. Unpurified biosamples are barcoded and amplified in a single heat step, and pooled products are analyzed en masse by sequencing. Using commercial reagents, LAMP-Seq has a limit of detection of ~2.2 molecules per µl at 95% confidence and near-perfect specificity for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 given its sequence readout. Clinical validation of an open-source protocol with 676 swab samples, 98 of which were deemed positive by standard RT-qPCR, demonstrated 100% sensitivity in individuals with cycle threshold values of up to 33 and a specificity of 99.7%, at a very low material cost. With a time-to-result of fewer than 24 h, low cost and little new infrastructure requirement, LAMP-Seq can be readily deployed for frequent testing as part of an integrated public health surveillance program.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19 , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(7)2021 03 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1154395

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic may be of particular concern for pregnant and breastfeeding women. We aimed to explore their beliefs about the coronavirus and COVID-19 vaccine willingness and to assess the impact of the pandemic on perinatal experiences and practices. A multinational, cross-sectional, web-based study was performed in six European countries between April and July 2020. The anonymous survey was promoted via social media. In total, 16,063 women participated (including 6661 pregnant and 9402 breastfeeding women). Most responses were collected from Belgium (44%), Norway (18%) and the Netherlands (16%), followed by Switzerland (11%), Ireland (10%) and the UK (3%). Despite differences between countries, COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy was identified among 40-50% of the respondents at the end of the first wave of the pandemic and was higher among pregnant women. Education level and employment status were associated with vaccine hesitancy. The first wave had an adverse impact on pregnancy experiences and disrupted access to health services and breastfeeding support for many women. In the future, access to health care and support should be maintained at all times. Evidence-based and tailored information on COVID-19 vaccines should also be provided to pregnant and breastfeeding women to avoid unfounded concerns about the vaccines and to support shared decision making in this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Belgium , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Europe , Female , Humans , Ireland , Netherlands , Norway , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Switzerland
10.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(589)2021 04 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1096970

ABSTRACT

Virological testing is central to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) containment, but many settings face severe limitations on testing. Group testing offers a way to increase throughput by testing pools of combined samples; however, most proposed designs have not yet addressed key concerns over sensitivity loss and implementation feasibility. Here, we combined a mathematical model of epidemic spread and empirically derived viral kinetics for SARS-CoV-2 infections to identify pooling designs that are robust to changes in prevalence and to ratify sensitivity losses against the time course of individual infections. We show that prevalence can be accurately estimated across a broad range, from 0.02 to 20%, using only a few dozen pooled tests and using up to 400 times fewer tests than would be needed for individual identification. We then exhaustively evaluated the ability of different pooling designs to maximize the number of detected infections under various resource constraints, finding that simple pooling designs can identify up to 20 times as many true positives as individual testing with a given budget. Crucially, we confirmed that our theoretical results can be translated into practice using pooled human nasopharyngeal specimens by accurately estimating a 1% prevalence among 2304 samples using only 48 tests and through pooled sample identification in a panel of 960 samples. Our results show that accounting for variation in sampled viral loads provides a nuanced picture of how pooling affects sensitivity to detect infections. Using simple, practical group testing designs can vastly increase surveillance capabilities in resource-limited settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Serologic Tests , Specimen Handling , Viral Load
11.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 100(7): 1219-1229, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1039800

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Evidence on perinatal mental health during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and its potential determinants is limited. Therefore, this multinational study aimed to assess the mental health status of pregnant and breastfeeding women during the pandemic, and to explore potential associations between depressive symptoms, anxiety, and stress and women's sociodemographic, health, and reproductive characteristics. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional, web-based study was performed in Ireland, Norway, Switzerland, the Netherlands, and the UK between 16 June and 14 July 2020. Pregnant and breastfeeding women up to 3 months postpartum who were older than 18 years of age were eligible. The online, anonymous survey was promoted through social media and hospital websites. The Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS), the Generalized Anxiety Disorder seven-item scale (GAD-7), and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) were used to assess mental health status. Regression model analysis was used to identify factors associated with poor mental health status. RESULTS: In total, 9041 women participated (including 3907 pregnant and 5134 breastfeeding women). The prevalence of major depressive symptoms (EDS ≥ 13) was 15% in the pregnancy cohort and and 13% the breastfeeding cohort. Moderate to severe generalized anxiety symptoms (GAD ≥ 10) were found among 11% and 10% of the pregnant and breastfeeding women. The mean (±SD) PSS scores for pregnant and breastfeeding women were 14.1 ± 6.6 and 13.7 ± 6.6, respectively. Risk factors associated with poor mental health included having a chronic mental illness, a chronic somatic illness in the postpartum period, smoking, having an unplanned pregnancy, professional status, and living in the UK or Ireland. CONCLUSIONS: This multinational study found high levels of depressive symptoms and generalized anxiety among pregnant and breastfeeding women during the COVID-19 outbreak. The study findings underline the importance of monitoring perinatal mental health during pandemics and other societal crises to safeguard maternal and infant mental health.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , Breast Feeding , COVID-19 , Depression , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Perinatal Care , Stress, Psychological , Adult , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/etiology , Breast Feeding/methods , Breast Feeding/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Female , Humans , Ireland/epidemiology , Perinatal Care/methods , Perinatal Care/statistics & numerical data , Peripartum Period/psychology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome/psychology , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/etiology , United Kingdom/epidemiology
12.
Vouga, Manon, Favre, Guillaume, Martinez Perez, Oscar, Pomar, Leo, Forcen Acebal, Laura, Abascal, Alejandra, Vila Hernandez, Maria Rosa, Hcini, Najeh, Lambert, Véronique, Carles, Gabriel, Sichitiu, Joanna, Salomon, Laurent, Stiremann, Julien, Ville, Yves, Martinez de Tejada, Begoña, Goncé, Anna, Hawkins-Villareal, Ameth, Castillo, Karen, Gratacos Solsona, Eduard, Trigo, Lucas, Cleary, Brian, Geary, Michael, Bartels, Helena, Al-Kharouf, Feras, Malone, Fergal, Higgins, Mary, Keating, Niamh, Knowles, Susan, Poncelet, Christophe, Carvalho, Carolina, Ribeiro-do-Valle, Fernanda, Surita, Garanhani, Dantas-Silva, Amanda, Borrelli, Carolina, Gomes Luz, Adriana, Fuenzalida, Javiera, Carvajal, Jorge, Guerra Canales, Manuel, Hernandez, Olivia, Grechukhina, Olga, Ko, Albert I.; Reddy, Uma, Figueiredo, Rita, Moucho, Marina, Viana Pinto, Pedro, De Luca, Carmen, De Santis, Marco, Ayres de Campos, Diogo, Garabedian, Charles, Subtil, Damien, Bohrer, Betania, Da Rocha Oppermann, Maria Lucia, Celeste, Maria, Wender, Osorio, Schuler-Faccini, Lavinia, Vieira Sanseverino, Maria Teresa, Giugliani, Camila, Friedrich, Luciana, Horn Scherer, Mariana, Mottet, Nicolas, Ducarme, Guillaume, Pelerin, Helene, Moreau, Chloe, Breton, Bénédicte, Quibel, Thibaud, Rozenberg, Patrick, Mueller, Doris, Granado, Cristina, Hoesli, Irene, Monod, Cécile, Bassler, Dirk, Heldstab, Sandra, Ochsenbein Kölble, Nicole, Sentilhes, Loïc, Charvet, Melissa, Deprest, Jan, Richter, Jute, Van der Veeken, Lennart, Eggel-Hort, Béatrice, Plantefeve, Gaetan, Derouich, Mohamed, Nieto Calvache, Albaro José, Lopez-Giron, Maria Camila, Burgos-Luna, Juan Manuel, Escobar-Vidarte, Maria Fernanda, Hecher, Kurt, Tallarek, Ann-Christin, Hadar, Eran, Krajden Haratz, Karina, Malinger, Gustavo, Maymon, Ron, Yogev, Yariv, Schäffer, Leonhard, Toussaint, Arnaud, Rossier, Marie-Claude, Moreira de sa, Renato Augusto, Grawe, Claudia, Aebi-Popp, Karoline, Radan, Anda-Petronela, Raio, Luigi, Surbek, Daniel, Böckenhoff, Paul, Strizek, Brigitte, Kaufmann, Martin, Bloch, Andrea, Boulvain, Michel, Johann, Silke, Heldstab, Sandra Andrea, Todesco Bernasconi, Monya, Grant, Gaston, Feki, Anis, Muller Brochut, Anne-Claude, Giral, Marylene, Sedille, Lucie, Papadia, Andrea, Capoccia Brugger, Romina, Weber, Brigitte, Fischer, Tina, Kahlert, Christian, Nielsen Saines, Karin, Cambou, Mary, Kanellos, Panagiotis, Chen, Xiang, Yin, Mingzhu, Haessig, Annina, Baud, David, Panchaud, Alice.
SSRN; 2020.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-2803
13.
Vouga, Manon, Favre, Guillaume, Martinez Perez, Oscar, Pomar, Leo, Forcen Acebal, Laura, Abascal, Alejandra, Vila Hernandez, Maria Rosa, Hcini, Najeh, Lambert, Véronique, Carles, Gabriel, Sichitiu, Joanna, Salomon, Laurent, Stiremann, Julien, Ville, Yves, Martinez de Tejada, Begoña, Goncé, Anna, Hawkins-Villareal, Ameth, Castillo, Karen, Gratacos Solsona, Eduard, Trigo, Lucas, Cleary, Brian, Geary, Michael, Bartels, Helena, Al-Kharouf, Feras, Malone, Fergal, Higgins, Mary, Keating, Niamh, Knowles, Susan, Poncelet, Christophe, Carvalho, Carolina, Ribeiro-do-Valle, Fernanda, Surita, Garanhani, Dantas-Silva, Amanda, Borrelli, Carolina, Gomes Luz, Adriana, Fuenzalida, Javiera, Guerra Canales, Manuel, Hernandez, Olivia, Grechukhina, Olga, Ko, Albert, Reddy, Uma, Figueiredo, Rita, Moucho, Marina, Viana Pinto, Pedro, De Luca, Carmen, De Santis, Marco, Ayres de Campos, Diogo, Garabedian, Charles, Subtil, Damien, Bohrer, Betania, Da Rocha Oppermann, Maria Lucia, Celeste, Maria, Wender, Osorio, Schuler-Faccini, Lavinia, Vieira Sanseverino, Maria Teresa, Giugliani, Camila, Friedrich, Luciana, Horn Scherer, Mariana, Mottet, Nicolas, Ducarme, Guillaume, Pelerin, Helene, Moreau, Chloe, Breton, Bénédicte, Quibel, Thibaud, Rozenberg, Patrick, Mueller, Doris, Granado, Cristina, Hoesli, Irene, Monod, Cécile, Bassler, Dirk, Heldstab, Sandra, Ochsenbein Kölble, Nicole, Sentilhes, Loïc, Charvet, Melissa, Deprest, Jan, Richter, Jute, Van der Veeken, Lennart, Eggel-Hort, Béatrice, Plantefeve, Gaetan, Derouich, Mohamed, Nieto Calvache, Albaro José, Lopez-Giron, Maria Camila, Burgos-Luna, Juan Manuel, Escobar-Vidarte, Maria Fernanda, Hecher, Kurt, Tallarek, Ann-Christin, Hadar, Eran, Krajden Haratz, Karina, Malinger, Gustavo, Maymon, Ron, Yogev, Yariv, Schäffer, Leonhard, Toussaint, Arnaud, Rossier, Marie-Claude, Moreira de sa, Renato Augusto, Grawe, Claudia, Aebi-Popp, Karoline, Radan, Anda-Petronela, Raio, Luigi, Surbek, Daniel, Böckenhoff, Paul, Strizek, Brigitte, Kaufmann, Martin, Bloch, Andrea, Boulvain, Michel, Johann, Silke, Todesco Bernasconi, Monya, Grant, Gaston, Feki, Anis, Muller Brochut, Anne-Claude, Giral, Marylene, Sedille, Lucie, Papadia, Andrea, Capoccia Brugger, Romina, Weber, Brigitte, Fischer, Tina, Kahlert, Christian, Nielsen Saines, Karin, Cambou, Mary, Kanellos, Panagiotis, Chen, Xiang, Yin, Mingzhu, Haessig, Annina, Baud, David, Panchaud, Alice.
SSRN; 2020.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-2498
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