Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 155
Filter
1.
J Multimorb Comorb ; 12: 26335565221145493, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36545235

ABSTRACT

Background: Structured Medication Reviews (SMRs) are intended to help deliver the NHS Long Term Plan for medicines optimisation in people living with multiple long-term conditions and polypharmacy. It is challenging to gather the information needed for these reviews due to poor integration of health records across providers and there is little guidance on how to identify those patients most urgently requiring review. Objective: To extract information from scattered clinical records on how health and medications change over time, apply interpretable artificial intelligence (AI) approaches to predict risks of poor outcomes and overlay this information on care records to inform SMRs. We will pilot this approach in primary care prescribing audit and feedback systems, and co-design future medicines optimisation decision support systems. Design: DynAIRx will target potentially problematic polypharmacy in three key multimorbidity groups, namely, people with (a) mental and physical health problems, (b) four or more long-term conditions taking ten or more drugs and (c) older age and frailty. Structured clinical data will be drawn from integrated care records (general practice, hospital, and social care) covering an ∼11m population supplemented with Natural Language Processing (NLP) of unstructured clinical text. AI systems will be trained to identify patterns of conditions, medications, tests, and clinical contacts preceding adverse events in order to identify individuals who might benefit most from an SMR. Discussion: By implementing and evaluating an AI-augmented visualisation of care records in an existing prescribing audit and feedback system we will create a learning system for medicines optimisation, co-designed throughout with end-users and patients.

2.
Nutr Rev ; 2022 Dec 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36478064

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization are updating their dietary zinc recommendations for children aged 0 to 3 years. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review was to retrieve and synthesize evidence regarding zinc needs for growth as well as zinc losses, absorption, and bioavailability from the diet. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were searched electronically from inception to August 2020. Studies assessing the above factors in healthy children aged 0 to 9 years were included, with no limits on study design or language. DATA EXTRACTION: Ninety-four studies reporting on zinc content in tissue (n = 27); zinc absorption (n = 47); factors affecting zinc bioavailability (n = 30); and endogenous zinc losses via urine, feces, or integument (n = 40) met the inclusion criteria. Four reviewers extracted data and two reviewers checked for accuracy. DATA ANALYSES: Studies were synthesized narratively, and meta-analyses of zinc losses and gains as well the subgroups of age, type of feeding, country's income, and molar ratio of phytate to zinc were conducted. Meta-analysis revealed an overall mean (95%CI) urinary and endogenous fecal zinc excretion of 17.48 µg/kg/d (11.80-23.15; I2 = 94%) and 0.07 mg/kg/d (0.06-0.08; I2 = 82%), respectively, with a mean fractional zinc absorption of 26.75% (23.69-29.81; I2 = 99%). Subgrouping by age revealed differences in mean values associated with the transition from milk-based diets to solid food during the first 3 years of life. CONCLUSION: This review synthesizes data that may be used to formulate zinc requirements in young children. Results should be interpreted with caution because of considerable heterogeneity in the evidence. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO registration number CRD42020215236.

3.
Nurs Crit Care ; 2022 Dec 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36458458

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Virtual reality (VR) as a digital technology has developed rapidly, becoming more realistic, portable, sensory and easier to navigate. Although studies have found VR to be effective for many clinical applications, patients and clinicians have described several barriers to the successful implementation of this technology. To remove barriers for implementation of VR in health care, a greater understanding is needed of how VR can integrate into clinical environments, particularly complex settings such as an intensive care unit. AIM: This study aimed to explore the perceived barriers and facilitators for the implementation of VR exposure therapy for intensive care patients and clinical staff. STUDY DESIGN: A qualitative study using an Interpretative Description approach was undertaken. Semi-structured focus groups were conducted with 13 participants: nine patients and four health care professionals. Focus groups explored barriers and facilitators of using virtual reality (VR) exposure therapy in intensive care. Thematic analysis was employed to produce codes and themes. RESULTS: In total, eight themes describing the perceived barriers and facilitators to implementing VR exposure therapy were identified. Four themes related to the perceived barriers of implementing VR exposure therapy in intensive care were identified: psychological, sensory, environmental and staff competency and confidence. There were a further four themes related to the perceived facilitators to the implementation of VR exposure therapy: staff training, patient capacity, orientation to technology and support during the intervention. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified novel barriers and facilitators that could be expected when implementing VR exposure therapy for patients' post-intensive care unit stay. The findings suggest that psychological barriers of fear and apprehension were expected to provoke patient avoidance of exposure therapy. Perceived barriers for staff focused on preparedness to deliver the VR exposure therapy and a lack of technological competence. Both patients and staff stated that a comprehensive induction, orientation and training could facilitate VR exposure therapy, improving engagement. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: This study has identified that with appropriate staff training, resources, and integration into current patient care pathways, VR exposure therapy may be a valuable intervention to support patient recovery following critical illness. Prior to undertaking VR exposure therapy, patients often need reassurance that side-effects can be managed, and that they can easily control their virtual exposure experience.

4.
J Appl Res Intellect Disabil ; 2022 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36448370

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mainstream economic evaluations methods may not be appropriate to capture the range of effects triggered by interventions for people with intellectual disabilities. In this systematic review, we aimed to identify, assess and synthesise the arguments in the literature on how the effects of interventions for people with intellectual disabilities could be measured in economic evaluations. METHOD: We searched for studies providing relevant arguments by running multi-database, backward, forward citation and grey literature searches. Following title/abstract and full-text screening, the arguments extracted from the included studies were summarised and qualitatively assessed in a narrative synthesis. RESULTS: Our final analysis included three studies, with their arguments summarised in different methodological areas. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the evidence, we suggest the use of techniques more attuned to the population with intellectual disabilities, such sensitive preference-based instruments to collect health states data, and mapping algorithms to obtain utility values.

5.
Ageing Res Rev ; : 101789, 2022 Nov 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36396032

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Frailty is a risk factor for adverse health outcomes. There is a paucity of literature on frailty progression defined by a cumulative deficit model among community dwelling older people. The objective of this review was to synthesise evidence on these changes in health and mortality among community-dwelling older people. METHODS: Six databases (Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane, PsycInfo, Web of Science) and a clinical trials registry were searched in July 2021. The inclusion criteria were studies using a frailty index and providing information on transition between frailty states or to death in community-dwelling older people aged ≥50. Exclusion criteria were studies examining specific health conditions, conference abstracts and non-English studies. To standardise the follow-up period and facilitate comparison, we converted the transition probabilities to annual transition rates. RESULTS: Two reviewers independently screened 5078 studies and 61 studies were included for analysis. Of these, only three used the same frailty state cut-points to facilitate cross-cohort comparison. This review found that frailty tends to increase with time, people who are frail at baseline have greater likelihood to progress in frailty and die, and the main factor that accelerates frailty progression is age. Other risk factors for progression are having chronic disease, smoking, obesity, low-income or/and low-education levels. A frailty index is an accurate predictor of adverse outcomes and death. DISCUSSION: This systematic review demonstrated that worsening in frailty was a common frailty transition, and older people who are frail at baseline are more likely to die. A frailty index has significant power to predict adverse health outcomes. It is a useful tool for within-cohort comparison but there are challenges comparing different cohorts due to dependence of frailty progression on age and differences in how frailty index is defined and measured.

6.
BMJ ; 379: e070918, 2022 11 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36347531

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To develop and externally validate the STRAtifying Treatments In the multi-morbid Frail elderlY (STRATIFY)-Falls clinical prediction model to identify the risk of hospital admission or death from a fall in patients with an indication for antihypertensive treatment. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Primary care data from electronic health records contained within the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD). PARTICIPANTS: Patients aged 40 years or older with at least one blood pressure measurement between 130 mm Hg and 179 mm Hg. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: First serious fall, defined as hospital admission or death with a primary diagnosis of a fall within 10 years of the index date (12 months after cohort entry). Model development was conducted using a Fine-Gray approach in data from CPRD GOLD, accounting for the competing risk of death from other causes, with subsequent recalibration at one, five, and 10 years using pseudo values. External validation was conducted using data from CPRD Aurum, with performance assessed through calibration curves and the observed to expected ratio, C statistic, and D statistic, pooled across general practices, and clinical utility using decision curve analysis at thresholds around 10%. RESULTS: Analysis included 1 772 600 patients (experiencing 62 691 serious falls) from CPRD GOLD used in model development, and 3 805 366 (experiencing 206 956 serious falls) from CPRD Aurum in the external validation. The final model consisted of 24 predictors, including age, sex, ethnicity, alcohol consumption, living in an area of high social deprivation, a history of falls, multiple sclerosis, and prescriptions of antihypertensives, antidepressants, hypnotics, and anxiolytics. Upon external validation, the recalibrated model showed good discrimination, with pooled C statistics of 0.833 (95% confidence interval 0.831 to 0.835) and 0.843 (0.841 to 0.844) at five and 10 years, respectively. Original model calibration was poor on visual inspection and although this was improved with recalibration, under-prediction of risk remained (observed to expected ratio at 10 years 1.839, 95% confidence interval 1.811 to 1.865). Nevertheless, decision curve analysis suggests potential clinical utility, with net benefit larger than other strategies. CONCLUSIONS: This prediction model uses commonly recorded clinical characteristics and distinguishes well between patients at high and low risk of falls in the next 1-10 years. Although miscalibration was evident on external validation, the model still had potential clinical utility around risk thresholds of 10% and so could be useful in routine clinical practice to help identify those at high risk of falls who might benefit from closer monitoring or early intervention to prevent future falls. Further studies are needed to explore the appropriate thresholds that maximise the model's clinical utility and cost effectiveness.


Subject(s)
Antihypertensive Agents , Models, Statistical , Aged , Humans , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Prognosis , Cohort Studies
7.
Front Oncol ; 12: 954854, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36313728

ABSTRACT

Background: Patient-initiated follow-up (PIFU) is increasingly being implemented for oncology patients, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic, given the necessary reduction in face-to-face hospital outpatient appointments. We do not know if PIFU has a positive (or negative) impact on overall, or progression free, survival. Objectives: To investigate the impact of PIFU on overall survival, progression free survival, patient satisfaction, psychological morbidity, specifically quality of life (QoL) and economic costs compared to hospital follow up (HFU), for any type of cancer. Methods: We carried out a systematic review using five electronic databases: MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycInfo and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Studies were eligible if they were controlled clinical trials comparing PIFU with another form of active follow-up. Effectiveness was assessed using the primary outcome of overall survival and secondary outcomes of progression free survival, patient satisfaction, psychological morbidity, QoL and cost effectiveness. Results: Eight studies met the inclusion criteria and were included. Only one study included survival as a primary outcome and indicated no significant differences between hospital-based follow-up and PIFU, although not adequately powered to detect a difference in survival. For secondary outcomes, few differences were found between PIFU and other forms of active follow-up. One study reported significant differences in fear of cancer recurrence between PIFU and HFU although did not reach the limit of clinical significance; in the short term, fear decreased significantly more in hospital based follow-up. Conclusion: We do not have evidence to support the impact of PIFU on survival or progression free survival. Fully powered randomized controlled trials are required to determine the full impact of PIFU in the longer term.

8.
Med Decis Making ; : 272989X221132741, 2022 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36259354

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Digital health interventions (DHIs) can improve the provision of health care services. To fully account for their effects in economic evaluations, traditional methods based on measuring health-related quality of life may not be appropriate, as nonhealth and process outcomes are likely to be relevant too. PURPOSE: This systematic review identifies, assesses, and synthesizes the arguments on the analytical frameworks and outcome measures used in the economic evaluations of DHIs. The results informed recommendations for future economic evaluations. DATA SOURCES: We ran searches on multiple databases, complemented by gray literature and backward and forward citation searches. STUDY SELECTION: We included records containing theoretical and empirical arguments associated with the use of analytical frameworks and outcome measures for economic evaluations of DHIs. Following title/abstract and full-text screening, our final analysis included 15 studies. DATA EXTRACTION: The arguments we extracted related to analytical frameworks (14 studies), generic outcome measures (5 studies), techniques used to elicit utility values (3 studies), and disease-specific outcome measures and instruments to collect health states data (both from 2 studies). DATA SYNTHESIS: Rather than assessing the quality of the studies, we critically assessed and synthesized the extracted arguments. Building on this synthesis, we developed a 3-stage set of recommendations in which we encourage the use of impact matrices and analyses of equity impacts to integrate traditional economic evaluation methods. LIMITATIONS: Our review and recommendations explored but not fully covered other potentially important aspects of economic evaluations that were outside our scope. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first systematic review that summarizes the arguments on how the effects of DHIs could be measured in economic evaluations. Our recommendations will help design future economic evaluations. HIGHLIGHTS: Using traditional outcome measures based on health-related quality of life (such as the quality-adjusted life-year) may not be appropriate in economic evaluations of digital health interventions, which are likely to trigger nonhealth and process outcomes.This is the first systematic review to investigate how the effects of digital health interventions could be measured in economic evaluations.We extracted and synthesized different arguments from the literature, outlining advantages and disadvantages associated with different methods used to measure the effects of digital health interventions.We propose a methodological set of recommendations in which 1) we suggest that researchers consider the use of impact matrices and cost-consequence analysis, 2) we discuss the suitability of analytical frameworks and outcome measures available in economic evaluations, and 3) we highlight the need for analyses of equity impacts.

9.
Evid Based Ment Health ; 2022 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36223980

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Behavioural and cognitive interventions remain credible approaches in addressing loneliness and depression. There was a need to rapidly generate and assimilate trial-based data during COVID-19. OBJECTIVES: We undertook a parallel pilot RCT of behavioural activation (a brief behavioural intervention) for depression and loneliness (Behavioural Activation in Social Isolation, the BASIL-C19 trial ISRCTN94091479). We also assimilate these data in a living systematic review (PROSPERO CRD42021298788) of cognitive and/or behavioural interventions. METHODS: Participants (≥65 years) with long-term conditions were computer randomised to behavioural activation (n=47) versus care as usual (n=49). Primary outcome was PHQ-9. Secondary outcomes included loneliness (De Jong Scale). Data from the BASIL-C19 trial were included in a metanalysis of depression and loneliness. FINDINGS: The 12 months adjusted mean difference for PHQ-9 was -0.70 (95% CI -2.61 to 1.20) and for loneliness was -0.39 (95% CI -1.43 to 0.65).The BASIL-C19 living systematic review (12 trials) found short-term reductions in depression (standardised mean difference (SMD)=-0.31, 95% CI -0.51 to -0.11) and loneliness (SMD=-0.48, 95% CI -0.70 to -0.27). There were few long-term trials, but there was evidence of some benefit (loneliness SMD=-0.20, 95% CI -0.40 to -0.01; depression SMD=-0.20, 95% CI -0.47 to 0.07). DISCUSSION: We delivered a pilot trial of a behavioural intervention targeting loneliness and depression; achieving long-term follow-up. Living meta-analysis provides strong evidence of short-term benefit for loneliness and depression for cognitive and/or behavioural approaches. A fully powered BASIL trial is underway. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Scalable behavioural and cognitive approaches should be considered as population-level strategies for depression and loneliness on the basis of a living systematic review.

10.
Trials ; 23(1): 862, 2022 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36209240

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic forced many research teams to adjust the way they conduct studies, including moving to remote delivery of some or all of their recruitment and data collection processes. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is widely used in research and is available in multiple formats for different groups and assessment settings. Here, we reflect on our experiences of administering the MoCA Blind/Telephone as part of the initial telephone eligibility check for participation in a randomised controlled trial with community-dwelling older people with frailty. MAIN BODY: In response to COVID-19, a number of changes were made to the trial's screening and recruitment procedures, to minimise the amount of time the researchers would spend in the participants' homes when recruitment began in May 2021. One of the changes was for the researchers to conduct a cognitive assessment for eligibility during an initial telephone call, rather than during the subsequent home visit for consent and baseline data collection. We found that in comparison with conducting the assessment in-person, telephone administration caused uncertainty for the researchers about whether participants were struggling to answer questions due to cognition or hearing impairment. Some participants experienced practical difficulties when combining holding a telephone and completing one of the assessment items. It was hard for the researchers to judge the emotional impact that undertaking the assessment was having on the older people on the telephone, without visual warning signs of fatigue or mood. We discuss the potential impact of these issues on trial recruitment and participant engagement, and the feasibility of videoconferencing as an alternative method of conducting the MoCA. CONCLUSION: The MoCA is a useful tool when cognitive impairment is part of screening and data collection and it is helpful to have the option to use the test remotely. However, as we have found, telephone testing is not always straightforward. Researchers should weigh up the pros and cons for each individual study, especially those involving older adults. If choosing remote methods, consider the practicality of using videoconferencing and think about the possible impact of telephone assessment on the relationship with the (potential) research participants. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Personalised care planning for older people with frailty ISRCTN16123291 28/08/2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cognition , Humans , Pandemics , Primary Health Care , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
Health Expect ; 25(6): 2628-2644, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36193616

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Growing numbers of older patients occupy hospital beds despite being 'medically fit' for discharge. These Delayed Transfers of Care amplify inefficiencies in care and can cause harm. Delayed transfer because of family or patient choice is common; yet, research on patient and family perspectives is scarce. To identify barriers to, and facilitators of, shorter hospital stays, we sought to understand older people's and caregivers' thoughts and feelings about the benefits and harms of being in hospital and the decisions made at discharge. METHODS: A multimethod qualitative study was carried out. Content analysis was carried out of older people's experiences of health or care services submitted to the Care Opinion online website, followed by telephone and video interviews with older people and family members of older people experiencing a hospital stay in the previous 12 months. RESULTS: Online accounts provide insight into how care was organized for older people in the hospital, including deficiencies in care organization, the discharge process and communication, as well as how care was experienced by older people and family members. Interview-generated themes included shared meanings of hospitalization and discharge experiences and the context of discharge decisions including failure in communication systems, unwarranted variation and lack of confidence in care and lack of preparation for ongoing care. CONCLUSION: Poor quality and availability of information, and poor communication, inhibit effective transfer of care. Communication is fundamental to patient-centred care and even more important in discharge models characterized by limited assessments and quicker discharge. Interventions at the service level and targeted patient information about what to expect in discharge assessments and after discharge could help to address poor communication and support for improving discharge of older people from hospital. PATIENT OR PUBLIC CONTRIBUTION: The Frailty Oversight Group, a small group of older people providing oversight of the Community Aging Research 75+ study, provided feedback on the research topic and level of interest, the draft data collection tools and the feasibility of collecting data with older people during the COVID-19 pandemic. The group also reviewed preliminary findings and provided feedback on our interpretation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Aged , Length of Stay , Caregivers , Qualitative Research
12.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 760, 2022 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36114521

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Personalised Care Planning (PCP) is a collaborative approach used in the management of chronic conditions. Core components of PCP are shared decision making to achieve joint goal setting and action planning by the clinician and patient. We undertook a process evaluation within the PROSPER feasibility trial to understand how best to implement PCP for older people with frailty in the community. METHODS: The trial was set in two localities in England. We observed training sessions and intervention delivery at three time points during the 12-week intervention period. We interviewed delivery teams before, during and after the intervention period, as well as primary care staff. We interviewed older people who had received, declined or withdrawn from PCP. We explored training of staff delivering PCP, structures, mechanisms and resources needed for delivery, and influences on uptake. We undertook a framework approach to data analysis. FINDINGS: We observed thirteen training sessions and interviewed seven delivery staff, five primary care staff, and twenty older people, including seven who had declined or withdrawn from the intervention. Delivery teams successfully acquired skills and knowledge, but felt underprepared for working with people with lower levels of frailty. Timing of training was critical and 'top-ups' were needed. Engagement with primary care staff was tenuous. Older people with lower frailty were unclear of the intervention purpose and benefits, goal setting and action planning. CONCLUSIONS: PCP has the potential to address the individualised needs of older people with frailty. However, training requires careful tailoring and is ideally on-going. Considerable efforts are required to integrate statutory and voluntary stakeholders, understanding the expectations and contributions of each agency from the outset. In addition, older people with frailty need time and support to adjust to new ways of thinking about their own health now and in the future so they can participate in shared decision making. These key factors will be essential when developing models of care for delivering PCP to support older people with frailty to sustain their independence and quality of life. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN 12,363,970 - 08/11/2018.


Subject(s)
Frailty , Aged , England , Feasibility Studies , Frail Elderly , Frailty/diagnosis , Frailty/therapy , Humans , Quality of Life
13.
Adv Nutr ; 2022 Sep 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055780

ABSTRACT

Zinc supplementation reduces morbidity, but evidence suggests that excessive intakes may have negative health consequences. Current guidelines of upper limits (ULs) of zinc intake for young children are extrapolated from adult data. This systematic review (PROSPERO; registration no. CRD42020215187) aimed to determine the levels of zinc intake at which adverse effects are observed in young children. Studies reporting potential adverse effects of zinc intake in children aged 0-3 years were identified (from inception to August 2020) in MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library, with no limits on study design. Adverse clinical and physical effects of zinc intake were synthesized narratively, and meta-analyses of biochemical outcomes were conducted. Random effects models, forest plots were generated to examine the evidence by age category, dose, dose duration, chemical formula of zinc, and zinc vs placebo. The Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Checklist, Cochrane Risk of Bias 2, and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation guideline (GRADE) were employed to assess risk of bias and to appraise the certainty of evidence. Fifty-eight studies assessed possible adverse effects of zinc doses ranging from 3 to 70 mg/d. Data from 39 studies contributed to meta-analyses. Zinc supplementation had an adverse effect on serum ferritin, plasma/serum copper concentration, sTfR, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and the odds of anemia in at least one of the subgroups investigated. Lactulose: mannitol ratio was improved with zinc supplementation, and no significant effect was observed on CRP, eSOD, ZPP and blood cholesterol and iron deficiency anemia. The certainty of the evidence, as assessed using GRADE, was very low to moderate. Although possible adverse effects of zinc supplementation were observed in some subgroups, it is unclear whether these findings are clinically important. The synthesized data can be used to undertake a dose-response analysis to update current guidelines of ULs of zinc intake for young children.

14.
Br J Gen Pract ; 2022 Jun 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35995576

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The cancer burden falls predominantly on older (≥65 years) adults. Prompt presentation to primary care with cancer symptoms could result in earlier diagnosis. However, patient symptom appraisal and help-seeking decisions involving cancer symptoms are complex and may be further complicated in older adults. AIM: To explore the effect of older age on patients' appraisal of possible cancer symptoms and their decision to seek help for these symptoms. DESIGN AND SETTING: Mixed-methods systematic review. METHOD: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, Web of Science Core Collection, ASSIA, the ISRCTN registry, and the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence were searched for studies on symptom appraisal and help-seeking decisions for cancer symptoms by adults aged ≥65 years. Studies were analysed using thematic synthesis and according to the Synthesis Without Meta-Analysis guidelines. RESULTS: Eighty studies were included with a total of 32 995 participants. Studies suggested a possible association between increasing age and prolonged symptom appraisal interval. Reduced knowledge of cancer symptoms and differences in symptom interpretation may contribute to this prolonged interval. In contrast, in the current study a possible association was found between increasing age and prompt help-seeking. Themes affecting help-seeking in older adults included the influence of family and carers, competing priorities, fear, embarrassment, fatalism, comorbidities, a desire to avoid doctors, a perceived need to not waste doctors' time, and patient self-management of symptoms. CONCLUSION: This review suggests that increasing age is associated with delayed cancer symptom appraisal. When symptoms are recognised as potentially serious, increasing age was associated with prompt help-seeking although other factors could prolong this. Policymakers, charities, and GPs should aim to ensure older adults are able to recognise potential symptoms of cancer and seek help promptly.

15.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 267, 2022 08 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35971142

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, there have been concerns regarding potential bias in pulse oximetry measurements for people with high levels of skin pigmentation. We systematically reviewed the effects of skin pigmentation on the accuracy of oxygen saturation measurement by pulse oximetry (SpO2) compared with the gold standard SaO2 measured by CO-oximetry. METHODS: We searched Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, EBSCO CINAHL, ClinicalTrials.gov, and WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (up to December 2021) for studies with SpO2-SaO2 comparisons and measuring the impact of skin pigmentation or ethnicity on pulse oximetry accuracy. We performed meta-analyses for mean bias (the primary outcome in this review) and its standard deviations (SDs) across studies included for each subgroup of skin pigmentation and ethnicity and used these pooled mean biases and SDs to calculate accuracy root-mean-square (Arms) and 95% limits of agreement. The review was registered with the Open Science Framework ( https://osf.io/gm7ty ). RESULTS: We included 32 studies (6505 participants): 15 measured skin pigmentation and 22 referred to ethnicity. Compared with standard SaO2 measurement, pulse oximetry probably overestimates oxygen saturation in people with the high level of skin pigmentation (pooled mean bias 1.11%; 95% confidence interval 0.29 to 1.93%) and people described as Black/African American (1.52%; 0.95 to 2.09%) (moderate- and low-certainty evidence). The bias of pulse oximetry measurements for people with other levels of skin pigmentation or those from other ethnic groups is either more uncertain or suggests no overestimation. Whilst the extent of mean bias is small or negligible for all subgroups evaluated, the associated imprecision is unacceptably large (pooled SDs > 1%). When the extent of measurement bias and precision is considered jointly, pulse oximetry measurements for all the subgroups appear acceptably accurate (with Arms < 4%). CONCLUSIONS: Pulse oximetry may overestimate oxygen saturation in people with high levels of skin pigmentation and people whose ethnicity is reported as Black/African American, compared with SaO2. The extent of overestimation may be small in hospital settings but unknown in community settings. REVIEW PROTOCOL REGISTRATION: https://osf.io/gm7ty.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Skin Pigmentation , Humans , Oximetry/methods , Oxygen , Oxygen Saturation , Pandemics
16.
BMJ Open ; 12(7): e061823, 2022 07 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35851031

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Skeletal muscle dysfunction is central to both sarcopenia and physical frailty, which are associated with a wide range of adverse outcomes including falls and fractures, longer hospital stays, dependency and the need for care. Resistance training may prevent and treat sarcopenia and physical frailty, but not everyone can or wants to exercise. Finding alternatives is critical to alleviate the burden of adverse outcomes associated with sarcopenia and physical frailty. This trial will provide proof-of-concept evidence as to whether metformin can improve physical performance in older people with sarcopenia and physical prefrailty or frailty. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: MET-PREVENT is a parallel group, double-blind, placebo-controlled proof-of-concept trial. Trial participants can participate from their own homes, including completing informed consent and screening assessments. Eligible participants with low grip strength or prolonged sit-to-stand time together with slow walk speed will be randomised to either oral metformin hydrochloride 500 mg tablets or matched placebo, taken three times a day for 4 months. The recruitment target is 80 participants from two secondary care hospitals in Newcastle and Gateshead, UK. Local primary care practices will act as participant identification centres. Randomisation will be performed using a web-based minimisation system with a random element, balancing on sex and baseline walk speed. Participants will be followed up for 4 months post-randomisation, with outcomes collected at baseline and 4 months. The primary outcome measure is the four metre walk speed at the 4-month follow-up visit. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The trial has been approved by the Liverpool NHS Research Ethics Committee (20/NW/0470), the Medicines and Healthcare Regulatory Authority (EudraCT 2020-004023-16) and the UK Health Research Authority (IRAS 275219). Results will be made available to participants, their families, patients with sarcopenia, the public, regional and national clinical teams, and the international scientific community. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN29932357.


Subject(s)
Frailty , Metformin , Resistance Training , Sarcopenia , Aged , Double-Blind Method , Frailty/complications , Humans , Metformin/therapeutic use , Physical Functional Performance , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Sarcopenia/complications , Sarcopenia/drug therapy , Sarcopenia/prevention & control
17.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 485, 2022 06 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35659196

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Frailty is clinically associated with multiple adverse outcomes, including reduced quality of life and functioning, falls, hospitalisations, moves to long-term care and mortality. Health services commonly focus on the frailest, with highest levels of need. However, evidence suggests that frailty is likely to be more reversible in people who are less frail. Evidence is emerging on what interventions may help prevent or reduce frailty, such as resistance exercises and multi-component interventions, but few interventions are based on behaviour change theory. There is little evidence of cost-effectiveness. Previously, we co-designed a new behaviour change health promotion intervention ("HomeHealth") to support people with mild frailty. HomeHealth is delivered by trained voluntary sector support workers over six months who support older people to work on self-identified goals to maintain their independence, such as strength and balance exercises, nutrition, mood and enhancing social engagement. The service was well received in our feasibility randomised controlled trial and showed promising effects upon outcomes. AIM: To test the clinical and cost-effectiveness of the HomeHealth intervention on maintaining independence in older people with mild frailty in comparison to treatment as usual (TAU). METHODS: Single-blind individually randomised controlled trial comparing the HomeHealth intervention to TAU. We will recruit 386 participants from general practices and the community across three English regions. Participants are included if they are community-dwelling, aged 65 + , with mild frailty according to the Clinical Frailty Scale. Participants will be randomised 1:1 to receive HomeHealth or TAU for 6 months. The primary outcome is independence in activities of daily living (modified Barthel Index) at 12 months. Secondary outcomes include instrumental activities of daily living, quality of life, frailty, wellbeing, psychological distress, loneliness, cognition, capability, falls, carer burden, service use, costs and mortality. Outcomes will be analysed using linear mixed models, controlling for baseline Barthel score and site. A health economic analysis and embedded mixed-methods process evaluation will be conducted. DISCUSSION: This trial will provide definitive evidence on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a home-based, individualised intervention to maintain independence in older people with mild frailty in comparison to TAU, that could be implemented at scale if effective. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN, ISRCTN54268283 . Registered 06/04/2020.


Subject(s)
Frailty , Activities of Daily Living , Aged , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Frailty/therapy , Health Promotion , Humans , Quality of Life , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Single-Blind Method
18.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 23(6): 923-929.e2, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35561757

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to estimate and compare mortality of care home residents, and matched community-dwelling controls, during the COVID-19 pandemic from primary care electronic health records in England. DESIGN: Matched cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Family practices in England in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink Aurum database. There were 83,627 care home residents in 2020, with 26,923 deaths; 80,730 (97%) were matched on age, sex, and family practice with 300,445 community-dwelling adults. METHODS: All-cause mortality was evaluated and adjusted rate ratios by negative binomial regression were adjusted for age, sex, number of long-term conditions, frailty category, region, calendar month or week, and clustering by family practice. RESULTS: Underlying mortality of care home residents was higher than community controls (adjusted rate ratio 5.59, 95% confidence interval 5.23‒5.99, P < .001). During April 2020, there was a net increase in mortality of care home residents over that of controls. The mortality rate of care home residents was 27.2 deaths per 1000 patients per week, compared with 2.31 per 1000 for controls. Excess deaths for care home residents, above that predicted from pre-pandemic years, peaked between April 13 and 19 (men, 27.7, 95% confidence interval 25.1‒30.3; women, 17.4, 15.9‒18.8 per 1000 per week). Compared with care home residents, long-term conditions and frailty were differentially associated with greater mortality in community-dwelling controls. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Individual-patient data from primary care electronic health records may be used to estimate mortality in care home residents. Mortality is substantially higher than for community-dwelling comparators and showed a disproportionate increase in the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Care home residents require particular protection during periods of high infectious disease transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Adult , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Independent Living , Male , Nursing Homes , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Br J Community Nurs ; 27(5): 232-241, 2022 May 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35522453

ABSTRACT

This systematic review and meta-analysis estimates the prevalence of common comorbid health disorders in adults with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A multi-database search strategy was undertaken. Screening, data extraction and quality assessment were carried out by two independent reviewers. A meta-analysis and meta-regression were used to generate a pooled prevalence estimate and identify relevant moderators. After study selection, 33 studies (74633 participants) were included in the meta-analysis. Some 31 studies were judged to be of low risk of bias, and two studies were judged to be at moderate risk of bias. The three most common comorbidities in RA were anxiety disorders (62.1%, 95% Cl: 43.6%; 80.6%), hypertension (37.7%, 95% Cl: 29.2%; 46.2%) and depression (32.1%, 95% Cl: 21.6%; 42.7%). There was substantial statistically significant heterogeneity for all comorbidities (I2 ≥77%). Meta-regression identified that the covariate of mean age (unit increase) had a statistically significant effect on the prevalence of hypertension (+2.3%, 95% Cl: 0.4%; 4.2%), depression (-0.5%, 95% Cl: -0.6%; -0.4%) and cancer (0.5%, 95% Cl: 0.2%; 0.8%) in adults with RA. A country's income was identified to have a statistically significant effect on the prevalence of depression, with low-to moderate-income countries having 40% (95% Cl: 14.0%; 66.6%) higher prevalence than high-income countries. No studies consider health inequalities. It is concluded that comorbidities are prevalent among people with RA, particularly those associated with mental health and circulatory conditions. Provision of health services should reflect the importance of such multimorbidity and the consequences for quality and length of life.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Hypertension , Adult , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/complications , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Humans , Mental Health , Prevalence
20.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 368, 2022 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35477354

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Sarcopenia Quality of Life (SarQoL) questionnaire is a disease-specific sarcopenia quality of life tool. We aimed to independently assess SarQoL with a particular focus on its suitability as a clinical trial outcome measure. METHODS: We analysed data from the UK Sarcopenia Network and Registry. Measures of physical performance and lean mass were collected at baseline. SarQoL and the Strength, Assistance, Rise, Climb - Falls (SARC-F) questionnaire (to assess functional ability) were collected at both baseline and six-month follow-up. Global changes in fitness and quality of life at 6 months were elicited on seven-point Likert scales. Internal consistency was assessed using Cronbach's alpha. Responsiveness (Cohen's d and Guyatt coefficients) and minimum clinically important differences were calculated for participants reporting slight improvement or worsening in their global scores. Concurrent validity was assessed by correlating baseline SarQoL scores with measures of physical performance and functional ability. RESULTS: We analysed data from 147 participants, 125 of whom underwent follow up assessment; mean age 78 years; 72 (49%) were women. Internal consistency was good; Cronbach's alpha was 0.944 at baseline and 0.732 at telephone follow-up. Correlation between baseline and follow-up SarQoL was weak (r = 0.27; p = 0.03). The minimum clinically important improvement ranged from 5 to 21 points giving trial sample size estimates of 25-100 participants. SarQoL scores were moderately correlated with handgrip (r = 0.37; p < 0.001), SARC-F (r = - 0.45; p < 0.001), short physical performance battery (r = 0.48; p < 0.001) and 4-m walk speed (r = 0.48; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: SarQoL has acceptable performance in older UK participants with probable sarcopenia and is sufficiently responsive for use in clinical trials for sarcopenia.


Subject(s)
Quality of Life , Sarcopenia , Aged , Clinical Trials as Topic , Female , Hand Strength , Humans , Male , Psychometrics , Registries , Sarcopenia/diagnosis , Sarcopenia/epidemiology , Sarcopenia/therapy , United Kingdom/epidemiology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL