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1.
Vaccines ; 10(5):801, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1857110

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the Moderna-1273 mRNA vaccine for SARS-CoV-2 in patients with immune-mediated diseases under different treatments. Anti-trimeric spike protein antibodies were tested in 287 patients with rheumatic or autoimmune diseases (10% receiving mycophenolate mofetil, 15% low-dose glucocorticoids, 21% methotrexate, and 58% biologic/targeted synthetic drugs) at baseline and in 219 (76%) 4 weeks after the second Moderna-1273 mRNA vaccine dose. Family members or caretakers were enrolled as the controls. The neutralizing serum activity against SARS-CoV-2-G614, alpha, and beta variants in vitro and the cytotoxic T cell response to SARS-CoV-2 peptides were determined in a subgroup of patients and controls. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody development, i.e., seroconversion, was observed in 69% of the mycophenolate-treated patients compared to 100% of both the patients taking other treatments and the controls (p < 0.0001). A dose-dependent impairment of the humoral response was observed in the mycophenolate-treated patients. A daily dose of >1 g at vaccination was a significant risk factor for non-seroconversion (ROC AUC 0.89, 95% CI 0.80–98, p < 0.0001). Moreover, in the seroconverted patients, a daily dose of >1 g of mycophenolate was associated with significantly lower anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody titers, showing slightly reduced neutralizing serum activity but a comparable cytotoxic response compared to other immunosuppressants. In non-seroconverted patients treated with mycophenolate at a daily dose of >1 g, the cytotoxic activity elicited by viral peptides was also impaired. Mycophenolate treatment affects the Moderna-1273 mRNA vaccine immunogenicity in a dose-dependent manner, independent of rheumatological disease.

2.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 50(6): 3475-3489, 2022 04 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730702

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 virus has a complex transcriptome characterised by multiple, nested subgenomic RNAsused to express structural and accessory proteins. Long-read sequencing technologies such as nanopore direct RNA sequencing can recover full-length transcripts, greatly simplifying the assembly of structurally complex RNAs. However, these techniques do not detect the 5' cap, thus preventing reliable identification and quantification of full-length, coding transcript models. Here we used Nanopore ReCappable Sequencing (NRCeq), a new technique that can identify capped full-length RNAs, to assemble a complete annotation of SARS-CoV-2 sgRNAs and annotate the location of capping sites across the viral genome. We obtained robust estimates of sgRNA expression across cell lines and viral isolates and identified novel canonical and non-canonical sgRNAs, including one that uses a previously un-annotated leader-to-body junction site. The data generated in this work constitute a useful resource for the scientific community and provide important insights into the mechanisms that regulate the transcription of SARS-CoV-2 sgRNAs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanopores , RNA, Guide/chemistry , COVID-19/genetics , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , RNA Caps , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321957

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of early treatment with corticosteroids on SARS-CoV-2 clearance in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.Retrospective analysis on patients admitted to the San Raffaele Hospital (Milan, Italy) with moderate/severe COVID-19 and availability of at least two nasopharyngeal swabs.The primary outcome was the time to nasopharyngeal swab negativization.A multivariable Cox model was fitted to determine factors associated with nasopharyngeal swab negativization.Of 280 patients included, 59 (21.1%) patients were treated with steroids.Differences observed between steroid users and non-users included the proportion of patients with a baseline PaO 2 /FiO 2 ≤200 mmHg (45.8% vs 34.4% in steroids and non-steroids users, respectively;p=0.023) or ≤100 mmHg (16.9% vs 12.7%;p=0.027), and length of hospitalization (20 vs 14 days;p<0.001).Time to negativization of nasopharyngeal swabs was similar in steroid and non-steroid users (p=0.985).According to multivariate analysis, SARS-CoV-2 clearance was associated with age ≤70 years, a shorter duration of symptoms at admission, a baseline PaO 2 /FiO 2 >200 mmHg, and a lymphocyte count at admission >1.0*10 9 /L. SARS-CoV-2 clearance was not associated with corticosteroid use.Our study shows that delayed SARS-CoV-2 clearance in moderate/severe COVID-19 is associated with older age and a more severe disease, but not with early use of corticosteroids

4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-314808

ABSTRACT

A growing number of emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants is being identified worldwide, potentially impacting the effectiveness of current vaccines. We report the data obtained in several Italian regions involved in the SARS-CoV-2 variant monitoring from the beginning of the epidemic and spanning the period from October 2020 to March 2021.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-307203

ABSTRACT

Background: Pharmacological therapies of proven efficacy in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are still lacking. We have identified IFNβ-1a as the most promising drug to be repurposed for COVID-19. The rationale relies on the evidence of IFNβ anti-viral activity in vitro against SARS-CoV-2 and animal models resembling SARS-CoV-2 infection and on a recent clinical trial where IFNβ was indicated as the key component of a successful therapeutic combination. Methods: : This is a randomized, controlled, open-label, monocentric, phase II trial (INTERCOP trial). 126 patients with positive swab detection of SARS-CoV-2, radiological signs of pneumonia, and mild-to-moderate disease will be randomized 2:1 to IFNβ-1a in addition to standard of care vs standard of care alone. No other anti-viral drugs will be used as part of the regimens, both in the control and the intervention arms. IFNβ-1a will be administered subcutaneously at the dose of 44 mcg (equivalent to 12 million international units) three times per week, at least 48 hours apart, for a total of two weeks. The primary outcome is the time to negative conversion of SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal swabs. Secondary outcomes include improvement or worsening in a clinical severity score measured on a 7-point ordinal scale (including transfer to intensive care unit and death), oxygen- and ventilator-free days, mortality, changes in pulmonary computed tomography severity score, hospital stay duration, reduction of viral load measured on nasopharyngeal swabs, number of serious adverse events, changes in biochemical markers of organ dysfunction. Exploratory outcomes include blood cell counts, cytokine and inflammatory profile, peripheral mRNA expression profiles of interferon-stimulated genes, antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 and to IFNβ-1a. INTERCOP is the first study to specifically investigate the clinical benefits of IFNβ-1a in COVID-19 patients. Discussion: Potential implications of this trial are multifaceted: should the primary outcome be fulfilled and the treatment be safe, one may envisage that IFNβ-1a be used to reduce the infectivity of patients with mild-to moderate disease. In case IFNβ-1a reduced the duration of hospital stay and/or ameliorated the clinical status, it may become a cornerstone of COVID-19 treatment. Trial registration: EudraCT 2020-002458-25. Registered on May 11, 2020ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04449380

7.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S354-S355, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564848

ABSTRACT

Background Evidence regarding the impact of remdesivir (RDV) on SARS-CoV-2 viral clearance (VC) is scarce. Aim of this study was to compare VC timing in COVID-19 patients who received RDV with those who did not. Methods Matched-cohort study conducted (25 February 2020-15 April 2021) at the IRCSS San Raffaele, Milan, Italy. The study enrolled hospitalized patients with pneumonia and a SARS-CoV-2 positive nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) at admission and at least one NPS during follow-up. Follow-up started at hospital admission and ended at the date of the first negative NPS (within 30 days after discharge). Patients who received RDV (cases) and patients who did not (controls) were matched based on age (±5 years), sex and PaO2/FiO2 (P/F;±10 mmHg) values at admission. NPS were analyzed with RT-PCR. Results described as median (IQR) or frequency (%). Time to VC was estimated with Kaplan-Meier curve and compared with log-rank test. Results 648 patients were enrolled: 216 cases and 432 controls. Patients’ characteristics at admission are reported in Table 1. VC was observed in 490 patients (75.6%) in a median time of 25 (16-34) days. Overall, time to VC was similar in patients receiving or not receiving remdesivir (p=0.519). However, time to VC was different when considering both the use of RDV (yes vs no) and age (≤ or > 63 years), as shown in Figure 1A. A significant finding was also observed considering the use of RDV and P/F values at admission (≤ or > 200 mmHg), as reported in Figure 1B. Among the 490 patients who reached VC during follow-up, overall time to VC was similar in patients receiving or not receiving RDV (p=0.075;Figure 2A);however, RDV use was associated with a higher probability of VC in the subgroup of patients with P/F admission values ≤ 200mmHg (p=0.035;Figure 2B), in the age group 55-65 years (p=0.025;Figure 2C) and in patients with comorbidities (p=0.028). Time to viral clearance among the 490 patients who reached VC during follow-up. Panel A: time to VC according to RDV use. Panel B: time to VC according to RDV and P/F ratio value at admission. Panel C: time to VC according to RDV in the age group 55-65 years. Conclusion Time to viral clearance was similar in patients receiving or not receiving remdesivir;however the use of RDV was associated with a benefit on time to viral clearance in younger patients and in those with a P/F ratio at admission ≤200 mmHg. Disclosures Vincenzo Spagnuolo, MD, ViiV Healthcare (Other Financial or Material Support, Preparation of educational material) Antonella Castagna, MD, Gilead Sciences (Other Financial or Material Support, Speaking fee)Jansenn-Cilag (Other Financial or Material Support, Speaking fee)MSD (Other Financial or Material Support, Speaking fee)Theratechnologies (Other Financial or Material Support, Speaking fee)ViiV Healthcare (Other Financial or Material Support, Speaking fee)

8.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-293147

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 virus has a complex transcriptome characterised by multiple, nested sub genomic RNAs used to express structural and accessory proteins. Long-read sequencing technologies such as nanopore direct RNA sequencing can recover full-length transcripts, greatly simplifying the assembly of structurally complex RNAs. However, these techniques do not detect the 5′ cap, thus preventing reliable identification and quantification of full-length, coding transcript models. Here we used Nanopore ReCappable Sequencing (NRCeq), a new technique that can identify capped full-length RNAs, to assemble a complete annotation of SARS-CoV-2 sgRNAs and annotate the location of capping sites across the viral genome. We obtained robust estimates of sgRNA expression across cell lines and viral isolates and identified novel canonical and non-canonical sgRNAs, including one that uses a previously un-annotated leader-to-body junction site. The data generated in this work constitute a useful resource for the scientific community and provide important insights into the mechanisms that regulate the transcription of SARS-CoV-2 sgRNAs.

9.
J Thromb Haemost ; 20(2): 434-448, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488230

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Platelet activation and thrombotic events characterizes COVID-19. OBJECTIVES: To characterize platelet activation and determine if SARS-CoV-2 induces platelet activation. PATIENTS/METHODS: We investigated platelet activation in 119 COVID-19 patients at admission in a university hospital in Milan, Italy, between March 18 and May 5, 2020. Sixty-nine subjects (36 healthy donors, 26 patients with coronary artery disease, coronary artery disease, and seven patients with sepsis) served as controls. RESULTS: COVID-19 patients had activated platelets, as assessed by the expression and distribution of HMGB1 and von Willebrand factor, and by the accumulation of platelet-derived (plt) extracellular vesicles (EVs) and HMGB1+ plt-EVs in the plasma. P-selectin upregulation was not detectable on the platelet surface in a fraction of patients (55%) and the concentration of soluble P-selectin in the plasma was conversely increased. The plasma concentration of HMGB1+ plt-EVs of patients at hospital admission remained in a multivariate analysis an independent predictor of the clinical outcome, as assessed using a 6-point ordinal scale (from 1 = discharged to 6 = death). Platelets interacting in vitro with SARS-CoV-2 underwent activation, which was replicated using SARS-CoV-2 pseudo-viral particles and purified recombinant SARS-CoV-2 spike protein S1 subunits. Human platelets express CD147, a putative coreceptor for SARS-CoV-2, and Spike-dependent platelet activation, aggregation and granule release, release of soluble P-selectin and HMGB1+ plt-EVs abated in the presence of anti-CD147 antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: Hence, an early and intense platelet activation, which is reproduced by stimulating platelets in vitro with SARS-CoV-2, characterizes COVID-19 and could contribute to the inflammatory and hemostatic manifestations of the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Blood Platelets , Humans , Platelet Activation , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
10.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(9): e1009878, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394563

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 fine-tunes the interferon (IFN)-induced antiviral responses, which play a key role in preventing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) progression. Indeed, critically ill patients show an impaired type I IFN response accompanied by elevated inflammatory cytokine and chemokine levels, responsible for cell and tissue damage and associated multi-organ failure. Here, the early interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and immune cells was investigated by interrogating an in vitro human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-based experimental model. We found that, even in absence of a productive viral replication, the virus mediates a vigorous TLR7/8-dependent production of both type I and III IFNs and inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, known to contribute to the cytokine storm observed in COVID-19. Interestingly, we observed how virus-induced type I IFN secreted by PBMC enhances anti-viral response in infected lung epithelial cells, thus, inhibiting viral replication. This type I IFN was released by plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) via an ACE-2-indipendent but Neuropilin-1-dependent mechanism. Viral sensing regulates pDC phenotype by inducing cell surface expression of PD-L1 marker, a feature of type I IFN producing cells. Coherently to what observed in vitro, asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infected subjects displayed a similar pDC phenotype associated to a very high serum type I IFN level and induction of anti-viral IFN-stimulated genes in PBMC. Conversely, hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19 display very low frequency of circulating pDC with an inflammatory phenotype and high levels of chemokines and pro-inflammatory cytokines in serum. This study further shed light on the early events resulting from the interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and immune cells occurring in vitro and confirmed ex vivo. These observations can improve our understanding on the contribution of pDC/type I IFN axis in the regulation of the anti-viral state in asymptomatic and severe COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Dendritic Cells/classification , Interferon Type I/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged, 80 and over , Asymptomatic Infections , Cell Line, Tumor , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Dendritic Cells/virology , Epithelial Cells/cytology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Interferon Type I/immunology , Lung/cytology , Male , Middle Aged , Neuropilin-1/metabolism , Phenotype , Severity of Illness Index , Toll-Like Receptor 7/metabolism
12.
Cell ; 184(19): 4953-4968.e16, 2021 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363913

ABSTRACT

Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is characterized by overproduction of immune mediators, but the role of interferons (IFNs) of the type I (IFN-I) or type III (IFN-III) families remains debated. We scrutinized the production of IFNs along the respiratory tract of COVID-19 patients and found that high levels of IFN-III, and to a lesser extent IFN-I, characterize the upper airways of patients with high viral burden but reduced disease risk or severity. Production of specific IFN-III, but not IFN-I, members denotes patients with a mild pathology and efficiently drives the transcription of genes that protect against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In contrast, compared to subjects with other infectious or noninfectious lung pathologies, IFNs are overrepresented in the lower airways of patients with severe COVID-19 that exhibit gene pathways associated with increased apoptosis and decreased proliferation. Our data demonstrate a dynamic production of IFNs in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients and show IFNs play opposing roles at distinct anatomical sites.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Interferons/metabolism , Respiratory System/virology , Severity of Illness Index , Age Factors , Aging/pathology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Epithelial Cells/pathology , Epithelial Cells/virology , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Interferons/genetics , Leukocytes/pathology , Leukocytes/virology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Viral Load
13.
Virol J ; 18(1): 168, 2021 08 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359000

ABSTRACT

A growing number of emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants is being identified worldwide, potentially impacting the effectiveness of current vaccines. We report the data obtained in several Italian regions involved in the SARS-CoV-2 variant monitoring from the beginning of the epidemic and spanning the period from October 2020 to March 2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Epidemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Prevalence
14.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(3)2021 Mar 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348698

ABSTRACT

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major causative agent of acute and chronic hepatitis. It is estimated that 400,000 people die every year from chronic HCV infection, mostly from severe liver-related diseases such as cirrhosis and liver cancer. Although HCV was discovered more than 30 years ago, an efficient prophylactic vaccine is still missing. The HCV glycoprotein complex, E1/E2, is the principal target of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) and, thus, is an attractive antigen for B-cell vaccine design. However, the high genetic variability of the virus necessitates the identification of conserved epitopes. Moreover, the high intrinsic mutational capacity of HCV allows the virus to continually escape broadly NAbs (bNAbs), which is likely to cause issues with vaccine-resistant variants. Several studies have assessed the barrier-to-resistance of vaccine-relevant bNAbs in vivo and in vitro. Interestingly, recent studies have suggested that escape substitutions can confer antibody resistance not only by direct modification of the epitope but indirectly through allosteric effects, which can be grouped based on the breadth of these effects on antibody susceptibility. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of HCV-specific NAbs, with a special focus on vaccine-relevant bNAbs and their targets. We highlight antibody escape studies pointing out the different methodologies and the escape mutations identified thus far. Finally, we analyze the antibody escape mechanisms of envelope protein escape substitutions and polymorphisms according to the most recent evidence in the HCV field. The accumulated knowledge in identifying bNAb epitopes as well as assessing barriers to resistance and elucidating relevant escape mechanisms may prove critical in the successful development of an HCV B-cell vaccine.

15.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 07 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335236

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 spike is evolving to maximize transmissibility and evade the humoral response. The massive genomic sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 isolates has led to the identification of single-point mutations and deletions, often having the recurrence of hotspots, associated with advantageous phenotypes. We report the isolation and molecular characterization of a SARS-CoV-2 strain, belonging to a lineage (C.36) not previously associated with concerning traits, which shows decreased susceptibility to vaccine sera neutralization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Humans , Italy , Mutation , Neutralization Tests , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
16.
Clin Microbiol Rev ; 34(3)2021 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166352

ABSTRACT

Several viruses target the human respiratory tract, causing different clinical manifestations spanning from mild upper airway involvement to life-threatening acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). As dramatically evident in the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, the clinical picture is not always easily predictable due to the combined effect of direct viral and indirect patient-specific immune-mediated damage. In this review, we discuss the main RNA (orthomyxoviruses, paramyxoviruses, and coronaviruses) and DNA (adenoviruses, herpesviruses, and bocaviruses) viruses with respiratory tropism and their mechanisms of direct and indirect cell damage. We analyze the thin line existing between a protective immune response, capable of limiting viral replication, and an unbalanced, dysregulated immune activation often leading to the most severe complication. Our comprehension of the molecular mechanisms involved is increasing and this should pave the way for the development and clinical use of new tailored immune-based antiviral strategies.


Subject(s)
DNA Viruses , Lung Injury , RNA Viruses , Respiratory Tract Infections , Virus Diseases , Adult , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Interferons/therapeutic use , Lung/immunology , Lung/virology , Lung Injury/diagnosis , Lung Injury/drug therapy , Lung Injury/immunology , Lung Injury/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 206-210, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1007445

ABSTRACT

The extremely rapid spread of the SARS-CoV-2 has already resulted in more than 1 million reported deaths of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The ability of infectious particles to persist on environmental surfaces is potentially considered a factor for viral spreading. Therefore, limiting viral diffusion in public environments should be achieved with correct disinfection of objects, tissues, and clothes. This study proves how two widespread disinfection systems, short-wavelength ultraviolet light (UV-C) and ozone (O3), are active in vitro on different commonly used materials. The development of devices equipped with UV-C, or ozone generators, may prevent the virus from spreading in public places.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Disinfection/methods , Ozone/pharmacology , Ultraviolet Rays , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , Virus Inactivation/radiation effects , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/radiation effects
20.
Thromb Haemost ; 120(12): 1700-1715, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-998020

ABSTRACT

The dependence of development and homeostasis in animals on the interaction of hundreds of extracellular regulatory proteins with the peri- and extracellular glycosaminoglycan heparan sulfate (HS) is exploited by many microbial pathogens as a means of adherence and invasion. Heparin, a widely used anticoagulant drug, is structurally similar to HS and is a common experimental proxy. Exogenous heparin prevents infection by a range of viruses, including S-associated coronavirus isolate HSR1. Here, we show that heparin inhibits severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) invasion of Vero cells by up to 80% at doses achievable through prophylaxis and, particularly relevant, within the range deliverable by nebulisation. Surface plasmon resonance and circular dichroism spectroscopy demonstrate that heparin and enoxaparin, a low-molecular-weight heparin which is a clinical anticoagulant, bind and induce a conformational change in the spike (S1) protein receptor-binding domain (S1 RBD) of SARS-CoV-2. A library of heparin derivatives and size-defined fragments were used to probe the structural basis of this interaction. Binding to the RBD is more strongly dependent on the presence of 2-O or 6-O sulfate groups than on N-sulfation and a hexasaccharide is the minimum size required for secondary structural changes to be induced in the RBD. It is likely that inhibition of viral infection arises from an overlap between the binding sites of heparin/HS on S1 RBD and that of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. The results suggest a route for the rapid development of a first-line therapeutic by repurposing heparin and its derivatives as antiviral agents against SARS-CoV-2 and other members of the Coronaviridae.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Enoxaparin/pharmacology , Heparin/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Animals , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Chlorocebus aethiops , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Heparin/therapeutic use , Humans , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , Protein Domains/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Structure-Activity Relationship , Vero Cells , Virus Internalization
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